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The TYUMEN NATIONAL CARPET IN WORKS of DOMESTIC RESEARCHERS of the SECOND HALF of the XIX BEGINNING of the 20th centuries.



lezhat to uniform esthetic space. Even in portraits of the artist of people appears as a nature particle.

At a turn of the millennia the addition of the different subcultures arising on the basis of change of value reference points, social standing, age is observed. It causes variety of esthetic and art tastes and preferences. Irina Shchetinina's creativity is interfaced to new concepts - "beauty ecology", "life ecology", it is kind of complementary in relation to the nature. In the person there lives understanding of essence of life, and this essence not in career, not in vanity, and in completeness of life. Many-sided artist's activity I.V. Shchetinina reminds people of this truth. In our difficult contradictory present her works kind of look at us from the eternal harmonious future. There pass centuries, but does not become outdated, and on the contrary - the known formula "Fine There Is Life" because the most general of what is lovely to the person, and the most expensive to it in the world is life gains strength. The art and figurative miropoznaniye cannot be considered as "prescientific" or "extra scientific", understanding as it knowledge doubtful; often art and figurative miro-knowledge is more reliable also nesomnenny than anything of other. The works by I.V. Shchetinina created on a change of centuries in contradictory time open for the audience joy of communication with the images of the eternal nature lifted by her creativity on beauty pedestal. I.V. Shchetinina experiences surprise and delight before inexhaustibility of forms and mysteries of the world, it more and more deeply realizes worthiness of life and worthiness of art. What dominates in the modern art of Altai - the uniting beginning following from the uniform system of art education or the distinctions which are given rise by an originality of geographical, climatic conditions of development of regional art? How such art and esthetic concept how "the Siberian style" is deciphered? Answers to these questions demand a special research. We can only claim with good reason - Irina Vitalyevna Shchetinina's creativity develops in line with traditions of art of Russia, reflecting at the same time pronounced individual art style.

Bibliography

1. Artists of Altai Krai: Biobibliographic dictionary / nuchn. edition T.M. Stepanskaya. Barnaul, 2006. - T.2.
2. Stepanskaya, T.M. Irina Shchetinina: Album. Barnaul: Shchetinin' art gallery, 2009.

Article came to edition 9.06.09

UDC 745.52 (571.12) "19/20"

N.I. Sezeva, applicant of AltGU, Tyumen, E-mail: sezevani@yandex.ru

The TYUMEN NATIONAL CARPET IN WORKS of DOMESTIC RESEARCHERS of the SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th centuries

The Tyumen national carpet trade becomes a subject of scientific research for the first time in materials of the famous scientists, museum and public figures of the second half of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries: N.V. Shelgunova, P.M. Golovacheva, I.Ya. Slovtsova, N.L. Skalozubova. Data on the history of emergence and the current state of the Tyumen carpet trade, statistical materials about extent of its distribution, the information about the technician and the production technology of terry and lint-free carpets, their costs and distribution systems are provided in their researches. Among researchers of the Tyumen carpet trade the special place belongs to the outstanding cultural figure of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries of S.A. Davydova. Its work & #34; Production of carpets in the Tyumen district of the Tobolsk province (SPb., 1894) it is recognized as the most considerable and basic research in pre-revolutionary период".

The first attempts of a serious research Tyumen interest in the Russian folk art is characteristic. In mno-

carpet trade were undertaken in the 60-70th years of XIX the gy provincial and district cities were everywhere created

centuries. For the art culture of this period the public and state organizations, the museums and nauch-

The main thing in a portrait is the face, and in it - the attentive look turned to the artist and the audience. In image the self-respect and feeling that life took place is frostily expressed and in it, large changes kind of are not expected.

The course of life of each person is absolutely unique as any creativity is unique. The human essence of Irina Vitalyevna Shchetinina is defined by magnificent basic quality - cheerfulness.

In its works of painting especially personal experiences do not act brightly and frankly, but at them there is always a condition of desire to be with the nature, to merge with its harmony. Art and the nature in Irina's creativity prinad-

ny societies which task included study and revival of handicraft crafts and crafts. At the beginning of the 1860th the famous Russian democrat revolutionary, the publicist and the public figure N.V. Shelgunov undertook a special travel on the cities of Western Siberia. During stay in Tyumen, having become interested in carpet trade, Shelgunov collected interesting data on the history of his emergence, statistical material about extent of its distribution and also the first of researchers in detail described technology of production of the Siberian terry carpet. "Carpets velvet prepare in really special remarkable way. The basis is got and then wool by pieces in a half-vershok length is cut. These pieces the velvet also becomes. Weave a carpet thus. Do to ducks a carpet zakroina in a half-vershok, less or more, the pieces then cut are imposed on a basis by a continuous row in the direction a duck; having imposed, pass ducks, nail it with Byrd and level the line of small knots, then tie other row, pass ducks and nail, then the third row of small knots, again ducks, etc. Small knots are imposed so that each of them sticks out on the carpet face both ends. Quite long ends of small knots compared with carpets of a cutting velvet give to the Tyumen carpets special softness and a tolstota in which carpets of a cutting velvet of factory work do not differ. But the Tyumen carpets take twice more wool and represent a woolen surface carpets of a machine tkanye do not have that from a wrong side. Despite this the non-economic use of material and on huge work, they are on sale extremely cheap. The carpet in three arshins of length and two arshins of width is on sale in the city for 3 rubles. In a velvet carpet of such size 100000 ties, or tips become, i.e. for one kopek 350 small knots become. Wool with coloring costs 2 rubles, and the ruble is the share of work. The carpet is weaved together in 3 days, therefore, net earnings in day for two 1 ruble bank notes, it is clear that it is impossible to exist only this trade, it can be help to other classes or is able to give means for existence only at the huge amount of production on a factory harmony" [1, page 9].

In article published in the capital magazine "Russkoye Slovo", N.V. Shelgunov for the first time asks about need of opening in Tyumen of carpet workshops and drawing school, about improvement of weaving looms and improvement of carpet drawings. "It would be worth entering two - three machines of the simple, but the best device, than existing in Tyumen; to teach dozen women to different carpet fabrics, to get school of drawing, and the Tyumen carpets, perhaps, would not concede to Berlin. And all this revolution in local production can be made in one, two, and in three years to have the risovalshchitsa and thousands of carpet patterns. That production of the Tyumen carpets came out the Asian stagnation, it is necessary that one lucid mind appeared and gave to production a new impetus" [1, page 11].

At the beginning of the 1870th in Tyumen thanks to energy and efforts of members of the local liberal and democratic circle "Young Siberia", first of all his creator and the mastermind K.N. Vysotsky, the carpet workshop was organized "in enormous sizes" with "the latest devices". "For the purpose of improvement of quality of products" at it opened school of drawing for skilled workers carpet-makers at which the professional artist acquainted the most talented schoolgirls with bases of the drawing and painting, participated in development of sketches of new carpet patterns.

K.N. Vysotsky also came into close contacts with many carpet-makers of the district. These relations with handicraftsmen were under construction on a new basis, that is on full confidence to skilled workers, their knowledge of the equipment, natural talent. As one of members of a circle, "remembered... Vysotsky wrote out the different managements, various drawings and paints and dispatched all this for experiments to more sensible numerous familiar kovernitsa in the county. At means of the

familiar experts he also gave to skilled workers various advice, instructions and even financial support in the form of temporary loans, the credits and so forth" [2, page 1].

It should be noted that these undertakings did not get support among city authorities and soon the carpet workshop and school of drawing were closed. However "this attempt was not in vain for neighboring handicraftsmen: many learned that there are patterns for carpets and began to write out them"

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century new detailed statistical data on the current state and extent of distribution of the Tyumen carpet trade can be found in articles of the editor of "The Siberian trade newspaper" in Tyumen A.A. Kryov; famous historian, scientist-local historian P.M. Golovachev; the Siberian scientist, the publicist N.M. Yadrintsev, the Tyumen and Moscow merchant - the patron N.M. Chukmaldi-na.

Due to the preparation of the Tobolsk province for participation in large All-Russian and international handicraft and industrial exhibitions the Tyumen carpet trade becomes a subject of a serious issedovaniye from the prominent Siberian scientist, the director of the Tyumen real school I.Ya. Slovtsov, the provincial agronomist, the large public and museum figure N.L. Skalozubov. Thanks to their tireless activity in the 1880-1910th, surveys of all most considerable and known centers of rug weaving were systematically carried out, names of talented skilled workers carpet-makers came to light, carpet collections for exhibiting gathered on prestigious exhibitions and detailed, detailed catalogs were formed especially for them.

During this period many of researchers were concerned by deterioration of carpet products because the Tyumen skilled workers, first, began to use widely for production of carpets instead of the road sheep, rough, rigid cow wool and instead of natural paints "in a pursuit of bright colors and a color" fragile aniline dyes, and secondly, - "were quite often inspired" by the kitschy "cheap" printing drawings published by fashionable magazines (of course, it was talked of products of mass products, but not of the things made to order). Thus, the urgent need of carrying out "reform of carpet production in the sense of giving of bigger durability to carpets" was felt. For this purpose, according to one of researchers, it was necessary ". to change a basis and ducks, to increase beauty... having developed new drawings, to strengthen durability of paints, having specified a way to do them nelinyuchy as not so long ago print manufacturers made it" [3, page 16].

In this regard the program of measures for support and development of carpet trade in the Tyumen district including opening of drawing classes in the large handicraft centers, the organization of the museum of samples, Handicraft bank and at it a warehouse for sale of products, creation of "Society of assistance to handicraftsmen" was offered.

Among those who deeply and comprehensively studied the history of the Tyumen rug weaving, promoted its prosperity, a specific place is held by S.A. Davydova. Its work "Production of Carpets in the Tyumen District of the Tobolsk Province" is recognized as the largest and basic research of "so interesting and peculiar trade" during the pre-revolutionary period.

The name of Sofya Aleksandrovna Davydova (1842-1915), unfortunately, was kind of deleted from a context of history of domestic culture. Its biography is till today not studied, the personality is not investigated. And meanwhile her name can be rightfully put in one row with such outstanding figures of the Russian culture of the end of H_H - the beginnings of the 20th century as M.K. Tenesheva, E.G. Mamontova, E.V. Polenova, N.S. Shabelskaya. The circle of artists, historians, critics, collectors, public figures familiar to it was very wide: V.V. Stasov and I.E. Repin, L.N. Tolstoy and N.D. Bartram, S.L. Levitsky and I.F. Borschevsky, A.V. Pra-Hove and E.N. Polovtseva.

In 1888 Davydova was invited to service in the Ministry of the state imushchestvo under which authority domestic industries were (we will note that by this time it published work "Russian Lace and Russian Lace Makers" (1885) which was awarded with a prize Academy of Sciences). "From now on the problem of my activity considerably extended: it was necessary to study various women's promysl and to resume annually trips across Russia. Acquaintance with crafts: embroidery, a tkanye of carpets and weaver's work, immediately excited in Stasov new desires, namely that I was accepted to drawing up history of the Russian fabrics" [4, page 86]. Under the direct guide of the critic, public figure, expert on folklore studies and the fighter for the national nature of art V.V. Sofya Aleksandrovna Stasova studies in Public library of the book on stories of the Russian and east fabrics and carpets, studies private collections (N.L. Shabelskoy) and museum meetings (Historical museum in Moscow), makes frequent trips around villages, villages, the cities of various provinces of Russia for collecting materials on the history of trade, gets acquainted on places with features of local rug weaving.

From 1890 for 1895 Davydova visited the largest centers of carpet production of the Smolensk, Ryazan, Kursk, Yaroslavl provinces and also Central Asia, the Urals and Siberia. In 1891 at the request of the Ministry of the state imushchestvo it undertook a trip to the Tyumen district of the Tobolsk province. Within a month the tireless researcher surveyed the Kamensk, Uspensky, Lipchinsky, Troitsk, Ust-Nitsinsky, Worms shevsky, Tugulymsky volosts, collected "whenever possible, necessary data concerning time of emergence of carpet work in villages and villages of the district" and also the numerous statistical data characterizing the current state of carpet trade: number of skilled workers, types of products of mass character, their cost and distribution system. Davydova for the first time gives the detailed description of technology and the main production phases of terry and lint-free carpets. It is known that during stay in villages and villages of the Tyumen County it made hundreds of photos from the best and most characteristic samples of local embroideries and carpets. (Unfortunately, these materials did not manage to be revealed in the capital museums and archives so far). As well as her colleagues, Davydova could not but note - technology of production of carpets considerably worsened "because of replacement of sheep wool cow, heavy and rigid, and transition to wool coloring by aniline paints instead of vegetable, used earlier and differing in durability... Skilled workers well understand it and understand that all bright paints to which they have such addiction in about 3-4 months strongly fade and depreciate their works; despite this, tkal do not wish to return to vegetable paints and partly and cannot. They do not wish because with vegetable paints there is more fuss, there is more work, but cannot because buyers demand nowadays more variety and more subtle shades in flowers that at the use of aniline paints is reached by skilled workers easily. Skilled workers are not able to receive the same various shades when coloring wool vegetable paints. Besides, at the Tyumen skilled workers the biggest lack of good patterns is felt" [5, page 285].

Results of a research were for the first time published by

Bibliography

on pages "Reports and researches on cottage industry in Russia" in 1894. However the complemented and modifed work of S.A. Davydova "Cottage industry of Russia. Women's crafts" left in Petrograd decades later in 1913. In them the researcher asks local authorities about need to draw a close attention to carpet trade in the Tyumen district, in "which the large number of the skilled workers who are well prepared for carpet work is concentrated". S.A. Davydova proposes a number of measures for improvement of quality of carpet products, including their ornamental and decorative registration, about the help to carpet-makers in sales market expansion, about a possibility of display of the best samples on various level the Russian and international exhibitions. It also asks about opening in Tyumen of sunday school or artel for carpet-makers on purpose "to teach to draw them and to develop in them taste which would direct them during the choosing and drawing up patterns", about the organization of a handicraft warehouse for sale of materials and tools, necessary for skilled workers. At a warehouse she suggests to create the museum of model products.

Scientific work of S.A. Davydova is the only pre-revolutionary source in which are for the first time brought invaluable a svedeniiya about the Tyumen carpet trade: types and types of carpets, technology of their production, traditional patterns and syuzhea of carpet products. Thanks to this research it is possible to reconstruct traditional shape of the Tyumen carpet of the end of H_H of century, character and features of its decorating today.

The uniqueness of the research conducted by Davydova is that it recreated in full all process of creation of a carpet product from processing and coloring of wool, installation of a camp till the carpet birth.

Thanks to S.A. Davydova's assistance the Tyumen carpets were widely presented at many prestigious handicraft All-Russian and international exhibitions (Nizhny Novgorod, 1896; To the World Fair in Paris, 1900, І - oh and ІІ-oh the All-Russian exhibitions in St. Petersburg (1902) and Petrograd (1913).

In the preface to the album "Russian Folk Art" dated for an exhibition of 1913 it was written: "The present edition aims to keep and imprint in perhaps exact and art reflection the best models of the Russian art handicraft work collected at the second All-Russian handicraft exhibition in St. Petersburg" In an album the best products of an exhibition with short explanatory essays, including one of the Tyumen carpets which are exhibited at an exhibition were reproduced on 88 separate tables. Here S.A. Davydova's article "Production of carpets in the Tyumen district of the Tobolsk province" in which she wrote was placed: ". Later and so far the new research of this so interesting and peculiar trade was not undertaken. And therefore the present research revealing many parties of development of carpet business namely: location of trade, technology of work, earnings tkaly and other details of production of trade, do not lose the value and now" [6, page 189]. It is possible to tell with confidence, as today, century later, these materials did not lose the relevance and are of undoubted interest to researchers.

1. Shelgunov, N.V. Sibir on the main road//the Russian word. - 1863. - No. 5.
2. Krylov, A.A. From edition//Sib. trade gas. - 1897. - No. 1.
3. Chukmaldin, N.M. Letters from Moscow and the Nizhny Novgorod city fair. - Tyumen, 1898.
4. Davydova, S.A. My memories of V.V. Stasov//Unforgettable Stasova: sb. memoirs. - SPb., 1908.
5. Davydova, S.A. Ocherk of production of carpets in Siberia//Cottage industry in Russia (women's crafts). - SPb., 1913.
6. The Russian folk art on ІІ to the All-Russian handicraft exhibition in Petrograd in 1913 - Petrograd, 1914.

Article came to edition 9.06.09

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