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Category: History

Youth of Orlovschina in pre-war years of the 20th century

r. P. Osipov


Work is presented by department of history of Russia of the Oryol state university. The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, professor V.A. Livtsov

Activity of youth of the Oryol region in pre-war years of the 20th century is shown in article, both enthusiasm for work among young people, and the repressive policy of the state in relation to youth is described. The author draws a conclusion that, despite repressions, the Oryol regional Komsomol organization carried out a lot of work on education of youth, relying on revolutionary, fighting and labor traditions.

The article depicts the activity of the young people of the Orlov region in the pre-Second World War years. The author describes both the labor enthusiasm in the youth environment and the repressive policy of the state towards the young people and comes to the conclusion that, in spite of the repressions, Orlov regional komsomol organization carried out a great job on training of the youth relying on revolutionary, military and labor traditions.


The contradictory period of the 30th of the 20th century in the history of the Soviet state was both time of patriotic upsurge, and the era connected with repressive policy.

Soon after the XVIII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), a past on March 10-21, 1939, through the whole country the competition for performance of a task of the third five-years period was developed. The initiative of Muscovites was supported also by workers of the plants and factories of Orlovschina. So, at shoe factory of a name of Komintern the Komsomol members undertook the obligation to increase labor productivity, to turn out high-quality products, to fight for decrease in its prime cost.

Between shops, crews and workers the competition was developed. Bo-lotskaya's crews, Elesiny, Purinvy, Inozemtsev, Golikov and Ostakhov carried out norms for 110-125%.

Since the beginning of the third five-years period the Oryol railroad workers joined in fight for its performance. They achieved considerable progress. Many railroad workers of area for great job received high government awards, received the badges "Honourable Railroader". Among them there were such which showed samples of a sublean-1 in work

heroism leg.

During the autumn and winter period of 1939 the Komsomol members helped railway transport. Groups of companies and RK All-Union Leninist Young Communist League organized special crews for check of readiness of stations, depot, workshops and services to autumn and winter transportations.

For the fastest advance of trains, decrease in demurrage of wagons under loading and unloading of group of companies and RK All-Union Leninist Young Communist League established the Komsomol and youth control posts monitoring timely advance of structures, especially with cargoes of the I category (ore, coal, bread, etc.) 2.

The Komsomol organizations sought to consolidate achievements of a competition of predsjezdovsky days.

After decisions of the XVIII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and the VIII plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League the Oryol regional Komsomol organization made radical turn towards the major national and economic objectives.

The Komsomol organizations began to penetrate into work of the industry and transport. The activity of Komsomol members in fight for increase in labor productivity, strengthening of labor discipline and further development Stakhanov 3 increased


Before the war in Oryol there were 4000 Stakhanovites Komsomol members. At the plants "Red Professional Intern" and steelmaking "Ord-zhenikidzegrad" successfully worked 47 lump - somolsko-youth Stakhanov crews, 48 Komsomol members multimachine operators,

83 combining professions and about 1000 4


The regional Komsomol organization promoted selection of young workers on the most important buildings of the third five-years period. On construction of the road Akmolinsk - 400 Oryol Komsomol members, were sent to Karta-ly to the coal basin Situated near Moscow - 604, to Zaporizhia and to the Urals - 523. Hundreds of Komsomol members and not allied youth were directed to Amurstalstroy construction, to Sevastopol and the Soviet Polar region. A large number of Komsomol members left for other buildings on recruitment of narcomats. Volkhov RK All-Union Leninist Young Communist League

in 1940 sent to buildings more than 400 yuno-5

sew also girls.

The Komsomol organizations did a great job on collecting non-ferrous and ferrous metal. The Yelets organization All-Union Leninist Young Communist League collected 400 t of metal. Komsomol members of the Klintsy enterprises collected thousands of kg of non-ferrous metal. In Bryansk and Livny of non-ferrous metal more 15t6 was collected.

At the enterprises of area the youth in 1940 made a half of all list of workers and experts. Depended on it

progress in implementation of the plan of a five-years period, increase in labor productivity. The Komsomol organizations on an equal basis with party and economic organizations were responsible for implementation of production programs, decrease in percent of marriage and prime cost, high quality of products.

Delegates of the III Oryol regional conference of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League which was taking place on September 28, 1940 fairly demanded from the lagging behind organizations of the answer for the available shortcomings of work of the industrial enterprises: failure to follow plan, brak7.

The Oryol Komsomol organization for years of pre-war five-years periods grew up thousands of masters of high performance of work. Only in Oryol in 1939 naschi-

4000 drummers-komsomltsev tyvatsya.

Years of pre-war five-years periods were the period of rough rise of production on Orlovschina. In 1940 the release of gross output of the industry by 11 times exceeded the level of 1913. On the most difficult sites of industrial development stood mo-9


The youth joined ranks of the production plans competing for performance, economy of public funds, 114 Komsomol members of Lyudinosky engineering plant became on Stakhanov watch in honor of the XVIII All-Union party conference.

At the plants of Oryol, Livny, Bryansk, Liu-dinova, at the Klintsy factories the advanced Komsomol members made dozens of improvement suggestions giving to the state hundreds of thousands of rubles of economy. By an example of residents of Stalingrad the Komsomol organizations started at the enterprises fight against rastochitelstva10.

In pre-war years youth of Orlovschina with great dispatch worked not only in the industry, on transport, but also in agriculture. They played a huge role in development and strengthening of a collective-farm system. At the call of party of the young man and devush-

ki went to work in MTS as tractor drivers, combine operators, trailer hands.

The tractor crew of Zmiyevk of MTS of the Sverdlovsk district was headed by the chevalier of the order of Lenin the member of regional committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League Boris Kleymenov. On average the crew for a season of 1939 plowed on 952 hectares, at norm 350".

Spring of 1939 the regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and regional committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League according to the resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, People's Commissariat for Agriculture and Narkomsovkho-zov of the USSR made the decision on preparation in the Oryol region of 4 thousand female-traktoristok on the job.

More than 5 thousand girls expressed zhela-


ny to seize tractor business.

According to decisions of the IX Plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League the Komsomol of Orlovschina from among women trained 1000 drivers and 1000

nurses on the job.

In increase in results of work of the Komsomol organizations in agricultural production the decision of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League on attachment komsoml-tsev-trakoristov to primary organizations mts14 was made.

In two years prior to the Great Patriotic War the osoavakhimovsky organization of the Oryol region grew by 28 thousand members, and by February, 1939 it totaled 125 thousand people. Separate organizations Oryol, Volkhov and other areas

grew more than twice.

For January 1, 1939 in the Oryol region there were 15,804 persons having the badges "Voroshilov sharpshooters" of the first step. About 7500 people hit qualifying standards on the PVHO badge of the first step and 2305 people on PVHO second stupeni16.

In February, 1939 in the Oryol region about 500 circles worked. In circles more than five thousand Komsomol members were engaged. Three schools of instructors, 66 schools of machine gunners were organized. In forest

institute of Bryansk worked 8 machine-gun


circles, in them 140 students studied.

Regional Komsomol conference

recommended to organize circles on

to studying plane, parachute business,

to train machine gunners, bombers, "18 motorists, tankmen.

All were trained for what happened two years later. In 1941 on June 22 fascist Germany attacked the USSR. Youth offices were preparing for protection of the Fatherland too. But at this time passed through the machine of repressions already many eminent persons.

However along with labor and patriotic upsurge the flywheel of political repressions was developed in the country. They did not pass and youth.

From 93 members of Komsomol of the Central Committee (elected to the X congress of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in 1936) these years 72 were dismissed and арестованы".

Only in a year 561 persons, for communication with enemies of the people snya-20 were excluded from devices of district committees, city town committees, regional committees of Komsomol "for hostile activity"


that 830 people.

Stalin elaborately conducted the line on transformation of Komsomol into the union. Those who opposed to it were carried to the camp of the opponent.

The fight campaign with "enemies of the people" did not pass also the Oryol regional organization All-Union Leninist Young Communist League.

At the beginning of February, 1937 at the railway station of Oryol Pavel Mamchenko and his wife Elizabeth was arrested.

Since 1932 Mamchenko headed the Oryol city town committee of Komsomol, before worked in Voronezh, later he headed department of cultural promotion in a city town committee of party, held authority and trust.

However since 1937 everything changed. Persecutions began. Mamchenko spent in prisons much time. Then extrajudicially to him declared that he is sentenced to execution which was replaced ten years of imprisonment without the right of correspondence after a while. Then Mothers -

chenko it was sent to the Norilsk labor camp with disfranchisement and the reference to the settlement. It was talked of eternal lifelong exile. After the XX congress of the CPSU Pavel Pavlovich Mamchenko was rehabilitated.

The bitter fate and heads of a regional link of Komsomol bypassed. In 1937 Komarichsko-go's secretary of a district committee Pochuchunina and also the deputy chief of a political department on Komsomol of Zlynkovsky stud of the Znamensk district Andreyev was repressed.

Mass repressions against Komsomol workers have an adverse effect

at work with youth. People lost faith


in the forces, belief in tomorrow.

Search of enemies of the people in Stalin's instructions continued. Once paper came to Oryol: to find in Komsomol of 100 enemies of the people.

"Was exposed" as well party cell of the Nikolsky district committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League where "the enemy nest" in a zadonsky normal school was revealed.

Waves of repressions continued to storm. It was necessary to have considerable courage that in these conditions not to lose the head and to defend the person.

So Bolshevik V.D. Kostramichev for the rest of life remembered as on collecting the Mokhov-sky district committee of its All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, during that time of the head of department of national education, expelled from party. The members of bureau frightened of punishments by the first word of the first secretary raised hands.

Then there was a war. Many years later veteran V.D. Kostramichev and the veteran F.V. Vinokurov met in Oryol: on a breast of the former Komsomol secretary the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union which Fedor Vasilyevich received for the fact that he skillfully directed fight of a regiment at break of defense of the opponent to the south of Warsaw flaunted, inspired by a personal example soldiers.

Despite repressions in years preceding a storm, the Oryol regional Komsomol organization carried out a lot of work on education of youth, relying on revolutionary, fighting and labor traditions. Youth meetings with participants of revolution and Civil war, with those who protected the Homeland on the Lake Hasan, on the Halkhin-Gol River, the Karelian Isthmus were held, participated in a liberating campaign of the Red Army to the Western Ukraine and to the Western Belarus.

Redouble development of military products went through increase in number of the new submarines, destroyers, torpedo boats and patrol ships most

Letov, coastal and antiaircraft artillery.

At the whole country plants of defense industry the youth including at the plants of Orlovschina worked constantly: plant of Medvedev, Tekmash, etc. The people p about - felt like the participant of a great cause. His patriotism acquired the new, socialist contents. Education in the spirit of exercises of Marxism-Leninism of all people was shown with all huge force in severe tests of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945

When the Great Patriotic War burst, the hundred-fifty-thousand group of Komsomol members of Orlovschina was capable to heroically protect everyone five 22

Soviet land.

GAOO. T. 1283. Op. 1. 388. L. 11.

2 There There . D. 201. L. 26.

> D. 174. L. 2.

& #34; There . D. 388. L. 10.

There L. 13.

& #34; There . L. 14.

& There

Eagle tribe. Page 95.

& to Precepts of fathers are true. Page 16.

Komsomol member. 1941. February 14.

& #34; GAOO. T. 1283. Op. 1. 396. L. 14. 12

Tamzhe. 388. L. 27.

& #34; In the same place. 201. L. 30.

& & #34; Oryol Komsomol member. 1981. June 10.

15 GAOO. T. 1283. Op.1. 385. L. 19.20.

| 6tamzhe. 391. L. 21. 17

1 8

In the same place. 192. L. 98.99.

& #34; In the same place. 388. L. 26.

20 In the same place. 200. L. 34.

In the same place. 439. L. 117. & #34; Really. 1987. June 3.

Wayne McKinney
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