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Category: History


a. G. Alekseev


Studying the economic factors which defined the course of Civil war and a victory of the Bolshevist mode over white military dictatorships, studying experience of mobilization of economic resources of the occupied territory and regulation of economic life became one of the most important and perspective directions.1 in recent years at the same time, even expanding istochnikovy base at the expense of unused materials of periodicals and archival documents, even applying new methods of a research and being guided by modern theories of historical development, it is extremely important to consider, in our opinion, experience and results of work of the previous generations of domestic researchers. Are especially interesting in this plan of work of historians and economists 192 0

Before starting their analysis, it is necessary to characterize that period of public and intellectual life of the country within which it was created. Begun in 1917 and proceeding till 1929, it was in own way unique. In the country there was a transition from "proletarian democracy" to dictatorship of one party, it monopolized not only the power, but also ideology, active rates created the supervisory body behind intellectual and creative activity. And at the same time, on that short interval of time, many representatives of the Russian science and culture continued to be engaged in research and creative activity, without adjusting fruits of the work to new ideological dogmas and to labels of Bolshevist agitprop.

Many domestic researchers addressed a phenomenon of this drama period in the history of the Russian intellectuals. O.M. Medushevskaya noted that in 1917 - 1921 the scale of the begun shifts in structures of a world civilization when the ends of an evolutionary stage and entry into an era of catastrophic changes prefelt earlier became already a reality became obvious, but an opportunity to express the ideas in printing works still existed. 2 This observation of the historian belonged mainly to carriers of the Russian humanitarian culture - historians, sociologists, philosophers.

Creative freedom for the Russian economists and historians of economy existed slightly longer. The soviet leadership at a certain stage treated representatives of "old" school quite liberally, creating them necessary conditions for scientific activity. At Narkomat of finance, G.Ya. Sokolnikov headed those years, the Tactical institute at which the giving-out scientists N.D. Kondratyev, L.N. worked actively worked

Yurovsky, A.I. Slutsky and others.

Existence of intelligently independent collective was caused by the internal political reasons. First of all

the leading positions in a party and state system and rather market views of N.I. Bukharin, A.I. Rykova and L. S. Tomsk, their commitment to market, evidence-based, to methods of the solution of the economic problems facing the country, but not to methods administrative and violent, tested in the period of military communism. It had strong impact on economic and historical and economic researches of those of years.

192 8 g became critical in activity of Tactical institute and in existence of an independent economic thought in Russia. This year at institute the "cleanings" which came to the end in 1929 with dispersal of all staff of scientific center began. As a result any objective researches of social and economic processes in the country, both modern, and the recent past, became impossible. All printing works began to bear on themselves the press of ideological control and self-checking of authors, and researches to be adjusted to the views of ways and methods of construction existing at the Stalin country leaders in the USSR of socialist economy.

The works on history of the Russian economy written in the 1920th differed in one more characteristic feature - the special relation of authors to an object of a research, their civil and

intellectual position. The brought-up on classical samples of world economic schools and exercises, Russian scientists could not but understand true point of the changes and transformations happening in economy of the country. Revolutionary withdrawal pains of the national economy of Russia, destruction of the land relations, carrying out in life of other "socialist" transformations, inevitably involved an economic crisis and increase of lag of the country from the general course of civilization development in the world. These consequences were easily predictable, but authors of economic researches of that period, without focusing attention on catastrophic consequences of "Sovietization" of economy, sought to look for ways of its improvement and modernization. Understanding that the Soviet economy is not similar to anything known still that it is a little effective and does not consider objective laws of development of the national economy and society in general, they as true scientists could not be discharged of attempts to improve a state of affairs, to find ways of improvement of this unsuccessful economic car. Possibly, the defining role was played here by a civic stand of scientists whose intellectual activity was not abstract and scientific, and was aimed at the help to the country in those hardest conditions in which it appeared as a result of revolution and Civil war.

At last, the appeal to the recent historical past was the most important line of economic works of that time: in the economic processes proceeding in Russia during world and Civil wars in experience of the economic policy pursued by various authorities existing in the territory of Russia in 1917 - 1920 in success or failure of their attempts to mobilize economic resources of the occupied territory for needs of war

economists looked for solutions of the acute economic issues facing the country in the 192nd 0. For this reason in a stream of economic literature istorikoekonomichesky researches in which first of all the period of Civil war because during it not only armies white and red were at war with each other was studied so figured prominently, but also military communism of Bolsheviks and "freedom of trade" of anti-Bolshevist military dictatorships.4 resisted each other

The brochure by V. Vilensky-Sibiryakov published in 1919 "Became the first work in which the questions of economy and economic policy of the anti-Bolshevist authorities during Civil war in the east of Russia were raised that Kolchak brought to the Siberian workers and peasants".

Published on low-grade cheap paper of 32 pages, the brochure is written by Vilensky-Sibiryakov in special, pseudo-national, style. In a little comical manner imitating a demotic dialect he tried to explain to the "ordinary" reader the main stages of emergence of the counterrevolutionary movement in the east of the country: "Many the former royal generals yes of admirals ran to Don to the ataman Kaledin, to Ukraine to the ataman Skoropadsky, and the most coward, those fled further away - to China and Japan. Only there they came round, only there they felt out of danger and began to inspect each other and to consider how many they gathered here".6 I further the author popular language stated the main problems facing the Siberian economy: "Peasants will bring grain to the city, - the price only bad, some coupons, actions, bonds give as though good and money, say, you will not understand treasury obligations that they give, and then it turns out that coupons false, and for treasury obligations no goods can be bought". Also some steps of the government of Kolchak in the field of monetary circulation were explained: "It was possible to trust still the twenty and sorokovka, but also here Kolchak played piece, - issued the law that these to the course will not have money and that a half of them can be received in exchange of coupons, and other half will be enlisted by a loan in favor of Kolchak for a period of twenty years".7

Here the author meant attempt to weaken the inflationary pressure upon the money market, A.V. Kolchak undertaken by the government in May - June, 1919 when were withdrawn by the special law from circulation of "kerenka" of 2 of 0 and 4 0 rubles.

However this measure did not bring desirable effect, and the ruble continued the falling, weakened by even more loss of trust to national currency.8 Sometimes as in the quote given above, the scientist-economist gets at the author the best of the political propagandist. It is improbable that the "ordinary" reader of the brochure could comprehend correctly a formulation "to enlist a loan".

At the same time this edition is unique. V. Vilensky-Sibiryakov made nearly the first attempt

political economic "educational program" for the least educated part of the population. For the first time economic aspects of Civil war in

Siberia and in the Far East was become an object of research for the purpose of propaganda and promotion.

In the same 1919 and later the author came back to a research of economic and geopolitical problems of the Far East and Siberian regions more than once, but these works had already other, scientific character, and affected the widest range of the social and economic and political affairs facing the Soviet state in the Far East.9

The analysis of a condition of a railway system of Russia on the eve of and in the years of Civil war including in the east of the country, it was carried out in V. Klemenchich.10 work on the basis of a large amount of statistical information, the author draws a conclusion that by the beginning of Civil war the railway economy of the country already was on the decline, caused by an overstrain of the being available resources and capacities, lack of due service of the rolling stock, mass migration of the population and the barbaric relation from the last to property of the railroads. Illustrating the last argument, the author wrote: "Meshochniki in hundreds were on grain stations, overflowed all trains. It was necessary to send for cleaning them empty trains since differently no train could be sent: overflow of cars meshochnik was so big that springs sank, and cars could not be moved. To get to the passenger crowded car, without ceremony broke windows, and cars froze". 11

Special harm to the rolling stock, according to the author, was brought by retreat of kolchakovsky troops when the coming parts of the Red Army got tapes of the frozen trains - up to 4 00 structures.12

Work contains a large amount of the statistical information allowing to analyze a condition of transport economy of the country during Civil war. The author tracked dynamics of aging and "disease" of the rolling stock of Russian Railways for 1917 - 1920. So, according to him, the percent of "sick" engines making 27.4% in November, 1917 in a year made already 45.5%, and by November, 1919 reached 53.7%.13 the author and interesting data on the peculiar front-line "exchange" taking place at front shift in any given party Brings: at retreat, engines were lost, at approach - were seized. At the same time at the beginning of retreat first of all patients engines were left that lowered the general percent of faulty engines in the rolling stock in relation to the remained number. Respectively, large approach was followed by capture of a large number of the faulty engines left by the opponent. As a result there was a situation at which with the increasing speed the aging and failure progressed during military operations of the equipment and the rolling stock of the railroads in front-line areas. If to mean that Civil war in Siberia was waged, actually, along railway lines, "on wheels" 14, it is possible to draw a conclusion that disorder

most seriously affected railway economy of the region military progress of white armies.

To the same conclusion, we will notice, also the Minister of War of the kolchakovsky government general A. Budberg who paid much attention to the condition of the railroads and orders reigning on them at that time in the diary, and showed how harmful came the ruin on the railroads affected fighting capacity of army. 15

V. Klemenchich's research opened new aspect in studying an economic perspective of history of Civil war, having given an opportunity to study a railway system of Siberia in close interaction with other sectors of economy.

A. Shishi.16 Rossiysky's research is devoted to a role of the foreign capital in economy of Siberia the economist studied the history of penetration into Siberia and to the Far East the countries of the foreign capital, tried to estimate a role and value of the foreign capital for development of economy of Siberia, planned the main ways on which the Soviet state could and cooperate further in the field of investments with the developed world powers. The research covers the period since the end of the 19th century on 1917. Having in detail stopped on the analysis of conditions in which the foreign companies had to carry out the activity, the author revealed characteristics of integration of the foreign capital into economic life of Siberia what they developed by the beginning of Civil war. Thereby he created a necessary basis for understanding of a role of the foreign capital in economy of the territories occupied with white.

So, A. Shisha describes formation of the Siberian butter manufacture in which development the role of the foreign capital was especially big. At the beginning of the activity some foreign firms opened the butter and cheese-making plants in villages and large villages, putting in them as heads of the experts brought from abroad. Gradually, with increase in quantity and improvement of quality of the produced oil, the role of its export deliveries more and more began to increase. Transition to production of export oil expanded a framework of local dairy production at once, promoting economic welfare of peasants. As a result firms began to refuse operation of own plants, transferring them to either individuals, or the country societies organized in butter artel.17

For several years of production the Siberian butter gained steady authority in the international market, competing with the best grades manufactured in Denmark and Holland. The author gives cases of a fake of the Siberian oil the Dutch entrepreneurs when the Russian product was sold under the guise Dutch, and low-quality oil was given for Siberian for the purpose of blasting a trademark of the last and replacement from the market of the strong competitor.18

About the fast economic "growing" and the authority acquired by natives of such "joint ventures"

the interesting document testifies - the project of creation which is already mentioned above in Siberia of Bank of issue prepared by the director of the Union of the Siberian butter export associations including 3,000 cooperative societies in Eastern Siberia I. Okulich.19 Vykhod of the representative of butter associations on so high level which allowed it to participate in discussion of economic policy of the Provisional Siberian government is an indicator of weight and value of this industry for development of economy of the region. If to agree with the version of S.S. Ippolitov claiming that in the territory of Siberia of the banks of issue supported by large representatives of the trade and industrial capital stood behind emergence of projects of creation foreign banki20, then a conclusion about high extent of the mutual integration of the Russian and foreign capitals taking place in the east of the country on the eve of and during Civil war arises.

A. Shisha and a role of the foreign capital in supply of the Siberian village with tools of agricultural production analyzes. In Siberia a number of firms, mainly American, engaged exclusively sold


farm vehicles, tools, spare parts, etc. Business of distribution among the Siberian peasantry of instruments of labor was carried out by foreign firms on a wide basis. A huge number of posters of advertizing character with the image of cars, ways of their application, etc. was thrown into villages. At the same time, the author emphasizes, the foreign firms trading in Siberia in machines and the equipment were not engaged in export from Russia of raw materials or goods.

In 1910 there were first signs demonstrating attempts foreign, especially American of the capital to monopolize the market of farm vehicles in Siberia. This year the American company created the International company of zhatvenny cars in Russia which united several American plants. Its purposes included reorientation of the Russian roar only on the American products that was reached by the thought-over credit policy giving the chance to peasants to receive payment by installments on the acquired cars. Also unfair methods of the competition were applied by Americans. So, the American equipment was designed in such a way that through certain periods some parts of cars failed, and had to be replaced with new. Selling cars at rather low price, Americans got huge profits on trade in spare parts.21

Analyzing a situation with export from Siberia, the author in detail stopped under consideration of the reasons preventing the Siberian entrepreneurs and peasants to conduct independently active foreign trade and to resort to services of foreign intermediaries. Among such reasons he calls weak organization of the Russian producer, discrepancy of goods with the international requirements, presence at foreign dealers of the wide credit in banking institutions. Among specific Russian

the reasons interfering development of own foreign trade, the author called also "disorder". 22

Summing up the result of the research, A. Shisha expressed the hope characteristic of the Russian economists arguing on the future of national economy in the first half of the 1920th. These hopes were based on reasonings of scientists concerning a new role of the state in regulation of economic life and good will of the last to maintenance of that of "healthy elements" of an economic mechanism who still survived in the Soviet Russia, or could appear at political will of the management. The scientists-economists, professionals of economic science continuing to be engaged in scientific activity kept sacred delusion about economic feasibility to which activity of any government has to be subordinated. Therefore also the reasoning on those ways and ways which it was possible to return foreign trade and banking capital to the Siberian economy became a final reasoning of A. Shisha: "Work of trade and banking capital in Russia in general, and in Siberia in particular, will carry originally a feeler role for other large foreign businessmen who, undoubtedly, with unrelenting attention and interest will watch how work of new pioneers in conditions of the Russian reality untried still proceeds. And only when they will see that this work proceeds in the conditions of the existing law and order under protection of the law created by years of revolution they will believe that in Russia it is possible and has to work, and having believed - they will invest those investments and the capitals what are so necessary for us and what we have no yet". 23

We will emphasize: A. Shisha's research is extremely important for studying economic policy of the white governments of Siberia. So profound analysis of history and features of penetration of the foreign capital into the Siberian economy helps with studying those multivector contradictions and interferences with which economic life of this region was rich. From deep integration of the foreign capital into economy of Siberia, those drama events which took place during Civil war in the financial market of the region result from those brilliant prospects which were expected the western and east businessmen from the accelerated economic development of the country. Foreign investors did not wish to leave dynamically developing market of Siberia, there were also considerable means enclosed in the enterprises and concessions which loss was extremely painful. For this reason Siberia appeared on crossing of so many interests which all anti-Bolshevist governments coming to the power in the region were forced to consider.

Certainly, one of the brightest works of this period is R.E. Weisberg (Missin's) research.24 Emergence of this work also became possible only thanks to that atmosphere of scientific search which still was saved in the few institutions intended to be engaged in study and forecasting of development of the Soviet economy. The monograph by Weisberg was published in

publishing house of the State Planning Committee of the USSR with a circulation of 5 thousand copies. The obligatory copy came to library of Socialist academy; in other words, the book long scientific life was initially defined. On the title page, in the right top corner over a surname of the author, there is an inscription: "Proletarians of all countries, unite!". However on it the socialist ideas of the book also came to an end. The subsequent 160 pages of the dry scientific text were devoted to studying the processes happening in the country in the conditions of "military communism". At the same time the author paid the main attention to the hidden regularities of functioning of Bolshevist economy and those consequences which resulted from destruction of the commodity-money relations in the country.

Strictly speaking, the economic policy of the anti-Bolshevist governments in the years of civil war in the monograph is not investigated though the author paid much attention 1918 - 192 0. Only on four pages typed by a small print the bank notes which were in use in the territories controlled by the white governments are listed. This list is provided by the author with reference to "Archive of the Russian revolution" of G.V. Gessen to which absolutely fair reproach that "the most detailed descriptions of insignificant external signs" are not accompanied by data on the number of the addressing bank notes and substitutes.25 was stated Weisberg made an attempt to analyze volumes released for years of Civil war in territories of the anti-Bolshevist modes of monetary substitutes (unfortunately, without giving definitions that he means under this definition: substitutes of money, - bonds, receipts and so forth - or the bank notes which are not recognized in a consequence by the Soviet power that follows from a research context). The author listed the data on "the released monetary substitutes" which were available for him, having included in the list and the Penza bonds, and the Siberian rubles.26 This list, by recognition of the author, included data on quantity only of some part of the bank notes issued during Civil war. So, the list did not include the Russian rubles ordered by Provisional government in America and after long negotiations the transferred USA to the Omsk government shortly before its falling. Let's notice in passing that data on their quantity are at the moment available: they are, in particular, in fund of the financial agent in Washington S.A. Ugeta.27 it is possible to find data and on volumes of supply of the government of A.I. Denikin with bank notes.28 In the same place

The most valuable in the monograph by Weisberg - methods of a research of the economic processes characteristic of "abnormal" economy in the conditions of crisis, or mobilization economy. Besides, in it the essential attention is given to a problem of the monetary issue which was carried out in the years of Civil war by the Bolshevist government. The huge statistical material which is saved up by the author and reflected by it in pages of a research allows to study the money market of the country not isolated regions divided by lines of fronts, and to imagine a certain uniform organism where a role issue

"hearts" were carried out by the Soviet monetary machine driving flows of the depreciating notes to the most remote regions of the country. As many contemporaries sobytiy29 emphasized and what modern avtory30 write some about, the front line could not constrain distribution of money supply which was transferred by speculators, Bolshevist propagandists, was occupied at approach or rushed at withdrawal.

Historical and economic literature of the 1920th, thus, allows when studying mechanisms of functioning of economies of the anti-Bolshevist governments, when studying their experience of mobilization of economic resources of the controlled territory for needs of war to get a fair idea of the processes proceeding at the same time in economy Soviet. The declared distinction of economic life, the relations of property and economic policy at "red" and at "white" was not so and is high. Both those, and others faced during Civil war the same problems which were forced to solve by similar methods. And the fact that the anti-Bolshevist governments were forced to reckon with the interests of owners of the most various scale that did not allow them to carry out more resolute actions in transfer of economy to military rails under rigid state regulation in the most considerable, in our opinion, degree was accelerated by their defeat. The monograph by Weisberg just also allows to establish parallels between these, apparently, incompatible economic systems, to find optimum approaches to their study.

Already in the preface to the edition written by I.A. Trakhtenberg the thought of "abnormality" of economy of the period of military communism was formulated. The author of the preface noted that, from the point of view of commodity economy, military communism represents


"pathology". Speaking about degradation, regress of the commodity-money market of the country, Trakhtenberg noted that "characteristic feature of the product-market relations of that period as those relations remained, the dissociation and almost full isolation of the separate local markets was...", and "the commodity-money address returned to the step surpassed already


historical development". 32

To the foreign policy situation in the world preceding the beginning of intervention to Russia, to its economic sources and also a research of consequences of economic blockade it is devoted


monograph by Ya.A. Ioffe. This work substantially is unique by quantity of the attracted foreign sources. Its feature is also that the author as the main reason began interventions and supports of the anti-Bolshevist modes by the foreign states in the territory of Russia calls economic motives. Political aspects of a question are also considered, but have more likely minor character. Ya.A. Ioffe quotes the foreign press of that period calling Siberia "the country of huge opportunities" and claiming that only development of the

timber export Russia will be able to pay the most part of the war debts.34 the Author believes that "the analysis of intervention leads us to the conclusion that it substantially & #34; smelled нефтью" and Russia is for the world capital & #34; economic field битвы"".35

Analyzing economic policy of the anti-Bolshevist governments from these positions, the author recognizes that white leaders and government officials completely realized the true purposes of the foreign help and those perspective tasks which were set for themselves by allies. The author quotes the report of the general Stepanov to the general Alekseev of September 17, 1918 in which it was said: "Generally, more and more it becomes clear that allies joined borders of Russia not for the sake of rescue it, and is more true for the sake of own benefits. It is necessary for nobody for Russia. Establishment at us is harmful to a certain firm government power to the interests of misters allies wishing to manage independently". 36

Considering the policy of the government of Kolchak, the author finds interrelation in adoption of political decisions with strengthening of economic control and influence of allies on regions of Siberia. So, on January 16, 1919 between Kolchak and generals Knox and Zhanen the convention on the basis of which Zhanen became the chief of all allied parts, "acting in the east of Russia and Siberia west of Baikal" was signed. In Paragraph 7 of this convention it was defined that "concerning the financial support rendered by the allied governments, all initial requirements concerning foreign deliveries will be developed under the agreement with the general Knox and the general Zhanen, on the one hand, and the Russian Ministry of Defence, on the other hand, for drawing up one general coordinated


plan". 37

It is easy to predict, than the similar agreement had to turn back for the Siberian economy. All market of Eastern Siberia was actually transferred to exclusive possession to the French capital which acquired the right of primary deliveries to the region of all necessary industrial output. Thus, the memorandum of 1919 laid the legislative foundation for future economic partition of Siberia. The danger of such situation was obvious to many figures of the government of Kolchak. So, of March 27, 1919 it was specified in a note of the Minister of Railways of the Omsk government to the chairman of the board of ministers that for the help provided by allies "in future Russia the foreign capital which will turn it into the country of subsistence economy will manage". 38 However Kolchak's dependence on foreign deliveries and financial aid did not leave it any alternative in carrying out policy of economic concessions to allies.

In the Far East during Civil war K.P. Kursel and A.A. Lukasyuk.39 Avtora's research is devoted to issues of monetary circulation reflected the main signs of monetary circulation of the region of that period in the work: "The fate of all these

was very ephemeral

of numerous and various paper signs: all of them, replacing each other and flooding local goods turnover, quickly lost the initial, usually very weak purchasing power, were thrown out of the address and in a huge number remained on hands with the population which instead of the actual values and work given in exchange for these pieces of paper got as much rich, how many and bitter, knowledge of sad consequences of the upset fiduciary economy". 40

Unfortunately, quite exact description of the events which were taking place in the money market of the region was not accompanied by the analysis of those macroeconomic and economic processes by which they were caused. Avtora only stated external signs of the taking place economic cataclysms: "Depending on local conditions the pieces of paper cancelled by life gave way or hard foreign currency (Mexican dollars, the Japanese yens, U.S. dollars) in a border strip, or to natural barter - in internal areas, remote from borders, or, at last, even to the Russian hard coin taken by the population from "jugs", or released by any given local government from got to this area during political disorders of monetary stocks of former time". 41

Thus, historical and economic literature of the 1920th, though did not recreate a full picture of state of the economy of Siberia and the Far East, did not open in all details of the mechanism of regulation of economic life by the anti-Bolshevist governments, laid the foundation and developed approaches to their study.


1 See, e.g.: G.A. Bordyugov, A.I. Ushakov, V.Yu. Churakov. White business:

ideology, bases, modes of the power: Historiographic essays. M, 1998;

S.V. Karpenko. Essays of history of the White movement in the south of Russia (1917 - 1920). M, 2002.

2 Source study: Theory. History. Method. Sources of the Russian history. M, 1998. Page 83.
3 See, e.g.: V. Averyev. Agrarian policy of a kolchakovshchina//On

agrarian front. M, 1929; Ya. Ioffe. Organization of intervention and blockade

Soviet republic, 1918 - 1920: Essay. M.; L., 1930; M. Nakhimson, Fight for the markets after world war. M, 1934.

4 R.E. Weisberg. Money and the prices (the underground market in the period of "military

communism"). M, 1925; Varga. Calculation of cost of production in

impecunious economy//Economic life. M, 1920. No. 269; Vladimirov

M. Meshochnichestvo and his socio-political reflections. Kharkiv, 1920; Monetary circulation and the credit in Russia and abroad. Pg., 1922; Ilim. Cooperative unions of Siberia, 1908 - 1918 of M., 1919; Cobo. Consumption of urban population. M, 1918; Katsenellenbaum Z.S. Depreciation of ruble and

prospects of monetary circulation. M, 1918; It. Monetary circulation

Russia 1914 - 1924 M.; L. 1924; V.K. Klemenchich. Results of work of the railroads for 3 years (1917 - 1920). M, 1920; N.D. Kondratyev. The world economy and its environments in time and after war. Vologda, 1922; A.M. Korolev. Siberian dairy cooperation (past and the present). M, 1926;

K.P. Kursel, A.A. Lukasyuk. Monetary circulation in the Russian Far East with

1918 for 1924 Chita, 1924; N.P. Makarov. Market dairy farming and cooperation. M, 1926; A. Mikhaylovsky. Grain campaign 1918 - 1919//the Messenger of statistics. 1919. No. 8 - 12; E. Preobrazhensky. Money during an era of dictatorship of the proletariat//the Bulletin of socialist academy. 1923. Prince

III; P. Starkov. Resettlement to Siberia during imperialistic war and revolution (1914 - 1925)//Life of Siberia. 1926. No. 7, 8; I.F. Stepanenko, M.P. Komkov. Siberian butter manufacture. Novosibirsk, 1928; L.N. Yurovsky

On the ways to a monetary reform. M, 1924; etc.

5 V. Vilensky-Sibiryakov. That Kolchak brought to the Siberian workers and peasants. Pg., 1919.
6 In the same place. Page 6.
7 In the same place. Page 17.
8 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 200. Op. 1. 202. L. 138.
9 V.D. Vilensky-Sibiryakov. Imperialism of modern Japan and

social revolution (To a question of the solution of the Far East problem). M, 1919; It. China and Soviet Russia: From questions of our Far East policy. M, 1919; It. China (political and economic essay). M, 1923; It. Whether there will be Japan the great power? Kharkiv, 1924; It. Russia in the Far East. M, 1923; It. The Soviet Russia at coast Silent

ocean. M, 1923; It. Modern Mongolia. Kharkiv, 1925; It.

Kolchak's kingdom. Siberian byl. M, 1931.

10 Klemenchich B. Results of work of the railroads for three years (1917- 1920

of). M, 1920.

11 There . S. 5.
12 There . S. 7.
13 There . S. 10.
14 There . S. 7.
15 A. Budberg. Diary of the White Guard. Mn.; M, 2,001.
16 A. Shisha. A role of the foreign capital in economic life of Siberia. Novonikolayevsk, 1923.
17 In the same place. Page 7 - 8.
18 In the same place. Page 9.
19 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 200. Op. 1. 202. L. 7.
20 Ippolitov S.S. Financial intervention to White Russia //New

historical bulletin. 2000. No. 1. S. 30

21 A. Shisha. Decree. soch. S. 25.
22 In the same place. Page 2 7
23 In the same place. Page 93.
24 R.E. Weisberg. (Missin). Money and the prices (the underground market in the period of "military communism"). M, 1925.
25 In the same place. Page 19.
26 In the same place. Page 22 - 23.
27 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 5863. Op. 1.
28 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 5863. Op. 1. 1. L. 131.
29 V.P. Anichkov Yekaterinburg - Vladivostok (1917 - 1922). M, 1998.

Page 181 - 182.

30 S.S. Ippolitov. Decree. soch.; V.V. Minayev. Demographic factors

aggravations of an economic crisis in years Civil wars (on an example

Siberia and Far East)// New historical messenger. 2001. No. 1;

S.V. Karpenko. Decree. soch.

31 R.E. Weisberg. (Missin). Decree. soch. Page 3.
32 In the same place. Page 7.
33 Ya.A. Ioffe. The organization of intervention and blockade of the Soviet republic in 1918 - 1920. L. 1930.
34 There . S. 9.
35 There . S. 7.
36 There . S. 121.
37 There . S. 123.
38 There . S. 12 0.
39 K.P. Kursel, A.A. Lukasyuk. Monetary circulation in the Russian Far East from 1918 to 1924 Chita. 1924.
40 In the same place. Page 5.
41 In the same place. Page 6.
Virginia Dorothy
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