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Influence of the Kaitag utsmiystvo on formation of the geopolitical idea in the southern and east directions of the Russian foreign policy in the first half of the 18th century

a. E. Suleymankadiyeva


HALF of the 18th CENTURY

Work is presented by department of history of Russia and foreign countries of Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor B.A. Starkov

In article the role and influence of the Kaitag utsmiystvo on formation of the southern and east directions of the Russian foreign policy in the first half of the 18th century are studied

The article deals with the role and influence of the Kaitag Usmeistvo on forming of the South and East directions of the Russian external policy in the first half of the 18th century.

Transformation of Russia into the great power, declaration as its empire in the first half of the 18th century caused a number of new foreign policy steps. The attempt to be approved on the southwest direction, on approaches to the Baltic peninsula, was crossed in 1711 by Turkey. But at Russia interest in the southeast direction, in the Caspian Sea Coast, in mastering ways to rich east countries - India, China, to an important key on these ways - Caucasian peresheyku1 inflames more and more. This area attracted not only Dews -

this, but also Persia, Turkey and its vassal Crimean khanate.

Since the beginning of the 18th century when fight for mastering the Caucasus was resumed with a new force, the positions of the competing powers looked as follows: Dagestan, Azerbaijan, East Georgia and East Armenia were under the power of Iran; The Western Georgia, Abkhazia, the Western Armenia and Adyghe living in Black Sea Coast and near the Kuban basin appeared under the power of Turkey. In Priazovye and Prikubanye Nogais subject to the Crimea or the Kuban Horde wandered, it is active

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participating in expansionist plans of Turkey and the Crimea.

Positions of Russia in the Caucasus were weaker, closing the small Caspian area with the strengthened city of the Grater and several villages of grebensky Cossacks on the left coast of Terek. Though capture of Azov in 1696 and receiving an exit to the Sea of Azov was promised to Russia by great potential opportunities, but they could not play a role for strengthening of its influence in the North Caucasus yet.

Under the Constantinople contract of 1700. The Kuban side was recognized as the territory with primary is right - mi the Ottoman Empire. But any of interested parties was not satisfied reached to results. Each of them continued to bear the far-reaching purposes: Iran sought to keep the influence in the Caucasus, especially in the basin of the Caspian Sea, to prolong northern borders of the possession up to Terek; Turkey - to broaden spheres of the domination in Transcaucasia and Prikubanye, to extend by means of the Crimean khans and Nogai murz the influence on the steppe people living between Kuban and Volga; Russia - to become stronger on the coast of the Black and Caspian seas, to secure the southern borders against the osmano-Crimean invasions, to satisfy requirements own economic and political razvitiya2.

The policy of the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean khanate seeking to take a revenge for military defeats in Europe at the end of the 17th century and loss of Azov in 1700 differed in special activity. The threat from Turkey and the Crimea accrued, in process of expansion of the southern borders Russia more and more actively interposed in the Caucasian matter.

Activization of the Russian foreign policy in the South and the East at the beginning of the 18th century which was defined as "east" foreign policy of Russia subsequently, was gradually divided into a number of the directions. At the heart of the first state

foreign policy concepts of Russia the phenomenon lies: connection of political and geographical knowledge within military strategy, emergence of a new scientific idea - geopolitics.

There are several approaches to definition of the concept "geopolitics". According to authors, geopolitics is understood as the field of knowledge or the concept using territorial and spatial (geographical) approach to the analysis political processov3. According to R.M. Serde-rov, "reo" in the concept "geopolitics" means not just geographical or spatial and territorial aspect in the policy of any given state or group of the states, but also scales, parameters and measurements, rules and standards of behavior both the international community in general, and the separate state unions, blocks in universal kontekste4.

Process of formation of the first geopolitical ideas within the state and political direction at the beginning of the 18th century happened in the context of the concept which had absolutely certain orientation - southeast. This period is in the history characterized as favorable for geostrategic development of Russia. Nevertheless it should be noted that "geopolitics" as the political concept using geographical data was approved in science much later, at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. This term was introduced for scientific use by the Swedish political scientist, gosudarstvovedy and the political figure Rudolph of Chelle-nom5. According to R. Chellen, geopolitics represents one of elements of "the state force" along with ecopolicy (the policy of the state in the sphere of economy), demopolitiky (activity of the state in the sphere relating to the population), sotsiopolitiky (actually public administration). Thus, geopolitics as science and sphere of activity represents management skill the state which

Influence of the Kaitag utsmiystvo on formation of the geopolitical idea in southern and east.,

includes geography, policy, economy, sociology, demography and other aspects and fields of activity at the macrolevel.

The problem of formation of the geopolitical ideas in the southern and east directions of foreign policy of Russia became current for the following reasons:

1) policy of territorial expansion and need of defense of borders of Russia in the southeast which became especially vulnerable by the beginning of the 20th of the 18th century as there was a real threat of transition of regions of the western Prikaspiya from hands of the weakened Persia in hands of Turkey strong at that time;
2) need of safety of a trade and economic way in At - the Caspian Sea which was broken by the Dagestan feudal lords Surkhay-hanom and Daud-bek who rose against the power of Persia with assistance of Turkey;
3) The Persian state which is motley conglomerate of various tribes and the people which are at the different levels of social and economic development at the beginning of the 18th century endured deep economic and political crises;
4) the pro-Russian political orientation of most of the Dagestan possessors, including the Kaitag utsmiystvo, by the beginning of the 18th century. All these prerequisites dictated need and created favorable conditions for formation and development of the Russian foreign policy in the southern and east directions.

The Kaitag utsmiystvo in the first half of the 18th century represented the territory which is between such feudal possession of Dagestan as the Derbent khanate and the Tarkovsky shamkhalstvo through which lay the overland route "Astrakhan — Graters — Tarki — of Kaytag — Derbent" and reco-sea "the Volga Caspian Sea - skiya" trade put6. The Kaitag utsmiystvo was the link holding important strategic position in the system of communications connecting Russia and the East. Through the Kaitag utsmiystvo there passed the trade way along the coast of the Caspian Sea.

All trade caravans, travelers, embassies, moving the East and back, had to pass through the territory of the Kaitag utsmiystvo. According to D.I. Tikhonov (1796) a customs damga (the collecting raised from the goods taken through possession) which was paid by foreign merchants, made 1000 rub silver in god7. This system of communication communications was the bearing framework of geostrategic development of Russia in the southern and east directions of its foreign policy.

On the one hand, the advantageous geopolitical position of the Kaitag utsmiystvo had the major impact on "historical destiny" of Russia, having expanded a sphere of influence and having strengthened its positions and boundaries in the Southeast. An exit of Russia to the Caspian Sea led to dominion over the shattered possession of the Caspian Caucasus over time, and then carried away the Russian State to the gold countries of the East. The pro-Russian orientation of the Kaitag utsmiystvo in the second quarter of the 18th century, during strengthening of collisions of aggressive interests of Iran and Turkey, for Russia had an important strategic importance in the economic and political relations as it promoted:

1) to strengthening of positions and borders of Russia on the southeast direction. Russia was strongly weakened by war with Turkey 1735-1738, and therefore could not interfere openly Nadir shah, but it indirectly promoted mountaineers. In these conditions the active participation of the Kaitag utsmiystvo in liberating fight against the Iranian conquerors had an important strategic importance for strengthening and ensuring integrity of the southern borders of Russia;
2) to mastering an exit to the Kaspisky sea which was one of elements of a transport and communication triangle "tremorye" - the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas.

This system multimodal to the commune - kation was a basis of geopolitical and geostrategic development of Russia as created prerequisites for strengthening

of a role of military and sea power of the Russian Empire on the international scene, first of all in the southern and east directions.

On the other hand, important geopolitical and geostrategic position of the Kaitag utsmiystvo promoted: a) to activization of a political role of Kaytaga both in inside Dagestan, and on the international scene on the southern and east directions; b) to development of trade, craft, agriculture that did an utsmiystvo by one of the influential and economically developed feudal possession of Dagestan and c) to enrichment

and to development of welfare relationship of the Kaitag utsmiystvo and Russia.

The analysis of the available data allows to draw a conclusion that it owing to developed in Dagestan in the first half of the 18th century of a geopolitical situation and in connection with fight against troops Nadir shah the Kaitag utsmiystvo, as well as Dagestan in general, becomes the passional subethnic group capable to influence the course of military-political events in Dagestan and in the Caucasus and also the active subject of the international political situation.

1 History of Russia: In 2 t. T. 1: Since the most ancient times until the end of the 18th century / Under the editorship of A.N. Sakharov. M, 2003. Page 620.
2 Sotavov N.-P. A. The North Caucasus in the Caucasian policy of Russia, Iran and Turkey in the I floor. 18th century Makhachkala, 1989. Page 45-46.
3 I.V. Alekseeva, E.I. Zelenev, V.I. Yakunin. Geopolitics in Russia. Between the East and the West (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century). SPb.: St.Petersburg State University publishing house, 2001. Page 83; Modern explanatory dictionary of foreign words. Modern vocabulary. Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2000. Page 88-89.
4 R. Serderov Lesser Caucasus at the turn of the century. The geopolitical review//Caucasus in geopolitics of great powers: Current problems of national general history: Kaf. sb. No. 1 DGU. east. Fak. kaf. stories and Europe and America. Makhachkala, 2002. Page 83-84.
5 I.V. Alekseeva, E.I. Zelenev, V.I. Yakunin. Decree. soch. Page 83; Modern explanatory dictionary of foreign words. Modern vocabulary. Page 88-89; R.M. Serderov. Decree. soch. Page 83-84.
6 The Kaitag utsmiystvo bordered on such feudal possession of Dagestan, as on Tarkovsky a shamkhalstvo (to the North), the Caspian Sea (to the East) both the Derbent khanate and the Tabasaran maysumstvo (to the South).
7 D.I. Tikhonov. Description of Northern Dagestan 1796//IGED. M, 1958. Page 135.
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