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P.N. SHABELSKOGO-BORK I's ATTEMPT S. TABORITSKY ON P.N. Milyukov IN BERLIN on MARCH 28, 1922.



POKUSHENIYE

P.N. SHABELSKOGO-BORK I of S. TABORITSKY ON P.N. Milyukov IN BERLIN on MARCH 28, 1922

2 on March 8, 1922 in Berlin there was an attempt at P.N. Milyukov, the famous political figure, the historian and the publicist, one of organizers and leaders of Konstitutsionnodemokratichesky party who emigrated soon after seizure of power by Bolsheviks in Russia and was the editor-in-chief of the Parisian newspaper "Posledniye Novosti". During it one of heads of cadet party, the lawyer and the publicist Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, also Russian emigrant and one of editors of the Berlin newspaper "Rul" was killed. Milyukov did not suffer.

Milyukov became especially hated to monarchists after declaration to them in 192 0 g of so-called "new tactics" which consisted in refusal of armed struggle with Bolsheviks and, as a result, refusal of need of preservation of white army. In 1921 the attempt to assassinate it which terminated in failure was already made.

The group of adherents of Milyukov made opposition to most cadet party (one of leaders of which was Nabokov) adhering to old views that led to split of the organization. Nabokov was also one of heads of anti-Soviet "Russian of the national union" created in June, 1921 at a congress of "Russian of national association". Nabokov's report "Ideological bases of fight against the Bolshevism" was the most considerable of sounded at a congress.

Eaten - Pyotr Nikolaevich Shabelsky-Bork and Sergey Taboritsky, monarchists, the former officers of the Russian imperial army living in Munich - were detained by police. On interrogation their past became clear.

Shabelsky-Bork was born on May 5 18 93 g in Kislovodsk. His parents - the landowner doctor of Bork and Elza Shabelskaya - were prior to events of 1917 employees of "The Russian banner" (the publication of "The union of the Russian people", left in 1905 - 1917). Also Shabelsky-Bork consisted in "The union of the Russian people".

Taboritsky who was born on August 2 18 95 g in St. Petersburg was a son of the councilor of state.

Their courses of life closely intertwined. Both served in the Caucasian cavalry regiment, during the war Shabelsky-Bork was three times wounded. After falling of the monarchy both were in Ukraine from where together with Germans arrived Germany. They lived at first in Berlin, and with 192 0 g - in Munich. In view of the fact that the property of the father Shabelsky-Bork was seized, he earned to himself a living by transfers and literary work. Taboritsky was engaged in editorial activity (in the Luch Sveta magazine and the Prizyv newspaper), the last before attempt time worked as the typographical typesetter. Shabelsky-Bork and

Taboritsky on interrogations claimed that to any political parties do not belong, without hiding at the same time the monarchic beliefs.

The third arrested, the student Vladimir Kuyarovich suspected of partnership in crime after interrogation was released due to the lack of proofs against it.

The overall picture of attempt was given in "Latest news" on the basis of the detailed description of the incident in the Berlin newspapers.

The lecture under the name "America and Restoration of Russia" which Milyukov gave in a packed house of the Berlin philharmonic hall began at 8 hours 30 minutes and ended at ten o'clock. After its termination Milyukov went towards presidium, intending to sit down on the place. When it approached presidium, Shabelsky-Bork sitting in the third row got up and began to shoot at Milyukov. Doctor Asnes sitting in presidium threw Milyukov on a floor, but Shabelsky-Bork jumped on a tribune and continued firing. Then for Shabelsky-Bork Nabokov rushed, having hit him on a hand in which that held a revolver. At this moment Taboritsky opened fire at Nabokov.

In the hall there was panic and a crush as a part of public ran to an exit. Shabelsky-Bork's words were heard: "I revenge for royal family". Nabokov who instantly died from the bullet which got into heart (other body wounds were not) transferred to the artistic room. Taboritsky quietly went to clothes and, having taken away the clothes, went to an exit. Some woman shouted: "There is a murderer!". And Taboritsky was detained by crowd.

The description of details of attempt was published in various editions within several days after its commission, and in them was given various versions which were a little differing from each other. So, for example, there were following discrepancies: a row in which sat eaten (versions: the first, second, third), quantity of the shots made by them (a little, about fifteen, to thirty), specific actions of each of them. That circumstance that these descriptions were given on the basis of subjective impressions of eyewitnesses of an event and also the strong panic which rose in the hall (at a lecture there were about 1,200 people) can serve as an explanation for it.

Only that fact that Nabokov was killed accidentally was not called in question. Later it was confirmed also by Shabelsky-Bork.

Shabelsky-Bork showed that he shot with two revolvers: at first from the fact that was in its left pocket, then when cartridges in it ended, - from another, lying in the right pocket. It told that someone knocked down him on a floor, but he rose and up in arms made the way in life through public. Confirmed also that shouted from a tribune: "I revenge for royal family and for Russia". According to him, he assumed to lay down arms after murder and to be given voluntarily police, but before business did not reach, so he was detained by crowd.

Taboritsky said that the plan of murder of Milyukov had to carry out if Shabelsky-Bork did not manage it, but he considered that as the senior companion had the last to this "privilege". He categorically denied cash of accomplices, having said that it is about some kind of "Caucasian family revenge".

Criminals before departure from Munich destroyed all the private correspondence and before going to philharmonic hall, said goodbye in confidence that one of them will be killed.

Actions of police to attract attention and during the incident. At a lecture there were several agents of the Berlin police in plain clothes. When after attempt the police agents began to arrest Shabelsky-Bork standing on a tribune, being present at the hall began to protest, suspecting of them accomplices and to demand that called the police. The police arrived and forwarded Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky to the separate room. This circumstance gave a reason to some newspapers to say that criminals, perhaps, had accomplices in the hall and shot not only Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky, but also someone else from public.

During an assassination attempt 9 people, including the chairman of the Berlin group (milyukovsky) party of cadets L.E. Elyashev and one of editors of the Rul newspaper A.I. Kaminka were wounded.

According to the indictment, the initiative of attempt belonged to Shabelsky-Bork who decided to kill Milyukov after the speech delivered by the last on November 1, 1916 at a meeting of the State Duma. In it he accused the empress of high treason, having said that he has documentary confirmation of the words. In 1917 Shabelsky-Bork sent to Milyukov two letters with the requirement these documents to publish and, without having received the answer, began to plan murder of the leader of cadets. Taboritsky was solidary with the companion.

At Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky's actions there were anti-Bolshevist motives: as well as many other monarchists, they considered Milyukov one of the main responsible for falling of the monarchy in Russia, led to anarchy and the subsequent seizure of power by Bolsheviks.

The Russian emigrant newspapers reflected a course of investigation on business and defined the position to the events. The left circles drew in touch criminals with the monarchic organizations, right denied it. "Latest news" claimed that eaten they consist in party of monarchists which congress had to begin those days in Berlin. At the same time the newspaper lit also reaction of the monarchists who gathered for a congress headed by the baron Taube: those denied the participation in the conducted terrorist attack.

"Latest news" focused attention in touch of the act of attempt with old plans of emigrant monarchic circles, and Milyukov's murder had to become a signal for other acts of terrorism. Were brought date (on March 10) and the place (Munich) of a meeting on which the plan was developed

attempts that had to serve as the proof of the good organization of business.

"Common cause" wrote that murderers had far-reaching plans, being going to deal shortly with such famous political figures as P.N. Milyukov, V.P. Rodzyanko, V.V. Shulgin, A.I. Guchkov, including all of them "responsible for falling of the Russian monarchy and the deadly enemies". "Latest news" went further away, believing that Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky were in contact with the German monarchists dissatisfied with activity of Milyukov criticizing cooperation of the right circles of the Russian emigration and Germany.

Milyukov claimed: "... No political proofs of communication of these persons with group of extreme monarchists in Berlin are available yet. But there are bases to think that the group Markova-2-go dissatisfied with mood of more moderate monarchists decided to pass to terrorist activity recently".

"Common cause" printed curious data of medical examination of Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky who revealed "at Shabelsky-Bork is pronounced signs of a degeneratstvo and mental abnormality". It became clear also that both use long ago drugs which strong dose was accepted also in day of attempt.

Trial about attempt at Milyukov took place on July 3 - 7, 1922 in the Berlin criminal court in Moabita. Defendants were protected by the German lawyers Zac and Andersen. Originally remained obscure, Taboritsky shot or not: though witnesses showed that he killed Nabokov, Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky claimed that only Shabelsky-Bork shot. By judicial proceedings it was established that Nabokov was killed by Taboritsky.

Shabelsky-Bork was found guilty of attempted murder of Milyukov with in advance considered intention and is sentenced to 12 years of convict prison. The court sentenced Taboritsky to 14 years of convict prison for partnership in attempt and deliberate drawing to Nabokov of the severe wounds which caused his death. The investigation and court did not reveal other accomplices of crime.

Remained

obscure a question whether worked eaten on a personal initiative or carried out the decision made by any organization in which they, perhaps, consisted.

Some definiteness enter the data which are contained in the book by the American Sovietologist U. Lacker "Russia and Germany in this question: Hitler's mentors". As Lacker, Shabelsky-Bork and Taboritsky writes were "young assistants" to the famous figure of the Russian emigration general V.V. Biskupsky and before moving to Munich created in Berlin the organization like "black one hundred", and Taboritsky in the same place, in Berlin, committed an assault on Guchkov.

Both terrorists were released before term and continued the political activity in Germany.

Shabelsky-Bork in the 30th worked for Biskupsky who was at that time the head of department affairs of the Russian emigration in Germany. Taboritsky in 193 8 g became the assistant administrator of "Russian of the national union of participants of war" general A.V. Turkul.

Memoirs:

Hesse I.V. Years of exile: Vital report. Paris, 1979.

Literature:

Village of Alexandrov. A. Leader of the Russian cadets P.N. Milyukov in emigration. M, 1996.

K.A. Chistyakov

Linda Cox
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