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About resettlement of the people of the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe in Budzhak at the XVIII beginning of the 19th Century.



olga of RADOVA (KARANASTAS), Sergey KAPUSTIN

About RESETTLEMENT of the PEOPLE of the BALKAN PENINSULA AND CENTRAL EUROPE In HUS BUDZhAK V - the 19th V.'s BEGINNING

The victory of the Russian army in war of 1806-1812 over the Ottoman Empire provided accession of Bessarabia to Russia. Military operations and also eviction of Nogais from Budzhak in 1807 1 turned the South of Bessarabia into the poorly populated region. However at eviction nogaytsev2 the administration of the Russian Empire did not touch the Turkic-speaking, but orthodox Gagauz population. A task of this article is disclosure of some aspects of the resettlement policy pursued by the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 19th century in Bessarabia (on the example of Bulgarians, Gagauz and Germans), the reasons promoting resettlement in Budzhaka of Germans and Bulgarians in the first half of the 19th century

Gagauz - the orthodox Turkic-speaking people which are compactly living in Budzhake3. Early ethnic history of Gagauz and their resettlement in Budzhaka are connected with the migration processes proceeding during this period time when their ancestors moved from Central Asia to Southeast Europe through steppes of Northern Black Sea Coast, and in XVSh of century and even earlier Gagauz moved from the Balkans back in Southern Bessarabiyu4& From the Balkan Peninsula the Gagauz moved in Budzhak step by step. Their first large resettlement happened during the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791, the second - during the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 5 Resettlements of 1806-1812 were mainly not Bulgarian, but Gagauz as the number of the Bulgarians who arrived at that time was small. The historian I.I. Meshcheryuk researching questions of resettlement of Bulgarians and Gagauz in Bessarabiyu6 wrote that "the analysis of surnames of the submitted "Personalized list of immigrants with right on the left side of Danube since 1809 and living in Moldova and Bessarabia" confirms resolute prevalence of Gagauz, components about two thirds which moved" 7.

It should be noted that ethnic Bulgarians moved to Bessarabia and in the 18th century, but they lodged not in Budzhaka, occupied by Nogais, and among Moldavians - in the Chisinau, Orgeevsky, Izmail Counties and in the town Teleneshty8. Bulgarians also lodged in Novorossii9. Only final eviction of Nogais from Budzhak created conditions for mass resettlement of Bulgarians in the south of Bessarabia. Being a supporter of the theory of the Bulgarian origin of Gagauz, I.I. Meshcheryuk considered Bulgarians and Gagauz as one narod10. Its wrong positions in issues of ethnogenesis of Gagauz were reflected further also in the researches connected with resettlement of Bulgarians and gagauzov11. However I.I. Meshcheryuk could not ignore ethnocultural specifics of Gagauz therefore he one of the works called "The first mass resettlement of Bulgarians and Gagauz to Bessarabia at the beginning of the 19th century" 12. Mixture of Gagauz with Bulgarians and lack of the accurate point of view about their ethnic identity in many cases was connected with wrong interpretation of origin Gagauz naroda13.

In the Middle Ages the ancestors of Gagauz (later and Gagauz) could move freely across all Southeast Europe as these territories at the time of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires were not divided state granitsami14. The orthodox religion of Gagauz attracted the Russian administration, but their Turkic language and eternal disputes on their origin guarded it. Besides, at the time of the Byzantine empire (in the 12th century) when the Bulgarian church tried to separate from grecheskoy15, most of Gagauz kept commitment to canons of the Greek church. In the middle of the 18th century the Gagauz moved in Budzhak together with the Greek clergy. Promoted it and left in 1751. The decree of the empress Elizabeth on resettlement to Russia of the Balkan people of "the Greek religion" 16. Conflicts between followers of the Greek and Bulgarian churches which took place in the Balkans complicated the relations between Gagauz and Bulgarians and after their resettlement to Bessarabia.

A striking example to that is the village of Kirsovo (Bashkyuyu was called earlier) Bender tsinuta17. The word "Bashkyuyu" in translation from Gagauz means "initial", "head" or "main". Kirsovo's inhabitants still remember that the only church in the village was partitioned and the service was conducted at the same time by priests of both the Greek, and Bulgarian churches. About it at the beginning of the 20th century

V.A. Moshkov noted that "Gagauz of the village Bashkyuyu of the Comrat volost half inhabited by Bulgarians demarcated the only rural church on two half and bury the relatives separately from Bulgarians" 18. "Reasonable of Greeks, - claimed still in

1874 the anonymous author of a note "To a question of the Greek-Bulgarian church conflict", - long ago condemn split in orthodox church, and some of their press organs demand the termination of a conflict long ago especially as hatred between the Bulgarian and Greek population every day more and more grows in the mixed dioceses of Macedonia and Thrace" 19.

Formation of the Bulgarian state tore off communications between churches of Greece and Bulgaria. It promoted reorientation of some Gagauz priests of Bolgarii20 to canons of "the Bulgarian church". But Gagauz of Bessarabia still adhered to canons of the Greek church. The culture of the Gagauz people developed under the influence of Orthodoxy which promoted formation at them special mentality and samosoznaniya21. Ethnocultural differences collected. Subsequently for the name of the Gagauz who are under the influence of the Bulgarian church in literature the scientific term "Bulgarian Gagauz" was accepted, and began to apply the name "Greek Gagauz" to the Gagauz submitting to canons of the Greek church (the "Greek Gagauz" called themselves "hasyl the Gagauz" - "the true Gagauz"). As a result of it Gagauz in Northeast Bulgaria, according to the religious orientation, were divided into "Bulgarian" and "Greek" (or "seaside", "real") 22.

At the end of the 18th century on the Balkan Peninsula interreligious conflicts between Christians and Muslims and also in the orthodox people (between believers - adherents to canons of the "Bulgarian" and "Greek" churches) and also wars and economic ruin compelled a part of Gagauz to resettlement from the Balkan Peninsula to the Southern Bessarabia. In Budzhaka as it is noted, their tribespeople already lived. There was a consolidation Gagauz etnosa23. Thus, Gagauz lived in Budzhaka even before accession of Bessarabia to the Russian Empire. During the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 and after eviction of Nogais Budzhak's population decreased, many villages remained empty, but deserted this territory never was.

After the end of the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 in Bessarabia it was necessary to lift agriculture. In this regard the Russian administration encourages resettlement to Bessarabia of the people of the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe. This time the Russian Empire provided to immigrants lgoty24, and together with Gagauz in Budzhak also Bulgarians began to move. Large resettlement of Bulgarians to Bessarabia took place in 1828-1830, the majority of the Bulgarian villages of Budzhaka was generally formed at this time.

In the first quarter of the 19th century in the neighbourhood with "zadunaysky immigrants" - Bulgarians and Gagauz and also local naseleniyem25 ethnic Germans began to lodge, subsequently they in official documents received the status "the German colonists". The first "the German colonists", P.N. noted Batyushkov26, moved in Budzhak from the duchy Warsaw in 1813-1815, them then arrived 1443 semyi27. Later, since 1818, in Bessarabia there arrived natives of Vir-tembergsky and Bavarian korolevstva28.

The first German colony of Tarutino was formed in Bessarabia in 1814, and in 1815 there were three new "colonies" - Red, Maloyaroslavets - the 1st and Kulm; in 1816 - Old Artsiz, Borodino, Berezino, Klyastits, Leipzig, Briyenn, Katsbakh; in 1822 - Sarata; in 1823 - Maloyaroslavets - the 2nd and Fershampenuaz - the 2nd; in 1825 - New Artsiz29. Further - the settlement of Gnadental - in 1830, Fridental - in 1833, Dennevits - in 1834, Likhtenshtal - in 1835, Plock - 1839, Gough-nungstal - in 1842 30 by data of I.F. Lagorio, in 1816 also villages Briyen, Fershampenuaz the 1st, Parizh31 were founded. Between P.N. Batyushkov and I.F. Lagorio's data, there are divergences on time of foundation of the village of Katsbakh (Kotsbakh): according to P.N. Batyushkov it is founded in 1816, and by data by I.F. Lagorio - in 1821 32

By 1842 the German immigrants in the Southern Bessarabia founded already 24 villages ("the German colonies"). Total population fluctuated from 25646 to 28812 people of 33 V the lists of the inhabited places of the Russian Empire made and published by the Central statistical committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the Bessarabia region, in 1861 there were already 24 German colonies, 25427 people in total population, including 12973 men and 12484 women. In total in the German colonies there were 2728 "yards". More than 9 people lived in each yard (on average). Probably, in one "yard" lived more than one family.

From 1814-1815, the Moldavian ethnographer V.S. Zelenchuk noted, in Bessarabia 17 German colonies where there were 1615 families, or 7621 people were founded, and from 1816 to 1839 it is created 19 more German poseleniy34. If to adhere to V.S. Zelenchuk's data, then by 1861 in Bessarabia there had to be not less than 36 German settlements, however, as showed data of the Central statistical committee, in 1861 in Bessarabia there were only 24 German villages. Besides, data of statistical committee will be agreed also with the materials given in P.N. Batyushkov's work and in I.F. data of Lagorio35.

As it is noted, the prime cause of resettlement of the Balkan people to the Southern Russia and to Bessarabia were, first of all, religious pre-

followings. Originally resettlement of Gagauz in Budzhak was spontaneous. As for resettlement of Bulgarians, Germans and other people, they have organized character. Their resettlement to the Southern Bessarabia were it is encouraged with the privileges promised them in 1811 by the commander-in-chief of the Moldavian army of M.I. Kutuzovym36. Besides, in Bessarabia there was no serfdom that contributed to the development of the capitalist relations.

The main goal of resettlement policy of the Russian Empire was achieved, the poorly populated border territory was inhabited friendly by it the people which managed to carry out quickly agricultural development of Bessarabia.

1. Skalkovsky A.A. Chronological review of history of the Novorossiysk region. 1730-1823, Ch. ІІ. Odessa, 1838. Page 126.
2. Nogais are Muslims. They were involved in attacks on the Moldavian principality. Their first eviction from Budzhak took place in 1768-
1774
3. Budzhak was called the southern part of Bessarabia from the North limited to the Top Trayanovy shaft and including Akkermansky and the most part Bender counties. The name of the region - Budzhak - Turkic origin and in translation means "corner".
4. Radova O.K. (Karanastas). Budzhak's Gagauz. Ethnic history and formation of ethnic group//Year-book of Institute of interethnic researches of Academy of Sciences. T. I. Chisinau, 2000. Page 90.
5. Radova O.K. (Karanastas). Ethnodemographic development of Gagauz of Bessarabia at the end of HUS - 19th century. The abstract of the thesis for a degree of the candidate of historical sciences. Moscow, 2002. Page 10.
6. According to I.I. Meshcheryuk, the first large resettlements of Gagauz happened in Budzhak at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, he did not disclose the valid prescription of appearance of the Gagauz population and their ancestors in Budzhaka.
7. I.I. Meshcheryuk. The first mass resettlement of Bulgarians and Gagauz to Bessarabia at the beginning of the 19th age//News of the Moldavian branch Academy of Sciences of the USSR No. 3-4 (11-12), Chisinau. 1953. Page 65-95; see also: O.K. Karanastas-Radova. Gagauz as a part of zadunaysky immigrants and their settlement in Budzhaka (the end of XVSh - the first quarter of the 19th centuries). Chisinau-Comrat, 2001. Page 27.
8. National Archive of the Republic of Moldova (further NARM). T. 5. Op. 2. 442, 439.
9. The structure of Russia consistently included "an earth corner" between the Southern Bug and Dnieper and also the districts of Kerch and Enikale (in
1775 ), the Crimean khanate (in 1783) and area between the Southern Bug and Dniester (in 1791). In 1796 these regions together with lands of former Zaporizhia Sechi and other areas made the Novorossiysk province (see card No. 1). In 1802 this province was divided into three provinces - Ekaterinoslavsky, Kherson and Taurian. Nevertheless, the uniting term "Novorossiya" was applied before revolution of 1917. Then it was replaced with the name "Southern Ukraine". Budzhak's part was included in structure of the Ukrainian SSR in 1940 (See: E.I. Druzhinina. Southern Ukraine. 1800-1825, M., 1970. Page 3-4).
10. Meshcheryuka.I. Decree. soch. Page 74-75;
11. O.K. Karanastas-Radova. Gagauz as a part of zadunaysky immigrants... With. 27.
12. I.I. Meshcheryuk. Decree. soch. Page 65-95.
13. O.K. Karanastas-Radova. Gagauz as a part of zadunaysky immigrants. Page 18, 21-30.
14. O.K. Radova (Karanastas). Ethnodemographic development of Gagauz of Moldova and Ukraine (historical and modern processes)//the Report at a final year conference of Institute of interethnic researches AN RM, on November 6-7, 2003 (. Chisinau); see also: O.K. Radova (Karanastas). Historical and demographic development of Gagauz of Moldova and Ukraine in the 18-20th centuries//the Report at the International scientific conference "Conferinta §tiintifica internationala "Valorificarea petrimoniului natural §i cultural. Realizari, probleme, perspective"" on October 22-23, 2004 (Chisinau).
15. At the time of the Byzantine empire and the Bulgarian church submitted to the Constantinople patriarchy.
16. Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. T. XIII, No. 9919. 1751. Page 552-558.
17. Nowadays Comrat district of ATO Gagauzia (Gagauz Erie).
18. V.A. Moshkov. The Turkish tribes on the Balkan Peninsula. Report on a trip to the Balkan Peninsula in the summer of 1903//News of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. T. 40. Issue 3. SPb., 1904. Page 400-436; see also: O.K. Karanastas-Radova. Gagauz as a part of zadunaysky immigrants. Page 28.
19. Chisinau Diocesan sheets. 1874. No. 20. Page 275; see also: O.K. Karanastas-Radova. Gagauz as a part of zadunaysky immigrants. Page 28.
20. In churches which remained in the territory of Bulgaria.
21. Radova (Karanastas) O. Gagauzlaren dini, kulturase hem mentaliteto ("Religion, kultyura and mentality of Gagauz"). April, 2001, a presentation at the conference in the Comrat State University, the devoted G.A. Gaydarzhi's memory.
22. O.K. Radova (Karanastas). Gagauz of Bessarabia. Resettlement and number in the 19th century//the Ethnographic review. 1997. No. 1. January-February. Page 121-128; it. Gagauz as a part of zadunaysky immigrants. Page 21-22.
23. O.K. Radova (Karanastas). Ethnodemographic data on the current state of the cities and villages of Gagauzia (Gagauz Erie)//Pedagogical magazine No. 1-2, 1999, S. 85; see also: Radova O.K. (Karanastas). Budzhak's Gagauz. Ethnic history and formation of ethnic group//Year-book of Institute of interethnic researches of Academy of Sciences. T. I. Chisinau, 2000. Page 90-93.
24. In the 18th century the privileges were not provided to Gagauz at resettlement from the Balkan Peninsula in Budzhak.
25. Also the Gagauz population which settled here in the 16-18th centuries See in more detail was among local community: O.K. Radova (Karanastas). Ethnodemographic data on the current state of the cities and villages of Gagauzia (Gagauz Erie)//Pedagogical magazine. 1999. No. 1-2. Page 85; see also: Radova O.K. (Karanastas). Budzhak's Gagauz. Ethnic history and formation of ethnic group//Year-book of Institute of interethnic researches of Academy of Sciences. T. I. Chisinau. 2000. Page 90-93.
26. In this case the term "German colonists" is meant as the residents of villages occupied by Germans. In the 19th century "colony" the Russian administration meant "village" by the term.
27. P.N. Batyushkov Bessarabia. Historical description. SPb., 1892, Page 144.
28. The lists of the inhabited places of the Russian Empire made and published by the Central statistical committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. III. Bessarabia area. SPb., 1861. Page XXIV.
29. Names of villages are given according to primary sources.
30. P.N. Batyushkov. Decree. soch. Page 144.
31. I.F. Lagorio. Statistical data on the Bessarabia German colonies in 1861-1862//Notes of the Bessarabia regional statistical committee. XI. Prod. under the editorship of A.N. Egunov. Chisinau, 1864. Page 78-80.
32. P.N. Batyushkov. Decree. soch. Page 144; I.F. Logario. Decree. soch. Page 78-80.
33. P.N. Batyushkov. Decree. soch. Page 144.
34. V.S. Zelenchuk. The population of Bessarabia and Podnestrovya in the 19th century (ethnic and social and demographic processes). Chisinau, 1979. Page 208.
35. NARM. T. 2. Op. 1. 9248. NN. 29-30; Lists of the inhabited places of the Russian Empire. Page XXIV; see also: P.N. Batyushkov. Decree. soch.

S. 144.; see also: V.S. Zelenchuk. Decree. soch. Page 208.

36. TsGVIA. T. VUA. 2876. NN. 304-305; Kutuzov in the Danube principalities (Sb. dock.). Chisinau, 1948. Page 21-22.

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