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Role of labor unions in the organization of social insurance of workers at the industrial enterprises of the Voronezh and Kursk provinces in days of the New Economic Policy



UDK 33 - 331.105.444

The ROLE of LABOR UNIONS IN the ORGANIZATION of SOCIAL INSURANCE of WORKERS AT the INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES of the VORONEZH AND KURSK PROVINCES in days of the New Economic Policy

The author of article on a significant amount of sources analyzes a role of labor unions in implementation of the program of social insurance at the industrial enterprises of the Central Black Earth in the 1920th years. The analysis of materials allows to draw a conclusion that the system of social insurance was a part of nation-wide policy on a raising of the standard of living of workers in difficult economic conditions during recovery of the national economy in the region.

Social insurance is understood as providing workers in old age and at disability directly from the government budget. Social security was carried out (in October, 1917 — November, 1918) mainly in the form of social insurance of workers in case of a disease, a mutilation, the death of the supporter and also unemployment. Insured and to members of their families it was at the expense of means of social insurance as well free medical care. With adoption in 1919 of the decree of SNK "About Change of Provision on Social Security of Workers" 1 social insurance was almost abolished and replaced with direct state providing. In 1921 the institute of social insurance was restored and up to 1937 was a primary form of social security.

According to the resolution of VTsIK on creation of the central and local commissions on the improvement of life of workers published in "News of VTsIK" No. 6 of March 22, 1921 2 the following tasks were assigned to labor unions: Provincial Council of labor unions (further - GSPS) and district trade-union bureaus in the commissions on improvement of life of workers dealt with issues of social insurance, improvement of living conditions, improvements of food supply, medical care, etc. 3 Care of labor unions of growth of material well-being were followed by improvement and development of a system of social insurance.

Due to the new economic realities of life the problem of social insurance was shown in a bit different direction, than it was in the period of policy of military communism. If earlier this function was performed by government, then now the situation changed. On November 15, 1922 the government adopted the law on carrying out social insurance in the state industry at the expense of the enterprises, in privately owned — for the account predprinimateley4. The decree of VTsIK and SNK of December 21, 1922 5 carried out transfer of social insurance from the National Commissariat of Social Security to the National Commissariat Truda by the USSR. The reasons of such transition as it is noted in Theses about with -

1 State archive of the Russian Federation (further GARF). T. 1251. Op. 1. 5. L. 3.
2 News of VTsIK. 1921. No. 6. March 22.
3 State archive of the Belgorod region (further GABO). F. R-711. Op. 1. 23. L. 185.
4 As the Soviet laws protect work and the rights of workers (Popular statement of laws on work of the USSR and practice of their application) / the Collection under the editorship of Ya.I. Gindin and E.N.M. Danilova, 1926. Page 197.
5 The current legislation about work. Issue 11. Sb. the decrees, resolutions and instructions on issues of hiring, labor protection, resolution of conflicts and social insurance published till June 1, 1923 by M., 1923. Page 208.

O.A. CHERNOVA

Belgorod

university

e-mail:

chernova @bsu. edu. ru

tsialny insurance, approved in September, 1922 6, transition of the state enterprises to cost accounting and existence of the private capital served.

In work of bodies of social insurance the active part was taken by labor unions. In this area the labor unions as representatives of interests of hired workers, performed a number of the significant functions issued and assigned to the unions in norms of the trade-union right. In particular as labor unions entered: a) formation of bodies of social insurance; b) monitoring and leadership in activity of insurance bodies; c) allocation of the representatives in insurance bodies; d) implementation of direct participation in business of social insurance.

The direct body which is carrying out functions on social insurance on places was — Provincial Management of Social insurance at Gubotdelakh Truda and city, district and city and regional insurance cash desks. The Kursk and Voronezh Management of Social insurance worked under the direct management of the supreme provincial professional bodies — Lips professional councils. Means of insurance cash desks (for carrying out social insurance) were formed mainly from insurance premiums which were established as a percentage of the paid salary of workers and employees of the enterprise. The contributions to social insurance raised by insurance cash desks were divided into the All-Russian spare social insurance fund and the current operational social insurance funds. Operational funds, depending on the appointments, were divided into four types of funds: insurance on temporary disability and by additional types of providing ("And"), insurance on disability ("B"), insurance on unemployment ("In") and insurance on the medical help 7.

Contributions were established on each type of insurance separately, and their sizes were defined from degree of danger and unhealthy work conditions. For development of a system of insurance, bodies of social insurance together with bodies of labor protection were granted the right, depending on sanitary and hygienic conditions at the enterprise, to lower or increase the amount of insurance premiums on all types of insurance to 25% due summy8. Resolution of VTsIK And SNK of March 1, 1923. "About a tariff of contributions to social insurance of persons, busy hired" the following tariff of contributions on social strakhovaniye9 was established by work.

Table 1

Tariff of insurance premiums as a percentage (%)

(all enterprises and institutions for degree of danger and harm were broken

on four categories)

Categories And B In

on temporary disability and on will add. types of providing and its about nd h and in N and about p on unemployment on the medical help Total: (%)

The I category on degree of danger and harm 6 3?/2 2 4?/2 16

II 6?/2 4 2 5 18

III 7 5 2 6 20

IV 8 5?/2 2 6?/2 22

6 A.Ya. Kiselyov. Position of workers / / Issues of insurance. 1922. No. 1. Page 6.
7 An overview of the activities of the Voronezh provincial department of work and provincial management of social insurance for 1923 Voronezh, 1924. Page 104.
8 In the same place. Page 199.
9 The current legislation about work. Issue 11. M, 1923. Page 209.

Collection of insurance premiums from institutions and the enterprises, both with state, and with private in the Belgorod County of the Kursk province began since March 5, 1922 10 V the report of the Belgorod district department of social security the numerical structure of registered enterprises and workers was brought, and also the sum of contributions and it was noted that was registered from January 1, 1922 to January 1, 1923 the state and private enterprises and institutions — 143 with number of the registered workers and serving 7,520 people (state 67 with number of workers and employees 5,212, private 76 with number of workers and the serving 2,380 people). By January 1, 1923 it was collected insurance premiums - 4,843,008 rub (in bank notes of 1922), from them are spent on delivery of grants to the unemployed - 352,125 rub and at temporary loss of disability — 1,349,565 rub 11 On the Voronezh province for December 1, 1922 of the sum of the collected strakhvznos are presented in the following vide12 (tab. 2).

Table 2

Data on the collected sums on social insurance on the Voronezh province in 1921/1922

Insurance cash desks The number zastrakho-bathrooms How many is collected contributions Listed from all insurance receipts in Vseross. zap. Fund

by the form "And" by the form "B" by the form "In" by the form ALL

Voronezh 325 134.551 139.709 49.991 99.895 424.146 42.844

in 22 counties 812 119.854 127.505 46.034 77.029 370.422 41.064

Total on 23 cash desks 1.137 254.405 267.214 96.025 176.924 794.568 83.908

To find out the sum of debt on all province, it is necessary to consider data of the cash desks on number insured and size of the average salary on the Voronezh province. The ratio of these two sizes concerning insurance premiums shows that the sums of the collected strakhvznos across Voronezh reached no more than 65%, in counties the insurance receipts did not exceed 40%.

Owners and responsible heads of the enterprises and also individuals using wage labor, for failure to pay over 3 months of the sums which are due from them for social insurance were subject to attraction to individual criminal responsibility according to Articles 90, 118 and 132 of the Criminal Code of RSFSR. So, in August

1922 the inspector of labor protection of the Stary Oskol County of the Kursk province surveyed 12 enterprises and on six of them violations in the form of evasion from payment of insurance premiums on social insurance of workers and sluzhashchikh13 were found.

In the Voronezh province by the end of 1923 14 insurance cash desks functioned. The number of the insured workers at the beginning of 1923 made 31,887 people, and in the end of the year — 35,308 people from among members of the labor unions occupied on hiring — 35,536 people 14 Thus, the number of GSPS insured in comparison with data are less,

10 Day of work. 1923. January 30.
11 GABO. F. R-379. Op. 1. 115. L. 2.
12 Year of work of the Voronezh Gubprofsovet (March, 1922 — March, 1923). Voronezh, 1923. Page 35.
13 Kursk truth. 1923. September 17.
14 An overview of the activities of the Voronezh provincial department of work and provincial management of social insurance for 1923 Voronezh, 1924. Page 140.

what says that insurance companies did not capture all busy on hiring yet. More difficult the situation consisted for the same period of time, in the Kursk province. By the end of 1922 of insurance cash desks it was organized — 15, all cash desks of district and city type. From 51,455 people who is subject to insurance only 14,549 people, i.e. only one fourth chast15 were insured.

Passing to separate parts of development of social insurance, it is necessary to stop, first of all, on a circle of insured. According to Article 175 the Labour Code social insurance extended to all persons hired truda16 the enterprises, managements and economic organizations of all types of property. Article 176 the Labour Code established the following types social strakhovaniya17: delivery of grants at temporary disability, rendering the medical help, issue of pensions at disability, issue of pensions to members of families of the worker on hiring, issue of pensions in case of death, delivery of grants at unemployment.

To treat the first type of social insurance - delivery of grants at temporary disability (disease, a mutilation, a quarantine, pregnancy, childbirth, care for the sick family member) and delivery of additional grants (on feeding of the child, objects of care for the newborn, on burial). The persons which temporarily lost working capacity are meant as the workers temporarily incapable to perform work on the main occupation, such worker had entitlement to benefit on temporary disability. The worker loses working capacity at pregnancy and childbirth. A grant on the occasion of temporary disability were given at a rate of the tariff rate of the corresponding category in this enterprise by the time of payment posobiya18. On childbirth and feeding of the child of the woman were provided with a grant at a rate of 1/4 from earnings within 9 months, at the expense of social insurance funds, for babies dairy kitchens were organized.

These tab. 3 give ideas of growth of the paid sums by additional types of providing on the Voronezh province in 1923 and characterize by themselves, besides, and growth in sizes of grants by this type of social insurance. Percentage increase in additional grants goes in the following order, accepting the sums paid in January by all types for 100% (conditionally) 19.

Table 3

Growth of additional types of grants on the Voronezh province

in 1923, in %

A type of a grant January March June September December

On objects of child care 1GG 268.8 34G 794.4 136G,8

Feeding 1GG 26G 251 724 146

Burial 1GG 2G4 186 368 84G

Concerning additional types of insurance, the evident increase of the paid sums speaks for increase in number of appeals to cash desks behind the called types of grants and increase in grants. The following type of social insurance it is possible to note rendering the medical help to insured. Labor unions paid close attention to questions of medical care of workers. In Resolutions IV of the All-Russian congress of labor unions special attention to security of workers with medical care was paid. In having given -

15 The report of the Kursk gubprofsovet in time from 10.02.1922 to 15.02.1923 Kursk, 1923. Page 60.
16 As the Soviet laws protect work and the rights of workers. M, 1926. Page 197.
17 In the same place. Page 198.
18 The collection of resolutions and orders on social insurance. Kharkiv, 1923. Page 11.
19 An overview of the activities of the Voronezh provincial department of work and provincial management of social insurance for 1923 Voronezh, 1924. Page 141.

the lyayushchy majority of cases insured lost the earnings owing to a disease state (temporary disability, disability, pregnancy); in these cases the bodies of social insurance could not be limited to delivery insured allowances and pensions: it was necessary to take care also of rehabilitation insured, i.e. to render the medical help.

The organization of medical care for insured was in slightly worst state, than other types of social insurance, but also here it is possible to note gradual improvement of the situation. Due to the insufficiency of funds for free medical care the government of RSFSR adopted on December 19, 1921 the resolution on establishment of special insurance premiums from the enterprises and institutions for medical care. Contributions were raised by insurance bodies and transferred Narkomzdrava. At the beginning of 1922 the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and Narkomzdrav issued the Provision on joint participation of trade-union associations and economic organizations in health protection of workers providing assistance of labor unions in fund-raising of the industrial enterprises. On

1923 . The Voronezh Provincial Management of social insurance had the following assignments on medical pomoshch20. Thus, receipts in medical fund give very substantial semi-annual increases reaching in the second half of the year compared with the first increase by 243%.

Table 4

Assignments on the medical help (fund "G")

(Digital data are shown in gold calculation)

The number of insurance cash desks From January to June From July to December All for 1923

21 45.333 109.729 155.062

%% changes (semi-annual) 100 243

Narkomzdravom and NKT was signed on February 15, 1924 the provision "About an Order of the Organization of Medical Care Insured and to Members of Their Families and the Expenditures of Means Intended on These Purposes". This situation provided participation of labor unions, and somewhat and insurance bodies, in building of medical aid by the worker, and, above all — guaranteed expedient expenditure of insurance premiums on fund "G" 21.

In work of labor unions on social insurance the important place was occupied by the organization of sanatorium business, rest of workers and their families. The right for free rest is established by the Constitution of the USSR (Article 41) 22. At the beginning of the recovery period all institutions of improving type were under authority Narkomzdrava, but the state could not allocate enough funds for their maintenance. Therefore the government in January, 1922 adopted the decree renting holiday houses and resorts from the state supply and convertion on financing from local budgets. Labor unions aspired to that permits in sanatorium were received by workers who needed treatment. Their labor contribution, family composition and financial position undertook in attention.

At the conclusion of collective agreements between the enterprise and the working, labor unions it was recommended to state special points on the obligation of economic organizations to organize a certain number of vacation spots of the working personnel in resorts in contracts. From the report of the Voronezh provincial department of the union of the food and flavoring industry on sanatorium service of members profsoyuza23.

20 In the same place. Page 185.
21 A. Weinstein. New in medical care insured / / the Messenger of work. M, 1924. No. 4. Page 24.
22 Baglay M.V. Labor unions in political system of socialism. M, 1984. Page 91.
23 GARF. T. 5471. Op. 8. 141. L. 8.

Table 5

The number of the members of labor union of the food and flavoring industry of the Voronezh province treated in resorts and sanatoria and the using holidays in holiday houses in 1924

Vacation spots Distribution of places

only working serving

Central office of a social insurance Crimea 4 2 1

Caucasus 6 4 1

Other 2 1 1

Osudarstvenny resort management Crimea 2 - 2

Caucasus - - -

Other - - -

Total: 14 7 5

Holiday houses 272 216 46

Sanatoria 19 12 5

In total 305 235 56

Table 6

The number of the members of labor union of the food and flavoring industry of the Kursk province treated in resorts and sanatoria and the using holidays in holiday houses in 1924 24

Vacation spots Distribution of places

only working serving

Central office of a social insurance Crimea 3 3 -

Caucasus 1 3 -

Other - - -

Osudarstvenny resort management Crimea 1 1 -

Caucasus - - -

Other - - -

Total: 5 7 -

Holiday houses 116 109 6

Sanatoria 18 17 -

In total 144 136 6

Tables 5 and 6 confirm bigger granting places to resorts and sanatoria to workers of labor union of the food and flavoring industry, than the employee that once again proves distribution of places in holiday houses by the class principle and implementation of decisions IV of the All-Russian congress of labor unions on a priority of interests of workers (not less than 80% of the total number of permits) on production. Percentage of the permits selected to workers and employees the following — on the Voronezh province of 77% of workers and 18% of employees received permits, on the Kursk province — 94% of workers and 4% of employees. In the heading "About Resort Treatment" in the Trudovoy Den newspaper for 1925 it was noted that "in view of existence among workers and employees of the Belgorod County of considerable number of diseases, the Presidium of district trade-union bureau submitted a petition to the Kursk GSPS that the last through provincial insurance cash desk achieved for workers and employees of the Belgorod County of receiving money on resort treatment" 25.

24 The table is made on: GARF. T. 5471. Op. 8. 141. L. 13.
25 Day of work. 1925. May 23.

The Kursk provincial cash desk of insurance in May, 1926 to the Grayvoronsky County provided 90 places in Mokva holiday house (Kursk, is calculated on 150 places). From this number 27 places were presented to the union of sakharnik. At the same time there were rules of selection and a parcel in holiday house of workers and employees on whom the percent of workers and employees in relation to total number offered to the direction in holiday house owes baht to the following: on production the union of working 95% and other 5%; on other unions of working 80% and other 20%. Workers and employees with obviously expressed signs of an anemia and overfatigue were subject to selection and the direction in holiday house.

As a result of organizational work of labor unions by 1926 the situation in resort and sanatorium remained stable. Distribution of permits on counties of the Kursk province to resorts from another town took place: Stary Oskol-2 places (Caucasus), Belgorod-1 place (Yalta), place (Crimea) Grayvoronskomu-1 26.

Thus, thanks to the fact that by 1926 the activity of the public authorities of the Kursk province which are closely connected with life of workers (strakhkassa, gubzdrav-department) of a ball is adjusted and worked quite steadily, in general the needs of workers in the field of rest and treatment were met. So, the number of the members of the union of the workers of the food and flavoring industry who had a rest in holiday houses and received sanatornokurortny treatment in summer months 1926 on the Kursk province reached 449 people, from them 371 (83%) workers, 62 (13%) employees, 18 (4%) uchashchiyesya27. Percentage of the permits in sanatoria and holiday houses selected to workers and employees was defined by need to carry out decisions IV of the All-Russian congress of labor unions on a priority of interests of workers (not less than 80% of the total number of permits) on production.

One of main types of social insurance was issue of disability pensions. Disability pensions were issued: to disabled people of 1 group in the amount of the average salary; 2 groups - at a rate of 2/3 salaries; 3 groups — at a rate of a half of the average salary. Tab. 7 confirms the list of disabled workers by groups of the professions receiving pensions in the Voronezh province for January 1, 1924 28

Table 7

The list of disabled workers by groups of professions, forms of a disease and groups of disability for January 1, 1924 in the Voronezh province

Groups of professions The disability reasons according to the diagnosis Groups of disabled people

Infektsion. diseases Diseases of respiratory organs Diseases of digestive organs Diseases of bones of joints Diseases of nervous system Defects of extremities Traumatic damages Only I II III IV

Skinners - - - - 1 1 3 1 1 1

Food industry workers 1 1 - - 4 1 1 8 - 4 3 1

Builders 1 4 1 1 1 1 11 2 5 4 -

Derevoobde-lochnik - 1 1 1 2 12 - 5 7 -

Metalworkers 3 2 1 - 5 17 1 13 2 1

26 In the same place. F. R-713. Op. 1. 68. L. 181.
27 The table is made on: GABO. T. 756. Op. 1. 17. L. 30.
28 An overview of the activities of the Voronezh provincial department of work and provincial management of social insurance for 1923 Voronezh, 1924. Page 176.

It is important to note also other type of social insurance — issue of pensions to members of families of the worker on hiring, in case of death or unknown absence of their supporter. The amount of insurance pension depended — as it is visible from the following tab. 8 — first, from the number of the family members having the right for providing, and, secondly, from a cause of death insured:

Table 829

Amount of insurance pension

Cause of death Number Size

supporter of family family members pensions

1. The mutilation connected with rabo- 3 and more ? The/6th full earnings of the dead

that, or professional 2 ?/2 full earnings

disease 1 ?/3 full earnings

3 and more 2/3 corresponding pensions in-
2. Other cause of death or Walid of a 1-oa gr.

unknown absence 2 ?/2 these pensions

1 ?/3 these pensions

Insurance on unemployment was considered as an important type of social insurance. Business of the organization of delivery of grants by the unemployed from cash desks of social insurance took the huge place in activity of labor unions in the field of fight against unemployment. Determination of the sizes of grants, categories of the unemployed who had the right to a grant, streamlining of deliveries and, above all upholding of entitlement to benefit only for that part of the unemployed which has seniority on hiring — are the main issues which drew to themselves the broadest attention of labor unions.

Was established by the resolution SNK on providing the unemployed of October 30, 1921: had the right to a dole not having any means of livelihood in the form of earnings and other faces of the following categories if they were registered in labor exchanges: a) the skilled workers who got vocational education; b) the unskilled workers (for example, unskilled workers) who worked on hiring it is continuous before work loss not less than 1 year; c) employees — not less than 3 years; d) the minors up to 18 years who were employed earlier (irrespective of length of service); e) juveniles aged up to 16 years if they went to work with permission of the inspector truda30.

Thus, the right for this type of a grant paid by bodies of social insurance that part of the unemployed which was employed earlier had. It is natural as accumulation of funds of social insurance was inseparably linked with the salary of workers. According to Article 185 the Labour Code of 1922 of payment of a dole was averaged 1/2 - 1/6 from an average zarabotka31.

The following table supplies with the information on insurance on unemployment in cash desks of the Voronezh province at the end of 1922 32:

Table 9

Data on insurance on unemployment for December 1, 1922 in the Voronezh province

the Number of insurance cash desks Number of the registered unemployed at Labour exchange Number of the unemployed who received benefits

kvalifitsir. nekvalifitsir. All

23 4.347 1.762 6.109 539
29 V.M. Dogadov. Essays of the labor law. L., 1927. Page 120.
30 Our economy. Body of the Kursk provincial economic meeting. Kursk, 1921. No. 6. Page 46.
31 E. Snezhkov. The practical comment to the Labour Code (till April 15, 1927). 4 prod. M, 1927. Page 305.
32 Year of work of the Voronezh GSPS (March, 1922 — March, 1923). Voronezh, 1923. Page 40.

From tab. 9 it is visible that not all registered unemployed, and them there were 6,109 people, went on the dole. From the total number of registered only about 10% of the unemployed received these benefits that speaks about the bad organization of social insurance for this period of time. In the best way insurance on unemployment consisted in the Voronezh province in 1923. Since January, 1923 receiving benefits from insurance cash desks steadily grew that is visible from tab. 10.

Table 10

Number of the unemployed who received benefits in 1923 in the Voronezh province

The number of insurance cash desks Number of the unemployed who received benefits

January April June October November December

20 733 940 973 781 746 1071

If, thus, to take number of the unemployed who received benefits in January for 100%, then July gives increase for 34.5%, November for only 3% and December for 48%. The identity in fluctuation of these figures needs to be explained gradual increase in number of the unemployed addressing for a grant in the first half of the year and gradual — their decrease behind the expiration of six monthly terms. Sharp races among the unemployed in December — has the explanation the wave of reductions which passed at this time on all institutions of the Voronezh province and increased number of the unemployed in general including receiving benefits from insurance cash desks.

To the middle of the 20th the system of social insurance in the region of the Central Black Earth became widespread. Delivery of disability pensions increased almost by 30%. The amount of pensions and grants increased by 20%. To 19251926 g social insurance in the Kursk province considerably got stronger that gave the chance to expand the help rendered insured.

The close attention in work of the VI congress of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions was paid to a problem of social insurance. The congress recognized that "further increase and expansion of business of social insurance can happen only due to economy and redistribution of means in the most insurance fund". So, for 1926 in the Voronezh province of Valuysky strakhkassy it was given out to 110 unemployed of the union of workers of the food and flavoring industry of a grant from 5 to 8 rub within 6-9 months, and the district office gave the following sum (see tab. 11) 33. The table demonstrates that the number of the unemployed gradually increased, and the percent satisfied with a grant on the contrary was reduced. On district office of 425 jobless members of the union of the food and flavoring industry received benefits.

Table 11

Data about deliveries of doles in the union of workers of the food and flavoring industry of the Valuysky County for 1926

Month The number of the unemployed Is given a grant to the unemployed The rub sum by % udovletv-y

January 56 14 56 25

March 80 23 83-50 to. 24

April 145 32 130-50 to. 22

June 216 30 139 13

August 379 57 202-50 to. 15

October 420 43 160 10

December 259 22 89 8

In total 425 1674 rubles 80 to.

33 Table are made on: GABO. T. 756. Op. 1. 11. L. 34.

In the second half of the 20th the labor unions began to play the defining role in expenditure of means of social insurance. It took a step in preparation of labor unions for management and further by the national social insurance. Also the trade-union help to the unemployed had the wide sizes. Trade-union funds of doles were formed from percentage allocations from membership fees and voluntary contributions which members of the unions made specially on assistance to the unemployed.

According to the resolution of VTsIK and SNK of RSFSR of May 21, 1928 on formation of Central Chernozem area, the provincial and district cash desks of social insurance which were a part of area since October 1, 1928 were liquidated and instead of them regional and district cash desks of social insurance with which passed all functions, the rights and duties from liquidated insurance kass34 were organized.

Timely introduction of social insurance and especial attention of labor unions to this question considerably promoted growth and strengthening of the organizations of social insurance in the Kursk and Voronezh provinces. Introduction of a system of social insurance provided increase in living standards of workers, allowed to use more effectively means for rise of production and strengthening of discipline of work. However the social insurance fund was spent not always rationally, sometimes social security benefits were provided to people absolutely in them not persons in need. Besides, labor unions in the sphere of social security proceeded from class or party interests, providing the help, first of all not to the non-party, but the party member, the worker, but not the engineer even if position of the last was worse.

ROLE OF TRADE UNIONS IN ORGANIZATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE OF WORKERS OF VORONEZH AND KURSK PROVINCES IN THE YEARS OF THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY

Belgorod State University

O. A. CHERNOVA

The author analyses the role of trade unions in realization of the program of social insurance on enterprises of the Central Black Soil Region in 1920s on the basis of a big number of sources. The research allows to draw a conclusion that social insurance system was a part of the state politicy to rise the life standard of workers in the conditions of reconstruction of economy in the region.

e-mail:

chernova @bsu. edu. ru

34 GAVO. F. R-895 Regional professional council of CChO. Op. 1. 175. L. 96. Instruction of head department of social insurance for liquidation of provincial and district cash desks of social insurance.
Craig Peterson
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