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Category: History

Intercultural communication in the North Caucasus



STATYI

L A. Volova

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN the NORTH CAUCASUS

Problems of intercultural communication of representatives of various national cultures become the most relevant for today's era. S. Huntington, the American political scientist, in the 90th of the 20th century predicted collision of the civilizations based on various cultural traditions where political and economic systems are not the dominating factor. The confrontation happening today between various ethnic groups gives special relevance to questions of understanding of necessary dialogue of cultures, studying their national specifics and also essence of mechanisms and results of cross-cultural communication. The confrontational situation aggravates a question of whether the harmonious community of the religioz-but-ethnic groups having different cultural traditions is possible.

These questions are especially sharply felt in the North Caucasus where now there is a sharp opposition of "personal and others'" cultural traditions. In this regard the attention to formation of historical consciousness of the mountain people as the factor defining ethnic consciousness, and thereby cultural and civilization self-identification increased. The press of the region was overflowed by a flow of publications (monographs, articles, journalism) on problems of history of the separate people which in principle show among themselves obvious SIMILARITY IN ONE - in aspiration to excessive embellishment and exaggeration contrary to the facts of a former historical role of the people, in ways of suggestion of feeling of own national exclusiveness and superiority, the idea of ethnocentrism by it. Researches in the field of Caucasus studies, sources of ethnic cultures, processes of their interference are of great importance at the present stage of transformation of cultural traditions.

The North Caucasus is the whole planet of the people, cultures and languages which develop and interact on this terri-

thorium in the millennia. Here the peculiar original North Caucasian culture which absorbed in itself hundreds of various ethnic cultural traditions was created. The research of their dialogue will help to show how at various stages mechanisms of intercultural communication and their consequence, including dialogue with the Russian culture for the last 200 years were carried out.

Ethnic and cultural communication happened at various stages of development of the people of the North Caucasus.

The last centuries BC in the history of the North Caucasian people were marked by advance to the Ciscaucasian steppes up to the Foothills of Caucasus of iranoyazychny Sarmatian nomads, earlier known as "savro-mats", or Sarmatians. The homeland of Sarmatians, the place of formation of their culture were Northern Prikaspiya's steppes. Being in many respects relatives, the cultures of separate breeding groups of this extensive region had also peculiar lines. Since the end of the 3rd century BC in steppe and partially foothill strip of the Central Ciscaucasia local funeral ceremonies and traditions gradually disappear (the writhed situation buried and their unstable orientation in the soil holes which sometimes are filled up with cobble-stones) that demonstrates sharp reduction of number of settled population.

Military-political contacts, cultural and trade exchange between Sarmatians and the population of the North Caucasus played a crucial role and in leveling of culture of raznoetnichesky tribes of a flat zone and the foothills of Central Caucasus Mountains. It is possible to call these processes also an interaction form - interactions.

In direct link with events of a turn of our era there is also an emergence on the historical arena of the North Caucasus Alan. Sources of Alania culture, material and spiritual, trace the roots back to the previous Sarmatian culture complicated in the conditions of the Caucasus by influence of local ethnocultural substrate and external cultural impulses. "The main maintenance of history of some country is extent of its participation in world cultural communication", - V.V. Bartold.1 wrote And without such communication many phenomena of Alania culture can be unclear. Needless to say, Alania culture - the difficult historical phenomenon ambiguous in different areas which is divided into a number of local groups, or options, and dynamically developing and changing in time. The last especially belongs to Alania culture

The North Caucasus where the diakhronny section allows to track, so far in the most general terms, dynamics of cultural development and its local specifics.

Development of intereconomic and cross-cultural relations was promoted first of all by favorable arrangement of Alania on a joint of Europe and Asia and also the international trade ways passing through its territory. In the 10th century the Alania merchants were known in the Crimea, in the Caucasian states, in Byzantium and in various countries of the East.

From Byzantium to Alania imported pottery, including tare (amphoras) and glass vessels, silk fabrics, bracelets, rings, a beads from semiprecious stones, jewelry of metal and a bone, objects of a Christian cult, a coin. From the Crimea - an amphora with wine, glass bracelets. From Transcaucasia - some types of glass bracelets and glass vessels. From Russia and the Volga Bulgaria - honey, wax, expensive furs and other goods; through Russia amber arrived. Communications Alan with nomads of Ciscaucasia and Black Sea Coast and also with the population of Central Europe are traced. From Syria, glass vessels, a beads, from Iran - beloglinny irrigation ceramics and a beads from gemstones arrived. From the Middle East silk, woolen and paper fabrics, ceramics, spices was brought. From Central Asia, silk fabrics, jewelry and ceramics were delivered. Brought goods and from far India and China.

In clothes, arms, jewelry, toilet objects, in material culture Alan the first centuries AD Sarmatian traditions continue to dominate. But ceramic ware and various types of household front doors and cult things came under noticeable influence of local North Caucasian tastes. In a funeral ceremony the native influence is also traced. In a number of foothill regions of an upper course of Kuban, the District of Daryala, Ichkeria on materials of burial grounds of the III-IV centuries the deep mixture of alien Alania elements and natives is fixed, and assimilatory processes have big consequences for Sarmatians-alan.

Alana of steel on the way of a sedentarization and acculturation - familiarizing with higher, traditionally agricultural culture of the autochthonic population of the Caucasus. Alloy of Alania and Caucasian traditions was fruitful and brought to life that bright material and spiritual culture which we in relation to the second half of I - the beginning of the II millennium usually call Alania. 2

The important party of Alania inheritance is folklore. Here the outstanding monument of spiritual culture of antiquity, a masterpiece of oral and poetic creativity - the heroic nartsky epos, of course, is on the first place. It is possible to claim that the nartsky epos has to be put in one row with the Scandinavian and Icelandic sagas, Karelian "Kalevala". Now the nartsky epos occurs at a number of the people of the Caucasus - Ossetians, Adyghe, Abkhazians, Abazins, Vainakhs. It is known also to Balkars and Karachays, and in the "erased", peripheral look is noted at Dagestanis and in mountain Georgia where there is a loan. At all variety of contents of the nartsky epos one of the central places is occupied by a subject of love for the country, fearlessness and courage of heroes in its protection. The diligence, respect for the woman, care of younger generation and its education are reflected.

There is no consensus concerning sources of the nartsky epos. Scientists absolutize a role of the people in its creation. As K.H. Unezhev notes, "V.I. Abayev and the French scientist Zh. Dyumezil in the works try to carry out opinion on skifo-Alania origin of a kernel of Nartiada. And such scientists from Abkhazia as Inal-Yip, Sh.H. Salakaya, A.A. Anshba, and from Adygea - A.M. Gadagatl, hold the opinion that the main legends of the epos on sledge arose among Abkhaz-Adyghe. At the same time it should be noted that the point of view of the first three scientists coincides with opinion of such large caucasiologists as E.I. Krupnov and E.M. Meletinsky, and A.M. Gadagatl defends the "adygocentristsky" theory of origin of the nartsky epos".3

It is better for another to perceive creative development of the multinational nartsky epos of the Caucasus not as metaphysical imposing of cultural achievements of one people and as difficult dialectic exchange of cultural wealth, as interaction of independently functioning folklore systems.

Invasion of Huns significantly remade the political and ethnic map of the North Caucasus. The Bos-porsky kingdom was destroyed, many antique cities of the Crimea and Northeast Black Sea Coast are destroyed. Culture introduced by Huns left the mark on culture Alan, having included in it a number of east elements. Extended at Alan (and through them at natives of the Caucasus) the custom of artificial deformation of the head which for the first time appeared in the 3rd century, odnolezviyny swords - broadswords (forerunner of a saber), onions with bone facings, saddles of a rigid structure with front and back onions - are brought

also Numerous invasions of numerous Turkic-speaking tribes of an era of "great resettlement of the people" are extended in steppes of Southeast Europe by Huns.4 not only significantly affected features of social and economic and cultural development of the North Caucasus, but also laid the foundation for the new direction of ethnic processes - tyurkization of separate groups of the population of the region.

The most powerful political association which developed in the middle of the 7th century in Primorsk Dagestan and east Ciscaucasia was Khazar Khanate. In an orbit of the state created by Khazars not only the people of the Caucasus, but also numerous tribes of the nomads (Alana, Huns, savira, Bulgars, Turkic peoples and others) replacing each other on steppe open spaces of Black Sea Coast and Prikaspiya were involved. Khazaria existed more than 300 years - from the middle of the 7th century to the second half of the 10th century - and left about itself memory in chronicles, geographical and historical literature.5

Strengthening of a khaganate was promoted by ethnic and language proximity of Khazars, the Bulgar and other Turkic-speaking tribes united as a part of Khazaria. Construction of Judaism in a rank of the state religion showed independence and equality of Khazar Khanate with the Byzantine empire and the Arab caliphate and also was reaction to attempts of these powers to subordinate Khazars to the interests. However the religion of Jews owing to the specifics did not become religion not only many people which are a part of the Hazaria state, but even Khazars in general. 6

Penetration of Christianity contributed to the development of process of intercultural communication. Interested in creation of a strong military barrier along the borders, Byzantium made great efforts for planting of Christianity in Northern Black Sea Coast and in the Caucasus. At the beginning of the 4th century the Christianity gets into Bospor: in 1898 the Christian gravestone with a name of Evtropiya and date of 304 g was found in Kerch; at Ecumenical council at Constantinople in 325 g there was a bishop Bospora Kadm. In Bospora a number of tombs catacombs of the 5th century on which walls crosses and inscriptions of Christian contents are put with paint is investigated.

Penetration of Christianity on Wednesday of Huns and other tribes of flat Dagestan is demonstrated also by the remains of chapels, gold and ceramic crosses found in the Upper Chiryurtovsky ancient settlement. During the same period the Christianity begins

to get into the mountains of Dagestan. Georgia where the Christianity is introduced by St. Grigory Armyansky and St. Nina for the first time begins to play a noticeable role in distribution of Christianity in the North Caucasus. In the 4th century the Georgian tsar Vakhtang Gurgen-Aslan was engaged in Christianization of the North Caucasus. Subsequently Georgia managed to subordinate to influence of Christian church a part of Adyghe. The Georgian chronicles demonstrate that the VI Ecumenical Council passing during government of the Georgian tsar Adarnas I (613 - 639) subordinated to the Mtskhetsky patriarchal throne Ossetia and Circassia. Ossetians and Circassians were in the same spiritual submission also at other Georgian tsar - Stephen II (639-663).

In 858 g the Byzantine emperor Mikhail III sent to Khazaria for evangelizing of Reverends Kirill and Mefodiy. On the way from Byzantium to Khazar Khanate they visited the North Caucasus where thereof the movement in favor of Christianity amplified. Thanks to religious toleration of Khazars, christian teaching took deep root here. The Russian sources directly indicate existence of the Christian temple in the ancient Hazaria city of Madzhary on the Kuma River.

The Greek influence in the North Caucasus is replaced by influence of Russian Orthodox Church. Its educational activity began practically right after the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. During that time the Greek colonies at the Kerch Strait - Cimmerian Bosphorus - united in the union which was called by Tamatarkhiya (in Russian Tmutarakanyyu), with the center on Taman Peninsula. Together with foundation of the Tmutarakansky Russian principality there was also the first Russian diocese in the North Caucasus. Not only Russians, but also Greeks, and kosog entered into structure of this diocese which existed about 100 years. "Tmutarakan was at Russians the large cultural center, monasteries were under construction here, chronicles were kept, records of events on marble boards were made. Russians at construction and decoration of churches began to use the Caucasian ornamental motives and even invited the Caucasian icon painters, in particular obezov-Abazin, to write icons".7

Did not remain out of influence of Christianity and Alana - ancient ancestors of Ossetians. The author of the work "Christianity in Ossetia" A. Gatuyev considers that in the 6th century, at the time of Justinian Veliky's government, the Greek missionaries extend christian teaching among Alan.

Mongolo-tatar invasion in the first half of the 13th century in a root remade the ethnic map of the North Caucasus and real

stvenno affected process of ethnogenesis of many people of the region. It led to considerable relocations and mixtures of various ethnic groups of the North Caucasian region as the Caucasian tribes which are not destroyed and not conquered at the first Mongol-Tatar campaigns were forced to go to safe places.

With arrival of Cumans the ancient Turkic kernel which developed during the Hazaria period as a result of assimilation of autochthonic Dagestan tribes by Bulgars, savira and other Turkic peoples turned into a Turkic zone. The most difficult ethnic processes connected with origin of Karachays, Balkars and Kumyks found reflection in features of language, anthropological type, material and spiritual culture of these people. The Karachaevo-Balkar and Kumyk languages belong to kypchaksky group, more precisely - to kypchako-oguzsky subgroup of Turkic family of languages. At the same time in language of Karachays and Balkars essential elements Iranian (Alania or Ossetian) and primordially Caucasian (for example, Svan) languages, and at Kumyks - languages of indigenous people of Dagestan are noted: Avars, Laks, Lezgians, etc.

In the XVI-XVII centuries the dialogue of Russia and the people of the North Caucasus had in general the mutually enriching character, mainly fact-finding which in the political plan, despite the periodic conflicts, was expressed in the allied and vassal relations and in gradual increase of the pro-Russian orientation. In the North Caucasus there is an active process of growth of the Russian population, including Cossacks from now on. In a contact zone the mutual enrichment of the traditional Russian and the North Caucasian cultures happened in the economic and household sphere, the tersko-grebensky Cossacks which begin to play an intermediary and transfer role in civilization and cultural dialogue of Russia and the North Caucasus become a product of anthropological and cultural synthesis.

The close neighbourhood, economic interrelation, the ever-increasing and becoming stronger trade and economic relations between the people of the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia promoted growth of interference of material and spiritual cultures. Stone-cutters of Accident adopted from the Georgian masters "хопищан", that is a spear-shaped pattern, the type of an ornament used in the Georgian medieval carving on a stone. Kovrodela of Southern Dagestan borrowed a number of carpet ornaments the Azerbaijani and Armenian skilled workers. At the people of the North Caucasus meet -

sya songs similar hevsursky, pshavsky, Tushino, Georgian and Azerbaijani. Much in common also in dancing and musical art. Family way, music, dances and folklore, especially mountain population adjoining to Georgia and Azerbaijan developed under beneficial influence of culture of these people.8

Especially close and systematic were relations of Georgia and Ossetia. The Georgian tsars in every possible way sought to strengthen Christianity in Ossetia: constantly sent missionaries for a sermon of Christianity and departure of a church service there, built temples, transformed "pagan temples".

Cult and calendar ceremonies in the North Caucasus have mediate connection with labor practice. At all people of the North Caucasus their repertoire is very rich and various. There are only insignificant differences of songs, music and dance between agricultural and pastoral forms of work, besides this difference is expressed mainly in the thematic plan, but not in forms of their existing. At farmers the festivals connected with flora are more widely celebrated: day of the vernal equinox, the first exit plugary in the field, end of sowing, maturing of ears, cleaning, threshing, etc. At cattle breeders the cattle hairstyle, wool spinning, oil knocking down, sample of cheese, manufacture of felt, felt cloaks, etc. are noted release in a flock of a manufacturing ram (kochkar). At each people these cycles of works were lit with special ceremonial establishments which solemnity was emphasized with songs, music and dances. Characteristic of these types of mountain song creativity is that in it process of work is almost not affected. Songs of a similar genre differ not in display (text story) of mechanics of the production, but chanting of quite often foreign objects, idealization of copresent objects and phenomena.

Process of interaction of mountain cultures with the Cossack culture is peculiar. From the very beginning of the education the North Caucasian Cossacks differed in motley ethnic structure what tell official government documents, messages of travelers and "fairy tale" by Cossacks about. Kabardians, Nogais, Kumyks, Chechens, Ingushs lived in towns fortresses across Terek and Sunzha along with Russians. And it could not but affect material and spiritual culture of various groups of the North Caucasian Cossacks that is an example of a geographical factor of interaction

cultures. There was a synthesis of three cultures: great Russian, Ukrainian and North Caucasian.

It is natural that the most various elements of culture of local community got into life and traditions of the Cossacks. In turn, the Russian and Ukrainian elements of culture got on Wednesday the next mountain population over time, promoting infiltration and a vzaimoobogagtseniye of cultures of the North Caucasian people and the Russian population of the region. Grebentsa put the houses in Russian, but they borrowed mountaineers, in particular Kabardians, the nature of internal furniture is houses: in one corner it was collected and weapon and an armor is hanging on the walls, in another - the beds and blankets put by equal piles towered, and on the foreground also a parabottom the placed ware flaunted on shelves carefully cleaned. At the same time in the house there were the traditional Russian furnace with the wide mouth, spacious benches in Caucasian carpeted, a table, and in a place of honor the icon case with images towered.

In clothes of tersky and Kuban Cossacks where the East Slavic breed prevails, it is possible to track some local differences. For example, in eastern and western regions of the North Caucasus at the Kuban Cossacks in clothes relyefny the Ukrainian lines appear while in villages the Russian lines are more noticeable by Terek and in certain Cossack settlements of East Kuban and local Caucasian influence is stronger felt.

The chekmen-homespun coat ("roll", "жупан" at Kuban residents) was ancient outerwear of men. At the same time such clothes were also uniform for the North Caucasian Cossacks. A headdress Cossacks most often had a cap of a dome-shaped form widespread at Tatars and Nogais (cap), and then and a fur papakha (Kuban residents type), same, as well as at the next mountain people of the North Caucasus. Footwear - bast shoes, boots, boots, "walkers" from tawing skin with an attached sole (like brodny) and cherevik. Besides, Cossacks often on local manners suspended a dagger and a saber (which never left) to the Caucasian belt and wore a belt. Over time the "Caucasian" lines in clothes of grebenets and terets amplify as wrote about it in the 18th century. And. - F. Miller. According to him, clothes and weapon of Cossacks were "on Circassian manners".

Among jewelry the Ukrainian monist, tapes, etc. are noted. Usual outerwear of Cossacks on Terek was the women's homespun coat all right fitting a figure on metal fasteners on the Caucasian sample. The head it was accepted pokry-

to vat a homespun scarf from under which the "Caucasian" hat as without headdress the woman, as well as at mountaineers, had no right to seem on the street is visible and even to be at home prostovolosy in the presence of the father-in-law and the mother-in-law. Jewelry of the Cossack carried much: silver belts, earrings, a beads (necklace), rings, the Chechen and Dagestan bracelets in what the Caucasian influence was obviously traced (especially at grebenets).

A part of marriages in the beginning, judging by some data, consisted in result of an umykaniye of brides at neighbors mountaineers, a part was made in voluntary consent. In many cases the Cossacks had an opportunity to join the related relations with families "показачившихся" natives of the circle of the local people arriving to permanent residence to the Cossack towns and also with their relatives and friends remaining in mountain societies.

The isolation and isolation of traditional Cossack life helping maintaining patriarchal customs and traditions with the Cossack families - especially at Cossack conservatives became one of remarkable lines of big Cossack family. The great value at Cossacks was attached to scrupulous observance of numerous maternity ceremonies, beliefs and bans, in general east Slavs, similar to customs (though with inclusion of some magic elements borrowed the mountain people).

At treatment of diseases in the Cossack settlements used services of mountain doctors-hakimov, receptions and drugs of traditional doctoring of mountaineers which are going back to the Arab medicine. Some Cossack doctors and sorcerers, especially old men, were well-known outside native villages, and mountaineers quite often asked them for the help also.

Kunachestvo and hospitality played an important role in life of the people of the North Caucasus. Thanks to these institutes, economic, cultural, marriage relations developed, culture and life of mountaineers and people of all Caucasus were mutually enriched. Within the XIX-XX centuries in life of the people of the North Caucasus there were basic changes. This period is noted by entry of the North Caucasian ethnic groups into structure of Russia. There was whole scale of the positive moments, but there was also the whole complex of the problems having the conflictogenic potential.

Entry of the people of the North Caucasus into structure of Russia led to closer interaction of culture of Russia and the Caucasian ethnoses, left a unique mark on the Russian culture, literature, art, social thought, rasshi-

Rila the knowledge horizons, brought a powerful stream in life of the people of the Caucasus, their material and spiritual culture.

The progressive changes in economy and the culture of the people of the North Caucasus in the basis resulting in the first half of the 19th century the need for creation of national writing appeared. The first, but limited vocabulary of the Adygei writing collected and the Swedish prisoner of war in Russia Stral-berg published at the beginning of the 18th century. Slightly more the academician Gyuldenshtend in 1773 made. In papers of the academician Pallas (end of the 18th century) there are four Circassian glossaries. In the dictionary of the second half of the 18th century made in Russia the section with the kabardino-Circassian language is placed. Collecting of dictionary materials continued also in the 19th century - Klaprot, Tebu de Mariñi, J. Bell and other scientists. The first attempt of creation of the Adygei writing belongs to the beginning of the 19th century: it was undertaken by Haji Notauk Sheretlukov, however without success. Only since the end of the 20th of the 19th century real attempts of creation of the Adyghe writing began. And there was a fight between the Russian and Arab-Muslim influence. A number of drafts of the alphabet was created. In this process the Russian scientists had decisive impact.

The first Circassian alphabet on the Russian graphic basis was made by Gratsilovsky in 1829. In 1840 Lyulye made new version of the Circassian alphabet on the same basis and in six years published grammar and the Russian-French-Circassian dictionary. In 1855 the Adyghe educator Umar Baire - this made the alphabet on the Arab basis and published in Tiflis in the lithographic way "Abc-book of the Circassian Language". In the 60th of the 19th century the famous Russian caucasiologist Uslar made the alphabet of the Circassian language on the Russian graphic basis. In Dagestan the further development was gained at this time by writing in local languages and on the Arab graphics (so-called adzhamsky system of the letter).

In the same time by means of the Russian scientists and the intellectuals attempts of creation of writing at Ossetians were made. Formation of the first scientific grammar of Ossetic, the publication of a number of substantial works on ethnography of the people of the North Caucasus it is connected with a name of the academician A.M. Shegren. In 1844 in Academies of Sciences publishing house there was its work "The Ossetian Grammar with the Short Dictionary Ossetian-Russian and Russian-Ossetian", not lost still the scientific value. The Ossetian alphabet on the Russian basis, structure -

lenny Shegren, played a big role in development of the Ossetian writing.9

In the first half of the 19th century when the regional policy enjoyed support in government circles, an opportunity was provided (and it was even considered it necessary) to learn for Russians local languages. The deputy of the Caucasus general I.I. Vorontsov-Dashkov held the opinion that business of the first importance for edge is "indispensable and unconditional training of all pupils of Russians at least in one of native languages". This measure in the basis had political focus (to train the administrative personnel familiar with local conditions), however the positive practical importance should not deny it. This historical tradition was interrupted during the subsequent periods, including in Soviet. In the 19th century the decisions on learning languages were made repeatedly. On May 10, 1835 in addition to the "Provision on the Transcaucasian schools" which is earlier adopted (1829) the new decision in which the requirement "concerning learning local languages by children of the Russian officials of the Transcaucasian region" was recorded is made. Local languages were learned in the Stavropol, Kuban gymnasiums and other educational institutions.

The big role in development of linguistic culture, giving to this process of democratic orientation was played by the Adyghe educators and the Russian figures of national education working at the Caucasus. The quintessence of the doctrine of the Adyghe educators about national school was in that to extend literacy mainly by means of the native language. In turn it had to promote the fastest distribution of literacy which could acquaint people with Russian, science and culture. The Adyghe educators actively and persistently investigated problems which are called in modern science "general bilingualism". They rejected division of languages into important and unimportant, main and minor, useful and useless. However these processes did not find a steady trend. The school became the tool of public policy, policy of assimilation of local community more and more. The question of language of teaching was resolved in the geopolitical interests of Russia. "Purpose of foreign education, - wrote D.A. Tolstaya, - rapprochement of foreign tribes with the dominating Russian population, their gradual merge to the Russian civilization". Such policy was pursued in many countries: Great Britain, USA, Turkey and others.

The beginning of refusal of regional policy in education belongs to 1853 when there was "A provision on the Caucasian educational district" ordering gradual introduction in the region of the same system of education as in general in Russia. Though training programs still joined teaching local language and short history, but on these objects was taken away less time. As a result at the end of the 19th century learning local languages and furthermore training at them, is considered business already absolutely excessive.

Literature is also a factor of cross-cultural interaction. The Russian fiction began to write about the Caucasus in the 18th century. From first decades of the 19th century the interest of the Russian society in the Caucasus strongly increased. Along with books of local history character also works of art about the people of the North Caucasus began to appear. On the new material obtained from the Caucasian reality, the Russian writers created the images of ordinary mountaineers executed realistic force in the works and by that promoted growth of interest and sympathy of the public of Russia for the mountain people of the Caucasus.

One of the first in the 19th century V.T. Narezhny addressed the Caucasian subject. In the novel "Mountain Year, or Mountain Princes" he in an allegoric form criticized the Caucasian administration.10 In the novel by A.A. Shishkov "Ketevana, or Georgia in 1812", devoted to background of a revolt of peasants in Kakheti, episodes from life of mountaineers of Dagestan are included. In poems "Dagestan Prisoner" and "Lonsky" Shishkov gives the interesting description of mountaineers. He believes that over time the Caucasian mountaineers will entirely be given to peaceful classes.

The big contribution to development of literature and scientific knowledge of the Caucasus was brought by the Decembrists banished there and living among its people many years. First of all - A.A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky. The Caucasian subject occupies one of the main places in his creativity. "Letters to doctor Ehrman", "Letters from Dagestan", stories "Amma-latbek", "Nour's Mule", "The story by the officer who was in captivity at mountaineers", "Shah Guseyn" and others are devoted to mountaineers of the North Caucasus.

I.T. Radozhitsky kindly knowing mountaineers treats the poets of the romantic direction writing about the people of the North Caucasus. He was not a professional writer, and, doing military service, in passing was engaged in literature, ethnography and botany. Are written to them "the Circassian story in verses" under on -

a rank "Ali-Cara-Mirza", the story "Kyz-Brun" based on the Kabardian folklore. These works became a cradle of literature on the Caucasus.

A.S. Pushkin visited the North Caucasus three times and became, in effect, the pioneer of the Caucasus in the Russian literature. For the poet the stately, fine nature of the Caucasus was a source before of not felt inspiration. Under a stay impression in the Caucasus "Collapse", "The monastery on Kazbek", Delibash, "On the hills of Georgia", "House" are written, to "Kalmyk", "Road complaints" and "The Caucasus under me".

In imitative spirit the poem by P. Inozemtsev "Zalmara" and other his works is written to Pushkin "Prisoner of the Caucasus".

In 1842 "the Last Heak" V. Zotov is published. This work was devoted to A.S. Pushkin, A.A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky and M.Yu. Lermontov's memory. The poet treats mountaineers with love and compassion, his sympathies and sympathy on the party of the slave Heak and his aged father. Natukhayevtsev (one of the Adyghe tribes) he calls "The Caucasus brave sons", and the tribe of heak - "the tribe of slashing fellows".

The basis of literature on the Caucasus and its people in the first half of the 19th century is made by A.S. Griboyedov, A.S. Pushkin, M.Yu. Lermontov and A.I. Polezhayev's creativity. The outstanding Russian poet A.I. Polezhayev (1804 - 1838) was banished to the Caucasus for the satirical poem "Sashka". Since 1824 it served privates of the Moscow regiment in the North Caucasus. Here he wrote verses and romances "Night in Kuban", "Black Braid", "Tarki", "Magnificently Light Terek Flows", "Aktash-Aukh", "Cossack", "From the Message to A.P. Lozovsky", poems "Erpeli", "Chir-Yurt", "Cemetery Germenchugs-koye" and others. In them the truthful image of life of the people of the North Caucasus is given. Here the poet dreamed of the happy country where people would live not enemies, without the right of force and war.

The fate of the great Russian poet M.Yu. Lermontov is inseparably linked with the Caucasus. He well knew history, folklore, customs and customs of the people of the Caucasus. Since youthful years Lermontov with enthusiasm and pokoryayushche writes about mountaineers. A set of poems and poems are devoted to them: "Circassians", "Prisoner of the Caucasus", "Callas", "Aul of Bastundzhi", "Haji Abrek", "Demon" and others. Folklore sources were used by the poet for expression of its main motives and ideological and art aspirations promoting reconstruction of national character for isto-riko-ethnographic details and episodes of works.

Influence on mountaineers of the Russian writers who visited the Caucasus was considerable. It is known that, being in Derbent,

A.A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky was friends with Nazar-whether "alims" Abdullah, Mirza-Magomed and others. He was close and to many locals, met also mountaineers during the repeated trips to mountain Dagestan and always had beneficial influence, promoted expansion of their knowledge of Russia and the Russian people. In Dagestan I.I. Muravyev made the Turkish grammar and the dictionary of language of Tarkovsky of Kumyks. On this grammar and the dictionary A.P. Yermolov and A.S. Griboyedov learned the Kumyk language. In Tarkakh I.I. Muravyev was engaged in archaeological researches and collecting ethnographic material. An important point in development of social thought and science were historical compositions of the Adyghe scientists. "History of the Adyghe people" of the outstanding historian Kabarda Sh.B. Nog-mova was based on big and valuable folklore material and other historical sources. Nogmov's work was completed in 1843, and in 1844 it carried "History" for submission to the Russian Academy of Sciences.

In the work Nogmov tried to comprehend historical roots of friendship of Russia and Kabarda, he glorified their centuries-old commonwealth, told about joint fight against overseas aggressors. Nogmov considered joining of Adyghe to Russia in 1557 as the major event in the history of Adyghe: "The people were pleased with the union and protection of Russia". He condemned civil strifes of princes: "Princes were the cause of disasters of the Homeland; the dispute for the right of possession never stopped. Without finding enough forces in the earth, they called alien tribes and under a pretext that find legal property, betrayed the earth on plunder to inoplemennik". These words of Nogmov are relevant for the North Caucasus and today.

A specific place in creativity of the enlightenment arising in the North Caucasus was held by the questions connected with the attitude towards Russia. The Adyghe figures Khan Weight, the sultan Adiel Weight, Kazy-Girey, Sh.B. Nogmov, U. Bersey consistently supported rapprochement with Russia, seeing big progress in development of economy and the culture of the mountain cities as a part of Russia which stood on higher step of development. In the works the educators directly and unambiguously wrote about a crucial role of Russia in defense and protection of mountaineers against overseas conquerors - shah Iran and sultan Ports.

In 1841 the first historical story - "Circassian Legends" - the prominent Adyghe writer Khan-Girey was published in the Russky Vestnik magazine. Its basis was formed by the local legends narrating about fight of Adyghe against overseas aggressors. Its feather possesses also essays "the Prince Kanbula?

York Erik
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