The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History


UDK 94 (47+57) & #34;1917/1991"


© 2009 S.S. of Magamadov1, T.U. Elbuzdukayeva2

1 Institute of humanitarian researches of Academy of Sciences of the Chechen Republic, Revolyutsii Ave., 13, Grozny, 364024, academy_chr@mail. gi
2 National museum of the Chechen Republic, Pobedy Ave., 19/65, Grozny, 364051

The Institute of Humanitarian Researches of the Academy of Science of Chechen Republic, Revolutcia Ave, 13, Grozny, 364024,

2National Museum of Chechen Republic, Pobeda Ave, 19/65, Grozny, 364051

The policy of elimination of illiteracy in the North Caucasus in 20 — the 30th of the 20th century is considered. For this purpose the network of educational institutions (the likpunkta, educational programs, 10-month schools of literacy, school of the raised type working according to the curriculum of uniform labor seven-year school) was created. The authorities of the region planned to liquidate illiteracy by 1933/34. However specifics of the contingent, weak financing, low motivation to education did not allow to solve objectives. Illiterate was a half of the population of the North Caucasus. At the same time it was talked of so-called alphabetical literacy.

The policy of liquidation of illiteracy is examined on North Caucasus in 20-30th ofXX century. For this purpose the network of educational establishments was created (liquidation points, 10-monthly schools of literacy, schools of enhanceable type workings on the program of single labor septennial school). Authorities of Edge planned to liquidate illiteracy to 1933/34. However specific of contingent, weak financing, low Motivation to education did not allow to decide the put tasks. Illiterate was a half ofpopulation of North Caucasus. Thus speech went about the so-called alphabetic literacy.

Along with development of school education in the country the elimination of illiteracy of adult population began.

Be in the decree of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR of December 26, 1919. "About elimination of illiteracy among the population of RSFSR" [1] signed by V.I. Lenin all population of the republic aged from 8 up to 50 years was obliged to study the diploma at native or Russian at will. Creation of special schools for training of adults was provided along with the existing usual schools. It were 3-month initial points of elimination of illiteracy (likpunkta) where taught skills of reading, the letter, account. 10-month schools of literacy which gave knowledge for two classes of elementary school and also schools semiliterate, the giving knowledge for elementary school were at the same time created. The schools of the raised type working according to the curriculum of uniform labor seven-year school were the top management in the system of training of adults.

In July, 1920 the All-Russian Extraordinary commission on elimination of illiteracy to which the direct guide to implementation of this task was assigned was created.

According to a census of 1926, on literacy level the Chechens took the last place among other nationalities of the North Caucasus (tab. 1) [2].

At such low level of literacy of an action for elimination of illiteracy became the central problem of the cultural revolution.

Table 1

Nationality Quantity competent, % From them the woman, %

Ossetians 21.2 11

Circassians 16.9 6.7

Ingushs 9.1 1.8

Kabardians 6.8 2.2

Chechens 2.9 0.3

Note. Here data on literacy in the cities do not enter.

On the same population census, the percent of a ratio of competent and illiterate is shown in tab. 2 [3].

Planned work in this sphere in national areas of the North Caucasus began only since 1924/25 in spite of the fact that the decree of Council of People's Commissars was signed in 1918. This process was interfered by a big mnogoyazychnost, cultural backwardness, lack of the writing, national literature. Besides the objective reasons, there were reasons of subjective property which were expressed in low compensation of teachers, a lack of methodical literature, abc-books, weak training of teachers, impracticality of rooms and also in short terms of training for elimination of illiteracy among mountaineers and a goryanok. Nevertheless by 1933/34 the authorities of the region planned to liquidate illiteracy.

It was for this purpose offered to strengthen opened a face points, to strengthen their crediting, to expand individual and group training, to increase training term up to 6 months, to increase network of female likpunk-t and courses on developing the skills of teachers, to seize supply with literature [4]. In many respects these offers remained on paper as the serious material resources were not created. Estimates were constantly cut off. So, in Grozny in 1926 it was supposed to train 3,842 people according to what the plan and the estimate of 26,000 rubles were developed. But, as appears from the report "About work of a political education of OMO of the Grozny district in 1926/27 academic year", it was exposed to considerable reduction both on the place, and in the region [5].

In Ingushetia in 1927/28 from the planned 48th face points and 22 schools semiliterate within a year broke up 6 and 4 respectively. Work of likpunkt was conducted in two languages: Russian and Ingush (tab. 3) [6].

Despite some growth of subjects to cultural service of the population, their quantity far lagged behind requirements. The quality of service also put aside to wish the best. There were no adapted rooms (only 7 reading rooms were in special rooms). A serious problem was the shortage of the qualified pedagogical shots from among Ingushs. In total there were 48 Ingush teachers who could be involved in likpunkta and schools to semiliterate, but the need for them was much more [7, page 97].

The policy in elimination of illiteracy had class focus, the priority was given to workers, poor people, farm laborers and women.

Specifics of the contingent, its qualitative structure as a result led to low indicators in work on elimination of illiteracy. Elimination made 30-35%, in many likpunkta the listeners studied for the third time more. There was an illiteracy recurrence.

Pressing of party committees the fastest overcoming illiteracy, the target figures and terms lowered from above led

to the aspiration to execute the plan at any cost. In reports sometimes gave the figures untrue. Then the political estimates from the authorities which were coming down on the whole as wrecking on the most responsible front of class fight - at the front the cultural revolution followed.

The percent of illiterate was estimated from all structure of the population. Especially high the illiteracy remained among Chechen female.

In North Ossetia for 1925/26 904 people, for 1926/27 - 1407 people and for 1927/28-709 people were trained [8]. For women in SOAO houses a goryanok opened. If in 1926 there was one house of a goryanka, then in their 1930 was four [9].

Cultural and educational work among female-goryanok was not limited only to training in diploma elements. They were involved in work of club circles, reading rooms, promoted skills development and also courses on housekeeping, education of children, sanitation, agriculture, etc. were organized

The decisive stage of work for general literacy began after a release of the resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of May 17, 1929. "About work on elimination of illiteracy" and the decisions of the XVI congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) (1930) indicating the need of a resolute change and radical reorganization of business of national education on the basis of association of all forces and means. In this regard the III Plenum of Chechobkom of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) (1930) decided: to use all resources and forces for development of a general compulsory education and elimination of illiteracy [10].

Allocations for elimination of illiteracy increased, the movement that each competent trained one illiterate began to spread or gave funds for its training, it was supposed to prepare 2,500 liquidators for training 6000 illiterate [11].

Table 3

Registered Ended From them

husband. wives. husband. wives. Ingushs Russian other nationalities

1112 104 679 22 624 13 64

Table 2

Name of an administrative unit Quantity competent, % Quantity illiterate, %

Chechen area 4.5 95.5

Ingush area 8.4 91.6

Sunzha district 40.1 59.9

Grozny (till 1929 did not enter the Chechen area) 59.2 40.8

In May, 1930 the Ukrainian society "Down with Illiteracy" looked after Chechnya. 20 thousand rubles from whom 5 thousand are already received were assigned. It was planned that the large districts of Ukraine will be attached to the districts of Chechnya. At the end of August for rendering the practical help it was planned to send special crew and also to transfer manuals, notebooks, pencils, blackened for schools of elimination of illiteracy [11].

In 1930 it was planned to organize courses on training of liquidators of an educational program on 500 people from whom 30% have to be women. To cadets the grant was approved: for living in the aul where there were courses - 5 rubles, from other auls - 17 rubles 50 kopeks, to women respectively 10 and 25 rubles. Term of work of courses of 6-8 months [12].

Despite the taken measures, the situation with elimination of illiteracy remained depressing. Problems concerned a lack of means, abc-books in the native language, unsuitable rooms for likpunkt, lack of stock and grants [13]. Especially difficult situation developed in mountainous areas of Chechnya.

Training methods in most cases were very primitive. As in many places there were no abc-books and the alphabet, pupils remembered words aurally, often without understanding sense. Mechanical reading newspaper materials prevailed. Accounting of progress in likpunkta and schools semiliterate was conducted irregularly. Questions for check of the studied material were raised ineptly. Thus, even those who passed through likpunkta and schools for semiliterate showed a sad picture. Having hardly learned to read and write, people did not become competent in a broad sense this word.

The universal literacy which the management sought to reach turned into a fiction as likpunkta let out the same people illiterate on the whole what were accepted. Having come to production, they hardly mastered the equipment and technology, illiterate and semiliterate mountaineers and goryanka did not fit into industrial production, were the most vulnerable category there.

Meanwhile approach to illiteracy continued, getting new forms. Months, cultural campaigns began to practice.

The solution of a krayispolkom "About a cultural campaign in natsob-lastyakh" (1931) noted certain achievements in the field of cultural construction of such areas as Adygea, Kabarda, North Ossetia. At the same time it was specified that rates of cultural construction in Chechnya, Ingushetia and Karachaye considerably lag behind the general rates in the region.

Means and forces, considerable on that time, were mobilized for the organization of a cultural campaign. Only from Grozny 450 cultural Party members were sent. All sent, mainly pupils of high school of schools worked nearly 4 months, generally on a voluntary basis. In 74 mountain settlements where there were from 2 to 18 farms, mobile likpunkta worked [14]. It is impossible in this regard not

to note enthusiasm of people, those who brought light of knowledge to mountain auls.

In Chechnya in 1931 there were 990 likpunkt in which 49,721 people studied that made 42% of total illiterate [15]. In Ingushetia the same year from 30 thousand illiterate 6,373 people were captured by study [16].

Heads of areas and areas tried to use all available levers to overcome "shameful" lag in a likbezrabota and took measures of generally organizational character. To avoid charges of sabotage, and it is even worse in wrecking and "opportunism", heads of all links went on additions and falsifications of results. Many likpunkta existed only in reports, work was conducted formally or on paper, and the population remained illiterate, dark and hammered.

In 1932 in Chechnya the second cultural campaign which set a task to overcome illiteracy among adult population began, successful performance of its tasks required cultural army in 6000 people, from them 5,500 people in rural and regional likpunkta [17]. The cultural campaign in Ingushetia pursued the same aims, from May 15, 1932 to May 1, 1933 was captured by an educational program 2,800 persons. Kultarmeytsev was required 700 people [18]. In North Ossetia the decision on end of coverage likbezraboty all illiterate was also made.

The drawn-up plans were not implemented. So, in Chechnya in 1934 there were 70 thousand illiterate from which 50 thousand women [19]. The same picture developed also in North Ossetia. According to results of check of work of the cultural sector, follows that "are available illiterate not only in the village, but even at our industrial enterprises we have competent - hardly signing the surname..." [20].

On an extent of all pre-war years the problem of elimination of illiteracy was particularly acute. By the beginning of 1936 the literacy of adult population of Chechen-Ingushetia was 70% [21].

the Party organizations of edge systematically made decisions which were left without considerable results earlier. In this paradox the style of work of partorgan - adoption of new decisions on the basis of outstanding old is traced. To demand from the state and public organizations of performance often impossible plans and never to answer. For example, in North Ossetia as a deadline for elimination of illiteracy it was chosen on May 1, 1937. Despite the made efforts, illiterate and semiliterate was nearly a half of the population.

Process of elimination of illiteracy was more difficult, than saw in the beginning. In an educational program those who sought to study were easily involved. However were available and not understanding such need.

Annual releases of schools of educational programs for adults did not reduce the general percent of illiteracy as the working-age was entered by the youth which did not pass school.

At the same time in the serious work which had huge social value elements a lump-paneyshchiny, a rush, splendor were introduced. The reporting was distorted, statistics of an educational program did not consider a recurrence of illiteracy and semi-illiteracy and also considerable elimination from schools of an educational program. The similar picture was observed in all republics as, however, and in the country.


1. Decrees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and resolution of the Soviet government on national education (1917-1947). M, 1948. Issue 2. Page 118.
2. 10 years to the Soviet Chechnya. Rostov N / D, 1933. Page 35.
3. CGA ChR. T. 264. Op. 1. 48. L. 193; T. 158. Op. 1. 453. L. 4.
4. In the same place. River F. 81. Op. 1. 99. L. 42.
5. In the same place. 91. L. 6.
6. Report of Executive committee of the Autonomous region

Ingushetia. Vladikavkaz, 1927. Page 96.

7. Materials according to the report of the Ingush regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). Vladikavkaz, 1929. Page 97.
8. CGA RSO-A. T. 786. Op. 3. 1. L. 75.
9. In the same place. T. 124. Op. 1. 9. L. 124.
10. PAChIO. T. 241. Op. 1. 177. L. 14.
11. Grozny worker. 1930. July 28.
12. PAChIO. T. 241. Op. 1. 96. L. 108-109.
13. Grozny worker. 1930. On Jan. 19
14. M.U. Umarov. On the way to universal secondary education. Grozny, 1982. Page 12.
15. Grozny worker. 1931. 4 noyab.
16. PAChIO. River F. 145. Op. 1. 16. L. 59.
17. Grozny worker. 1932. March 2.
18. CGA ChR. River F. 158. Op. 1. 1,257. L. 7.
19. PAS of ChIO. T. 241. Op. 1. 161. L. 25.
20. PASOO. T. 1. Op. 2. 401. L. 25.
21. PAS of ChIO. T. 1. Op. 1. 297. L. 19.

Came to edition On May 14, 2009

Annice Hope?
Other scientific works: