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City-forming mission of the university



 © 2007 A.I. Konkin

CITY-FORMING MISSION of the UNIVERSITY

The city, on successful expression of L. Mumford, is "a symbol of opportunities". Really large city is not only knot of various problems and contradictions, but also the place in which higher quality of life (here as show various researches, above, than in the small and medium cities, life expectancy is reached and the child mortality, more qualified medical care is lower, ample opportunities to get an education and to find a job, big earnings, comfort, etc.). This circumstance is a perennial spring of an attraction to the city all of new flows of people. It not only forms a special, city way of life, but builds the new system of values, promoting destruction of traditional ways. Saturation and variety of life, appeal of the prospects opening before the person in the city are accompanied by so various temptations and dangers extending not only on the certain individual, but also on society in general. So, decrease in birth rate which is fixed first of all in the cities is dangerous to the Russian society. However rapid growth of urban population acts as the leading trend of modern world development. At the beginning of the 19th century in the world one billion people also lived in the cities - 9% of the population. The optimum world urbanizirovannost did not differ markedly from regional: in the cities of the most developed countries 10.8% and developing - 8% of the population sososredotochivatsya on average [1]. These calculations of P. Berok are the highest, at other researchers they are slightly lower. So, according to the Center of demography and ecology of the person of Institute of economic forecasting of RAS, in 1800 only 2% of world's population lived in city settlements, in 1950 - 30%, in 2000 - 47, by 2008 it is expected 50, and by 2030 - 60% [2].

It should be noted that the already fact of growth of urban population obliges to stare more at its qualitative structure not only from demographic, economic, sociological positions, but also in terms of cultural science which assumes identification of systems of the values and values acting as the motive motives inducing people to work in a certain way. From this point of view it is interesting to consider not only already existing possibilities which the city has

for full self-realization of people, but also process and result of creation of the major elements of culture to which number, undoubtedly, the university as a phenomenon of city life belongs.

Opportunities which are given by the city consist not just of the arithmetic sum of cumulative efforts of citizens, and are result of effective implementation of various city-forming and gradoobsluzhivayu-shchy functions. Administrative and political and military activity, the industry, science, education, trade, transport, rest belong to number of the major city-forming functions (i.e. such types of activity which are directed to performance of problems of the city on the scale of the region or the country). In the course of historical development in process of concentration in the cities of certain types of activity the city-forming functions of the city become complicated and concretized. The large city combines several functions, i.e. is multifunctional; small, as a rule, monofunktsionalen. And an image of the city which develops at its inhabitants guests, contemporaries and descendants, and architectural and planning structure were always caused by its functions. From all city-forming functions we will pay attention to implementation of educational. Historically the city became the center of production, accumulation and broadcast of knowledge not only in this area, but also beyond its limits. In the city the training and research centers corresponding to its economic, political, cultural importance in regional or international scales concentrate. In modern conditions this function of production and broadcast of knowledge received one more contents as knowledge is transformed to new technologies, promoting structural shifts in city economy and turning it thereby into the exporter not only material products, but also the new ideas and technologies.

As we see, function of the city as education center is various according to the contents. Us in this case is interested it realization in the form of creation of the universities. The relevance of such statement of question is connected with the fact that the university is the center of reproduction of intellectual potential of the country. Of course, the university is not the only organization for production and raspro-

to a straneniye of knowledge: there are educational institutions of other levels and also the research institutes and the organizations of culture which are also generating new knowledge in the respective areas. However the university is in the center of this process, creating intellectual elite, forming the power of intellectuals and influencing thereby a cultural situation in general. At the same time, as we know, both the power, and wealth, and knowledge in one society are not distributed evenly. Therefore it is important to track "a close distance", i.e. direct influence of the university, the fact of its stay in a certain place on the city where it exists. Concrete configurations of the city having the university distinguish it from the city which does not have the university. Moreover, such universities as Cambridge and Oxford, defined the fate of the cities. For example, now in the Cambridge university there is 31 college, library, publishing house, a botanical garden, 8 museums, churches, the main hospital in the city. Therefore it is possible to tell that not the university is in the city, and the city is addition to the university; 15 thousand students of the Cambridge university make the fifth part of the population of the city. In modern Salamanca during academic year of 180 thousand inhabitants nearly a third are made by students. The same part of the population is made by Gedelberg's students.

About emergence and the history of the universities, their charters, features of university education a lot of the most interesting books and articles are written. On this background the perspective of consideration offered by us, nevertheless, is not well mastered as influence of the university on quality of urban population, neither determination of culture of the city development of the universities, nor the dialectician of openness closeness of student's life in relation to life city did not become still a subject of systematic study.

First of all there is no unity of opinions on it, apparently, to well fixed fact as time of emergence of the first university. The most widespread is the list of the cities where the first universities were created: Bologna - in 1119, Ravenna - 1110-1130, Montpellier - 1137, Paris - 1200, Vicenza - 1203, Cambridge - 1209, Oxford - 1214, Arezzo-1215, Salamanca - 1218, Padua - 1222, Naples-1224, Siena - 1246, Rome - in papal curia-1244-1245, Pisa - 1346, Prague - 1348, Krakow-1364, Heidelberg - 1386, Vilnius - 1579. However some more educational institutions apply for superiority: for example, madrasah Karauin in Morocco (it is worth to remember that madrasah in

the Muslim world occupied the same niche, as the universities in the western society), based in 859 g; The Salerno university (as in the X century there was a Salerno medical school called by chroniclers "primordial" and "well-known" [3] here (from 14th century. The Salerno university tends to decline).

The universities begin to arise in the 12th century. They made the real revolution both in daily, and in spiritual life of Europeans. "University culture defined spiritual development of medieval society for some time, accumulating all its most characteristic achievements and developing them is farther. In XSh-XVI of centuries the universities turned into the intellectual centers of Western Europe. This position was perfectly realized by the contemporaries calling the University "by the guard христианства" "the river feeding мир"" [4].

The universities arose under the influence of needs of the growing medieval towns and the getting stronger states needing educated people: judges, officials, doctors, teachers. "France already in X11-X111 of centuries was covered with dense network of the cities - large, average and small... During this period they became significant economic and political force" [5, page 78]. It is natural that in Paris there is one of the first universities of Europe which date of the basis is considered 1200 - when the Parisian university by the diploma of the king Philip II Augustus was granted independence of temporal powers.

Quite well organized training centers - germs of the universities - existed in many cities, however emergence and development of the universities, these recognized centers of learning which had the special rights to appropriate academic degrees, these educational institutions where the mass of students will be flown down, irrespective of reputation of any given teacher will begin at the end of XII - the beginning of the 13th century. The role of the universities is especially significant as during that era of books there was a little; only at the university it was possible to study. In the XIV-XV centuries the Parisian university had considerable influence; the number of students reached sometimes 30 thousand people, in Bologna - 20 thousand students [6]. In Salamanca in 1566/67 academic year to a kolicha - the stvo of students reached 7,863 persons. For time when all population of Madrid made 11 thousand, and Paris 50 thousand - unprecedentedly high figures.

The medieval university (ishuyega1a8) grows on the basis of school at the beginning of the 13th century. But if as a sample for medieval schools antique analogs, then the university acted (as a corporate formation, free association ucheni-

k and mentors with their privileges installed by programs, diplomas, etc.) had no such prototype. Paris was model of the organization by which other universities to a greater or lesser extent were guided. The term "university" originally did not designate the center of training, and pointed to incorporated association of certain persons. In Paris prevailed "universitas magistrooum et skolarum", the joint corporation of masters and students. Special superiority in the 12th century noted the cathedral school Notre Dame which was collecting under the shade of students from every quarter of Europe and became soon an object of attention of the Roman curia. Their autonomy provided with dexterous maneuvers between the king and church became distinctive feature of the first universities.

Of course, the medieval universities differed from the universities of the subsequent historical periods, however of the university in general as cultural form up to the 20th century the autonomy, existence of the special rights not only was characteristic of members, but also their members of household, servants, of the employed people and also the high status of teachers: "Social status "схоласта" "коллеги" (the member of college), despite a number of the restrictions connected with its profession, it was perceived by contemporaries as the highest of the possible statuses for "superfluous людей" Europe (younger sons, illegitimate, etc.)" [7, page 440].

It should be noted such interesting detail of university life as the academic celibacy. M.K. Petrov notes: "Long time after reformation Oxford and Cambridge remained church institutes. They demanded from all the members of observance of the rules established by church and trained many of them for spiritual career... Celibacy, the vow of chastity imposed on members of college who till 19th century were obliged to submit to this vow until consisted in college was the evident and axiomatic testimony of this continuity of church function, of course. Generally speaking, the academic celibacy in many countries held on much more church. In England, for example, it was abolished only by the parliamentary act of 1854, but also after that long time were negative to the academic marriage. In the 20th of our century the master (head) of one of colleges of Oxford though he also could not forbid the colleague to marry, expressed discontent to those that he did not talk several years to him" [8].

The university as essentially new phenomenon of public and intellectual life of Western Europe arises in a direct connection with an urbanization, having significant effect on development of the cities. Influence of the university on the structure of urban population was shown from the very beginning of its emergence. So, in the Parisian university, students and teachers of all estates were flown down. University society in a certain measure ignored class distinctions, having formed university community - set of the heterogeneous social elements united in the union. The status of the student was defined not by class origin, and depended on the developed cultural baggage. During the subsequent eras the university finds aristocratic lines, but medieval initially was "national" in the sense that children of peasants and handicraftsmen could become students thanks to the system of privileges (to low prices for training and to the free accommodation). There was a new meaning of a concept of "nobility" and "education" in value of aristocratism of mind and behavior, a subtlety of spiritual life and refinement of taste. The Parisian university was made at that time by 7 thousand teachers and students and also book sellers, copyists of manuscripts, manufacturers of parchment, feathers, ink powder, druggists, etc. (i.e. nearly a half of the population of Paris of that time). The university possessed self-government: had elective heads and own court. It is interesting that in some cities not only students and teachers, but also all visitors were exposed to university court: "In 1158 Frederick I solemnly agreed to provide from now on to all, been to Bologna, the following privileges: 1. To travel freely around all countries under aegis of his authority, needlessly therefore to be exposed to the various troubles tested by foreigners. 2. To be subject in the city only to court of professors or the bishop" [8].

Thus, already at the end of XII or the beginning of the 13th century the university corporations using the European popularity in Paris and Bologna received a number of privileges. University of Bologna was the main center of studying the Roman right. It evolved from city secular school - well-known already since the end of the 11th century of school of "glossator" which leading representatives for the first time began to study the Roman right as a complete system and developed new methods of interpretation of precepts of law. The opinion of Bologna "glossator" had the conventional authority on all vessels where the Roman right was applied. The Bologna lawyers used special

protection from outside both the imperial, and papal power, the important privileges granting them a number and giving continued support and protection against oppressions from municipality. Besides, the university received financial support from means of church: to teachers benefices and income from church property were provided, to students - hostels. At the beginning of the 13th century about ten thousand listeners annually were going to Bologna from every quarter of Europe. They the first created student's confederations and brotherhoods for protection of the interests. They even managed to achieve for a while decisive influence and to subordinate to the power of the electee from the environment the rector of all teachers. At the end of the 14th century the university corporation began to unite both teachers, and students.

By the end of the 15th century in France there were 15 universities. They played a huge role in development of philosophy and science in France. "Works of university professors of mathematics, astronomy, physics, medicine served raising of a rationalistic thought. Growth of schools, universities, huge number of the hand-written books of the 15th century which reached us, and after 1470 - and printing, demonstrate both expansion of a group of educated people, and considerable distribution of literacy, first of all among urban population. But schools were as well in villages. they gave to a part of the peasantry diploma rudiments... In France at the end of the 18th century, on the eve of 1789, there were more than 47% of competent men and about 27% of competent women that led to very developed publishing. And if the government fought against a courageous thought, sending writers to the Bastille and burning their books on fires, then it caused only blossoming of trade in the undercover book printed in printing houses of Holland, Geneva or Avignon and the smuggling getting into France. Therefore, according to contemporaries, all had books by educators on hands" [5, page 114, 149, 311].

The universities had to assert the corporate rights in long-term fight against the local city authorities, against the royalty, with kapituly cathedral, relying at the same time on the help of fathers. Everyday life gave rise to a set of reasons for the collisions which were quite often coming to an end for students very regrettably. N. Speransky provides the description of one of such cases: "The powerful abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés had eternal altercations with the university because of the ground of Pre-au-Claire adjoining to the monastery where students spent all the free time. In 1278 tension of these two corporations was so fueled that business reached a bloody stolkno-

veniye. Angered by the complaint in court which was filed about them by the university for construction of new constructions by them, monks decided to teach a good lesson the importunate neighbors thoroughly. On May 13 students were given "recreation", and they, anything is suspected, on custom went to walk a circle of monastic walls. Suddenly in the monastery hammered into an alarm, played collecting and the armed vassals of abbey who ran together on this appeal with naked swords rushed to students, shouting: "Death, death to clergymen!" Students were let to run back to Paris, but provident monks occupied all three next city gate and intercepted fugitives there. Students were caught, beaten also sekl half to death, and then thrown in monastic prison. The great number of students sustained at the same time heavy injuries, and two of them in several days died from the got wounds... Philip III took resolutely the part of students, and the authorities of abbey had to pay for the arbitrariness" [9].

In Russia the first university (Academic) appears in St.-Petersburg in 1735 and in 1755 N.I. Kostomarov wrote in Moscow: "The highest educational institution was the Academy of Sciences at which since 1735 it was got seminaries for thirty five young men of a shlyakhetsky rank, and, besides, it was told to send from the Moscow uchilishchny monastery young people for training in sciences there" [10]. For the South of Russia the opening of the university evacuated from Warsaw in 1915 was a big event. In Rostov-on-Don there arrived all professorate, 724 students and also students of the High female courses and Women's medical institute. In several months joined the list of students 1245 Rostovtsev [11]. Emergence in Rostov-on-Don of the university had huge value for development of the city. A bigger value has the Southern Federal University created in 2006 which is urged to coordinate together the interests of the personality on obtaining the modern knowledge and the interests of society on training of specialists capable to work effectively in the priority directions of science and technology.

Emergence of the universities in the 12th century and their development in Europe can be considered as the act limited to a certain chronological period (some of the opened universities lost the value under the influence of various circumstances). But it is possible to consider the birth of the university and as the beginning of a stream of the successive changes which affected not only on an education system and the European culture in general, but also on development of the cities. For any historical period of development of its university

existence meant for the city increase in number of educated people, inflow of consumers of gradoobsluzhivayushchy functions, prospect for emergence of scientific institutions and new enterprises. At last, the university is one of institutes to which the trust of the population against the background of a general crisis of trust to many social institutes of modern society remains.

Literature

1. See: Bairoch P. Cities and Economic Development. From Dawn of History to the Present. Chicago, 1988. P. 495.
2. See: Demoscope of Weekly. 2001. No. 33-34. On Sep. 10-23//http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/033/tema07.php

Southern Federal University

3. E.V. Tarle. The history of Italy in the Middle Ages. SPb., 1901. Page 189.
4. Culture and art of the Western European Middle Ages. M, 1981. Page 55.
5. History of France: In 3 t. T. 1. M, 1972.
6. T.N. Granovsky. Lectures on Middle Ages history. M, 1987. Page 16, 270-271.
7. M.K. Petrov. History of the European cultural tradition and its problem. M, 2004.
8. Documents on the history of universities XII-XV of Europe centuries Voronezh, 1973. Page 56.
9. N. Speransky. Essays on the history of national school in Western Europe. M, 1896. Page 142-143.
10. N.I. Kostomarov. The Russian history in biographies of her chief figures. M, 2006. Page 911.
11. See: V.I. Rostov's varenik and rostovets. Rostov N / D, 2005.

On March 14, 2007

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