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Background and initial history of the St. Petersburg educational house (1763-1796)



STRANITSA ISTORIYA

To the 210 anniversary of the Gertsenovsky university

T.G. Frumenkova,

associate professor of the Russian history

BACKGROUND AND INITIAL HISTORY of the ST. PETERSBURG EDUCATIONAL HOUSE (1763-1796)

The first educational house in Russia was created in Moscow by the "Master plan" signed by Catherine II on September 1, 1763. The choice of the ancient capital did not speak in any way. Possibly, I.I. Betskoy and Catherine conceived creation of a system of educational institutions, and Moscow as the geographical center of Russia could facilitate communication with the province. However, St. Petersburg did not stand aside. Care of "neschastnorozhdenny children" had to become business of all society. An example should have been set capital inhabitants — Catherine's confidants. On October 14, 1763 in additions to No. 82 of "The St. Petersburg sheets" it was reported that owing to desire of the empress to find imitators "to blessings to helpless in the human race" the newspaper tells the names of those "god-loving" Petersburgers who "okhotny to this dushespasitelny business announced themselves and who really and will accept prinosny children". The list included names 15 of court. The gravity of their intentions was emphasized with publication of the addresses: "Alexander Sergeyevich Graff Stroganov, the yard of it on the Nevsky pershpektiva near Green to the bridge" [1].

It is unlikely the announcement had serious consequences though some of the persons who entered the list became I.I. Betsky's associates. The information about the children accepted by them is almost not revealed. Only in the letter of the Moscow trustees to I.I. Betsky of February 16, 1769 it is told that "from gr. A.S. Stroganova care of its family in St. Petersburg received here in the educational house of 10 babies... litas from 4 to 6" [2]. It is symbolical that the first shelter for orphans existed on Moika, in the neighbourhood with next quarter of the educational house, in 1763-1769

I.I. Betskoy intended to open the St. Petersburg branch in 1763. So far it is not clear why these plans were not carried out. At last, on March 15, 1770 Catherine II signed I.I. Betsky's report "About purpose of the place for creation of the educational house in St. Petersburg" and allocated for it "kind undertaking" of 5000 rub. The spare yard on the bank of Neva was transferred to the house Smolny. The spring and summer season was used for repair. The first girl was brought to the house on September 1, 1770. In total for September, 1770 accepted 8 children. In the announcement published at the end of September it was reported that the educational house in St. Petersburg opens according to the instruction and on the terms of "Master plan". Children could be brought on the road day and night or "to bring water to the pier made at that house" and to give to the gatekeeper. The formal reception of babies began on October 1, 1770. Till 1772 the legal provision of an institution was not defined. All affairs "the new agency for reception and transfer of children" were conducted together with affairs of the Moscow house. Personally main trustee I.I. Betskoy [3] supervised the work of the St. Petersburg employees, and the Moscow house headed tutorial council from several "notable persons" (trustees) under its patronage. Till 1772 they worked "only for the love of the Fatherland" and salaries did not receive.

The house received the official status under the senatorial decree on September 6, 1772. As "the separating part" of the Moscow house it began to be called as the St. Petersburg office which 3-5-year-old pets were transported to Moscow. At it the office of tutorial council (meeting) as a part of the main trustee, the director and two trustees assuming a rank of a zaopekun was created (the person which was carrying out tutorial duties gratuitously. — T.F.).

"Executive establishment of widow, loan and safe treasury" (on November 20, 1772) legalized financial and credit activity of educational houses and turned the Moscow trustees into professionals on a salary. In 1772 I.I. Betskoy issued also protection the house from the most notable persons. For them created a rank of honourable philanthropists. In the list of honourable philanthropists, whose protection extended also to the St. Petersburg office, counts K.G. Razumovsky, Z.G. Chernyshev, I.G. Chernyshev, N.I. Panin, E. Münnich, princes entered

And. M. Golitsyn (general field marshal), A.M. Golitsyn (archchamberlain), A.A. Vyazemsky, M.N. Volkonsky, Ya.P. Shakhovskoy and also A.I. Glebov and G.N. Teplov. Later "ubyly" places were taken by 2 bishops and 11 secular dignitaries, including the prince G.A. Potemkin and the count P.A. Zubov.

The St. Petersburg office kept the subordinated character till 1780. The situation was not changed even that I.I. Betskoy was a part of a meeting. In fact, the St. Petersburg house not too differed from provincial amateur houses, and in a form the St. Petersburg office agreed on all decisions with tutorial council in Moscow. The salary was received only by the director. Two zaopekun from sluzhily noblemen-trustees worked "on a voluntary basis". Trustees appeared in St. Petersburg in 1763 for collecting handouts and assistance to the house. The first trustees became court which were going to accept orphans in the houses. For work in the house people simpler were necessary.

With its organization I.I. Betsky was helped by trustees, it is good to him acquaintances: the empress's confessor archpriest of the Moscow Annunciation Cathedral I.I. Pamfilov and the colonel I.I. Moller serving under his supervision in office of the Novodevichy Convent. In January, 1772 both were entitled zaopekun, and I.I. Moller was appointed the director of office. In 1773 the architect Yu.M. Felten (zaopekun since 1775) serving in office of buildings became the trustee. Yu.M. Felten watched construction, controlled assessment of the houses mortgaged in safe treasury. On I.I. Betsky's command in 1779 in St. Petersburg chose also the first two trustees [4].

In 1780 on new "Statute" the Moscow house and the St. Petersburg office were equalized in the rights. In St. Petersburg, as well as in Moscow, tutorial council from 4 trustees was created, including also the ober-director. The main trustee retained the general control, but gave to both councils "for a while freedom to work and all will arrange". Annually on its initiative general meetings for discussion of "reprehensible" cases, election of ober-directors and honourable philanthropists were convened. Transfer of children to Moscow was cancelled. The main trustee claimed that "the local house or Moscow nothing else as same". Councils were considered as "uniform board of one educational house" [5].

In April, 1782 the main trustee, "knowing worthy qualities" doctor F.P. Freze, suggested to appoint him the ober-director in hope that the doctor will be able to reduce mortality of children. F.P. Freze met expectations and became, perhaps, the most attractive figure among the St. Petersburg trustees. At the same time it had obstinate character. F.P. Freze soon found large shortage. It turned out that the cashier K. Prinze since 1778 stole over 170 thousand rubles. The house was also judicial authority for employees. F.P. Freze achieved return of nearly 100 thousand rubles, about the others of "absolutely lost" 74 thousand presented to council. Being guided by I.I. Betsky's opinion, trustees considered that heads and accountants take collective responsibility for theft, and decided: "Having brought together them, to raschislit the sums and to receive from them autographic obligations on a payment of popushchenny stealing by Prinze". "The first responsible" for thefts declared I.I. Moller (it is begun — nearly 19 thousand rubles). Other members of a meeting should have brought in cash desk from 18700 rub to 140 rub. Fined filled up council with justifications. In the summer of 1784 the general meeting, contrary to I.I. Betsky's opinion, excluded the stolen sum from accounts books. Criminals and popustitel got off with a fright, and F.P. Freze got an award [6]. In March, 1785 as a result of the conflict with I.I. Betsky of F.P. Freze left. Soon in the St. Petersburg house there was a new chief — the collegiate adviser E.A. Kirshbaum who was earlier consisting under supervision of the honorary philanthropist prince A.A. Vyazemsky in an expedition about state revenues.

By the beginning of the 1790th the situation in both houses did not suit the main trustee. On May 31, 1790, having used that from the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war almost all honourable philanthropists left to the battlefield, and general meetings became impossible,

I.I. Betskoy declared return of the full power to concerning the St. Petersburg council. However by this time the main trustee was already too old. He understood that he will not be able to control a situation in Moscow, but also the attempt to take in hand reins of government in St. Petersburg led to humiliating defeat.

The tortured by diseases, 86-year-old Betskoy rushed to protection of the child. On June 4, 1790 he fired the ober-director E.A. Kirshbaum "in a reasoning of weakness of his health", and on June 7 — and the trustee I.I. Lovtsov "because of painful attacks". I.I. Betskoy hoped that his subordinates will not wish public exposure and will leave the places, but they complained to Catherine. On June 10, 1790 the honorary philanthropist count Ya.A. Bruce announced to trustees the secret order of the empress: "To council of any orders of the main trustee opposite to Establishment, in action not to make".

Catherine enjoined to convene a general meeting with participation of "cash in local our capital of honourable philanthropists, trustees and trustees". Having received the decree, the main trustee opened it reasons for leaving of officials: the ober-director by means of the trustee betrayed to him "put in anything my instructions". Employees complained to I.I. Betsky of their oppressions more than once, reported about "education omissions" and even "a lack of pro-feeding of children". I.I. Lovtsova, besides, often saw "at presence drunk to opprobium of council". The main trustee claimed that a disease as a pretext for dismissal, it exposed for the purpose of "preservation of the credit of the educational house".

The general meeting sat on September 2, 1790 and did not come to a consensus. 5 people considered that the main trustee had received from Catherine power on dismissal of violators. 4 participants of the meeting who declared illegality of its actions did not agree with them. Probably, they knew Catherine's opinion. Imperial council sided with minority. Soon the empress told I.I. Betsky that she did not find legal basis for dismissal of the ober-director and the trustee, but considered to leave them on former posts inconvenient and defined in the office [7].

Since fall of 1790 I.I. Betsky's participation in affairs of educational houses stopped, but only on January 19, 1792 the confidential decree Catherine ordered to a general meeting to elect his successor. On February 27 it approved the report on elections, having enjoined over the privy councilor the column X. To S. Münnich immediately to enter "a position of the successor" [8]. Officially and after I.I. Betsky's death he was called correcting a position of the successor of the main trustee. The true reason for changes in the management of houses was not stated, formally I.I. Betskoy kept the powers. He expressed discontent with the course of events, but could not influence them any more. In 1795 I.I. Betskoy died.

At the heart of activity of the St. Petersburg office and the pedagogical ideas of Education stated in "Master plan" of I.I. Betsky lay at home. The purpose of educational houses creation appeared in Russia of "the third rank of the people" as component of "new breed" of people. The priority in its achievement was given to the education excluding influence of the family and public environment. The main method of education was called imitation kind examples. I.I. Betskoy understood: to grow up "new breed of people", tutors of "adolescents" should be "zakonodavets and philosophers". He understood that "it is very difficult" to find such teachers, but considered that "this does not interfere to look for it". Pets needed to be taught "knowledge of belief", drawing, reading, the letter, arithmetics, geography, "rules of civil life", needlework, work on manufactories and factories, to commerce and "rules of gardening". It was necessary to reveal the children endowed with "acute mind" and capable to arts, and to teach girls as well as boys. Having become wives and mothers, they "will more diligently take up the position", will better raise the and entrusted to their cares other people's children.

In training it was necessary "to use moderation and a priyatstvo, without doing punishment for mistakes", then children will have time for games, they will feel "hunting to learn and in cheerfulness not to lose". The author of the plan ordered: "Once forever to enter the motionless law into this house and strictly never to approve, and never to beat children because not blows horrify, but the fear is multiplied in them from a rarity of punishments that there is the most valid means to their correction" [9].

To provide office, as well as the Moscow house, it was originally supposed due to donations. On opening of the St. Petersburg office of the column P.B. Sheremetev, P.G. Chernyshov,

K.G. Razumovsky and also A.A. Naryshkin transferred in the sum of 8400 rub, considerable donations were made by ecclesiastics. The empress in 1770 allocated more than 90 thousand rubles for the house. Since 1782 its donations were allocated for the St. Petersburg house separately and in 15 years made 445 thousand rubles (earlier she spent up to 1 million 400 thousand rubles for the Moscow house and its St. Petersburg office, 680 more thousand rubles were granted on both houses on behalf of the successor) [10].

Also citizens with average income cared for the house. So, the jewelry and articles of clothing offered to the house in 1791 the actor S.N. Sandunov were sold for 2695 rub. Since the beginning of the 1770th among sources of income the profit on safe and loan treasury began to take the main place. I.I. Betskoy tried to give to their activity a charitable shade. In safe treasury, money with payment of interest and performance of wills was accepted. It also issued loans to noblemen on the security of manors, and to merchants — stone houses in the capital. The percent from loans was transferred in favor of the house. It was necessary to make also single donation. The loan treasury (pawnshop) issued to Petersburgers small loans under "manual mortgages" with payment of low percent, a part in favor of the house.

The St. Petersburg office was located around Smolny Convent. The estate extended along the coast of Neva and was fenced "from the beaten piles with a palisade". The unplastered stone casing was divided into three parts: two side wings were one-storey, and the central part had two floors. In "the embankment of a part" of the building there was a big hall with the parquet floors and the arches leaning on 8 columns, and something like a verandah — the room with "an air window about 4 glasses". In the yards, wooden office constructions and housing for servants were located. The estate was supplemented by a small garden and a meadow.

Children, generally delivered directly to the house. Reception was secret. Among babies serfs came across. The child was returned to the landowner only if there were firm proofs of his serf origin. The request of the soldier remained to accept in number of pets of his 10-month-old son whom he could not raise after the death of the wife. The Petersburgers who warmed orphans of the acquaintances transferred them to the house with receiving a reward.

Kids were brought also from the provincial educational houses created by trustees. The Olonets merchant Ya.T. Vashkalov contained the house at first in Olonets, and then in Vytegra and brought to the capital in 1772-1779 124 children. At the end of the 1770th the merchant was ruined, argued with the St. Petersburg office on the amount of payments for the brought children. In 1779 the rank of the trustee from Ya.T. Vashkalov was removed. In 1783-1784 the house in Vytegra was under authority of the Order of public contempt. In 1784 from there to St. Petersburg brought 19 boys and 20 girls. In the 1770-1790th brought children from educational houses of Novgorod and the cities of the province. The maternity hospital which opened in the fall of 1771 on the donation of 20 thousand rubles made by "philanthropist" of the Moscow house P.A. Demidov became the third source of replenishment of the house.

The accepted babies were transferred to wet nurses. Children is more senior than two years the supervisor was engaged. There were not enough wet nurses, children had to be raised artificially that increased mortality. Besides, as well as in Moscow, to the house brought many sick children. Despite the Moscow experience which showed how professional physicians are necessary in the house in the St. Petersburg office first there was no constant doctor. It appeared only in the second half of the 1770th. In the 1780th at the house, except infirmary, there was "an ospenny house" in which to pets from 4 to 10 years imparted natural smallpox.

The shortage of wet nurses forced I.I. Betsky to agree to distribution of pets of office, as well as the Moscow house, on neighboring settlements and villages for feeding in country families. The first data on it belong to 1771. In 1780 the babies were distributed on Okhta powder mills, in Murino, Izhora, Kolpino and on the Tsarskoye Selo road. Children were provided with shirts and diapers, put on a lace with number a neck of everyone. Tutors received a payment. In April, 1772 the manager of the Okhta settlement captain V. Dokuchayev volunteered to watch keeping of the pets distributed to Okhta "inhabitants" gratuitously. Later these observations, traveling charged to physicians. What they saw quite often frightened them. In 1783 the doctor Vlasenkov wrote that he met the kids who do not have "at themselves any person, creeping in dirt, on the ground and crying without having either some food, or drink". According to its data, very few pets were kept clean in what the doctor also saw the reason of spread of numerous diseases. Child mortality in villages was approximately at the same level, as in the house, and other

of a gd exceeded it. In 1788 in the St. Petersburg house founded a position of the traveling supervisor. Control over rural tutors in St. Petersburg, unlike Moscow, in the 1790th was adjusted.

In 1771-1780 3 years are more senior than all pets of the St. Petersburg office transported to the Moscow house. Transportation was considered as business of the state importance. For example, the wagon train which left St. Petersburg on August 23, 1773 with 43 pupils was headed by the sergeant V. Bukharov with 10 assistants. Children went by trucks — the long covered carts. For girls carried kamlotovy (woolen) skirts and green dresses from the same material, a shirt and aprons, gray ratinovy corsets and hats from a green krashenina (canvas) with pink tapes. The sergeant was responsible for children and watched that nurses had behind them "diligent watching". Children sat in the same trucks, and on their clothes for control numbers were sewn. On a lodging for the night stopped in "strong log huts" or in trucks. To Novgorod children were brought "in kind health", during "ekhanye in trucks cannot remain sitting, and ask and where only the road smooth, from trucks are issued and on the road run and go with rozdykhy". The wagon train involved a great number of "inspectors". On the way children "without any suggestion distributed spare bread to the poor". On September 19, for the 27th day of a travel, children were brought to Moscow.

Until the end of the 1770th the house was placed at Smolny Convent. Children were brought from far away that affected their health. In 1776 at educational establishment opened safe and loan treasury, and the remoteness from the center could affect their income. Rooms seriously were damaged during a September flood of 1777, "the last straw which overflowed a bowl of the disasters and discomfort" felt in "the remote room on the bank of the seething river".

In March, 1778 Catherine II gave to the St. Petersburg office the house of the prince A.G. Gruzinsky at Tsaritsyno meadows at the corner of Millionnaya Street and the Red channel taken in treasury for debts. The two-storeyed building had up to one hundred "rooms" which part differed in rich furniture. The yard was paved by "a wild stone". However the building was "in failure condition" and demanded the repairs made under the leadership of I.I. Moller and the architect Yu.M. Felten. In October, 1778 moved safe and loan treasury there.

On December 31, 1778 I.I. Betskoy reported in council: "For the room reasons kazen to the house on Million, it is better to connect them to office". For this purpose on January 22, 1779 got an adjacent home of count of K.G. Razumovsky. Its repair dragged on. On April 22, 1780 the main trustee said that long ago it is required to transfer "the local educational house" to the new building "as in a reasoning of the meeting of the best supervision which is forced to be nearby behind education of children, and for disgust on remoteness from the city of excessive costs, and besides and in order to avoid this house coming from not sale where children nowadays live, a loss". By the end of 1780 of pets of the St. Petersburg house transported on Million. In the house at Smolny, under the decree of the empress bought for 30 thousand rubles in treasury, it was decided to place almshouse.

On October 1, 1788 the church built at the house was consecrated. The church service "at great gathering of people" was held by the metropolitan Gabriel with I.I. Pamfilov. At a ceremony there were I.I. Betskoy and trustees. Children "stood on the places in great surprise, looking at unprecedented grandeur". The prior of the temple delivered a speech, two pupils presented medals of the educational house to the metropolitan and the confessor. Guests of honor were treated with "wines and a breakfast" [11]. Petersburgers "on the second in Pharmaceutical lanes from Million to gate" could see an inscription: "A way to philanthrophy", and at other gate opposite to Marble Palace at an entrance to premises of council the sign flaunted: "Imperial educational house three treasuries" [12].

In the building on Millionnaya Street, after cancellation of transfer of children to Moscow, teachers appeared. It was succeeded to find the information about 42 teachers employed in the 80-90th of the 18th century. Foreigners prevailed. Men and women was approximately equally — according to 22 (8 Russians) and 20 (6 Russians). Data on their education did not remain. Only in case X. - M. Goering it is reported that he had degree of the master of philosophy and was a graduate of the University of Göttingen. The basis for reception on service was the previous activity or recommendations. I.I. Betskoy knew many on teaching in the Shlyakhetsky case and Academy of Arts, a part they appeared pets of the Moscow house or were court musicians and dancers. For some of them the service in the house became the main business of life. Braunschweig native I. - H. Zee-bengar turned into the Russian citizenship, served the teacher over 15 years and died in 1801

The priest S. Vasilyev trained children in the Scripture and the diploma. Russian was taught working earlier in the Shlyakhetsky case N. Klevetskaya and former pupil U. Vasilyeva. The French and German languages were a prerogative of teachers foreigners. Assistants to the teacher lived "at children" for "rastverzhivaniye" of the lessons set to pets. In the house studied turning business and mechanics (turners I. Shives and Sevikh, "the free mechanic" V. Ivanitsky), "spinning needlework" and "knitting Chulkov" (E. Reynova, E. Ryutenburg), learned "to weave tapes" (the former pupil M. Akimova), to embroider "with gold, silver, different silks and spangles and a kruzhevoplete-niya" and also "to wash silk matter of a dress, a crape and blonda" (A.T. Kozyreva, E. - A. Balman).

V. Sokolov, the teacher of Academy of Arts, taught children to draw. "With fair success" 10 boys and 4 girls studied playing clavichord (music teacher of the Shlyakhetsky case Luini), 10 more boys — playing a violin (Shknati cameras musicians). In April, 1784 the council for F.P. Freze's representation bought a harp and employed the only thing in the capital of "the nice garfist" of Gartman for training of 8 boys in a game at this the fashionable then tool that in the future "to deliver to pets happy livelihood". Considered it necessary to train F.P. Freze from pupils and dance teachers for the house. They were trained by "the foreigner Sabioni, famous in perfect knowledge of dancing skill". I.I. Betskoy insisted that teenagers corrected "in symmetry of a body training of a tantsevaniye". Graduates of the Moscow house employees of the Russian public theater the dancer Mr. Ivanov and the musician A. Ivanov were engaged in it. Two more former pets musicians from theater — K. Barkov and P. Smirnov — played "for amusement of the raised children on Sunday and other gala days and for their priokhochivaniye to a tantsevaniye" [13].

At the beginning of the 1790th when I.I. Betskoy was discharged of affairs, in the St. Petersburg house, problems which at the end of Ekaterina's reign did not find a solution collected. Educational houses did not interest the empress any more. In the building on Millionnaya Street it became close. In 1784 in the house there were 241 pupils, 1060 more children accommodated on villages. In 1791 the number of the pets living in the same building increased to 523 people, 1959 children were raised on villages.

In October, 1791 the chief supervisor K. Zilberarm who was responsible for girls reported in council that from "large number of female pupils" the house "became is too close". She worried about their health. In the bedroom in which 50 people lived earlier there were 74 pupils now. Closeness and "smelly humidity" reigned in rooms. In the house there was no room where children could "at very thin weather during leisure hours could have the movement through a game", and they sat in classes and bedrooms. The narrowness interfered with broader training of girls in needlework. The question of overpopulation of the house in 1792 was raised also by the trustee P.Ya. Ilyin. He reminded that council was going to buy the new building or to begin construction new, but did not make the decision. Children from it suffered "so many that any stranger could not even look at them without regret". Rural pupils remained with peasants up to 7-9 years. "Master plan" was not implemented: children did not receive either education, or professional education [14].

The trouble was demonstrated also by history which happened in the spring of 1794 when from the house tried to send the note addressed to the main trustee I.I. Betsky. In it it was said: "We very much are sorry about your long-term disease. We are extremely offended who if tells is hungry, he for will be stripped naked also for two days on bread both on water and in a cold bath and that mister inspector Pyotr Fedorovich brought us to the fact that we entreat workers and that they beat us and abuse nasty words. And that if who informs on that to mister inspector, that will be corporally punished. And who will inform of the need that he wants to skill, he corporally punishes and will tell, I do not dare to ask". It was the complaint to orders in the house and personally on the inspector or ober-management assistant P.F. Vyndomsky, the acting as the ober-director in the absence of the last. The letter was written by one of the senior pupils Pavel Petrov, the young man about 18 years. Investigation confirmed that pets were badly fed, the assistant to the supervisor I.F. Akhmatov offended them and did not disdain manhandling. Besides, vocational education of male pets almost did not practice in the house.

Nevertheless the pupil was decided "to be punished at a meeting of all children birches., having given. to feel to it a regret that the place of philanthrophy, in veils which disdained it vozrastivshy. it is forced against will by its thin act to use for correction not mildness, but

corporal punishment". Imposing sentence, council not quite correctly referred to "Master plan" (Part 1. Hl 5. § 12), who suggested to consider crimes of pupils, for example, of theft, to "vyshny chiefs". The plan very vaguely believed to punish them "on consideration, at a meeting of all children".

A story with P. Petrov received continuation. In the house carried out audit of pedagogical shots, regulations and methodical documentation. It was necessary to attend to affairs of pets of 15-19 years which did not have specialty. To organize vocational education in the house it was not represented possible because of notorious narrowness, and council decided to give teenagers "for learning knowing and honest behavior to masters and artists in contracts".

Possibly, case of "a dishonourable act" of the pupil accelerated appointment of the new ober-director I.G. Sumbatov. It was approved on April 28, 1794. He was a retired combat officer and, it seems, the person honest [15]. Probably, I.G. Sumbatov managed to cope with the most flagrant abuses. By the time of Paul I's accession the St. Petersburg house looked considerably pristoyny Moscow.

In the 1780-1790th the pets of educational houses began to join number of capital inhabitants. Almost all of them grew up in Moscow. In the 1770th from there in dozens sent for study of boys to Academy of Arts, and girls — to petty-bourgeois office of Smolny Institute. The Moscow pets made troupe of the St. Petersburg theater of K. Knipper, later — the well-known theater of I.A. Dmitrevsky, worked at the plants and in craft workshops, served as bureaucrats and officials in tutorial council and other institutions, made considerable percent of free servants in capital houses. The opinion on a total failure of the ideas of I.I. Betsky is exaggerated.

The St. Petersburg house as a part of the uniform educational house became one of the centers of the Russian pedagogics based on the ideas of Education. The beginning of its work laid the foundation of the St. Petersburg charity. In Catherine II's reign the St. Petersburg house endured the formation period. Its blossoming is connected with finding in 1797 of independence and activity of the empress Maria Fiodorovna.

Literature

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2. In the same place. T. 759. Op. 10. 361. L. 12.
3. In the same place. 332. L. 36; The Meeting of institutions and instructions concerning education in Russia of both sexes noble and petty-bourgeois youth. T. 1. SPb., 1789. Page 452-453; A.P. Pyatkovsky. The beginning of educational houses in the Russia / Bulletin of Europe. 1874. T. 6. Page 291, 304.
4. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 5. 347. L. 1-2; 875. L. III about. A.P.S. Pyatkovsky - the St. Petersburg educational house under control of I.I. Betsky//the Russian old times. 1875. T. 13. Page 196-197.
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8. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 7. 16. L. 4.
9. PSZ. T. 18. No. 12957.
10. Materials for history... Moscow educational house. M, 1863. Issue 1. Page. 3. Page 55; RGIA. T. 758. Op. 26. 370. L. 1-4.
11. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 20. 124. L. 1-8; 57. L. 3-22; 134. L. 1-4 about.; 126. L. 1-1 about.; 45. L. 1-2; 7. L. 1-2; 110. L. 6-44 about.; op. 5. 681. L. 1-100 about.; 875. L. GKH-GKH about.; T.G. Frumenkova. From the history of private charity in Russia in the second half of the 18th century / the Second Petrovsky readings: Sb. N tr. SPb., 2001. Page 26-30; Russian old times. 1875. T. 12. Page 152-159; t. 14. Page 437-442, 619-623.
12. Meeting of different news of the Imperial educational house. T. 2. SPb., 1791. Page 264.
13. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 19. 30; 35; 40; 45; 49; 59; 76; 84.
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15. In the same place. 130. L. 2-2 about., 13 about.; 133. L. 1-3; op. 7. 21. L. 5.
Marie Oliver
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