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People of Dagestan / Otv. edition: S.A. Arutyunov, A.I. Osmanov, G.A. Sergeyev; hands. bus stake. M.O. Osmanov. M, 2003. 579 pages.

naroda of Dagestan / Otv. edition: S.A. Arutyunov, A.I. Osmanov, G.A. Sergeyev; hands. bus stake. M.O. Osmanov. M, 2003. 579 pages

So the first basic research about the Dagestan people and ethnic groups published in Moscow in Nauka publishing house is called.

"The people of Dagestan" - the next volume of the People and Cultures series published by Institute of ethnology and anthropology RAS and Nauka publishing house with assistance of Presidium of RAS and the Russian humanitarian scientific fund.

The book is written generally by group of scientists of Institute of story, archeology and ethnography of the Dagestan scientific center RAS with participation of specialists of other scientific institutions, higher education institutions of Dagestan (DGU, DGPU) and at the general coordination and scientific editing from Institute of ethnology and anthropology of RAS.

The Republic of Dagestan - the most multinational in the Russian Federation. If the North Caucasus in general differs in the ethnic mosaicity, then Dagestan in the territory of which dozens of relatives on the historical destiny and at the same time the different people and ethnic groups live from time immemorial does it especially polichromatic by differences in the level of development of the social and economic relations in certain areas, features of economic and cultural and community way of the last, geographical, economic, language dissociation of the whole nationalities and even certain settlements in recent times, etc.

The book consists of the preface, introduction of two parts, an epilog, the bibliography.

The first part contains articles about general information, an environment, the historical past, the population, economy, religious beliefs, the cities, villages and the culture of Dagestan.

The second part consists of historical and ethnographic essays of the Dagestan people and ethnographic groups: Avars, Dargins, Laks, Lezgians, Kumyks, tabasaran, Aguls, Rutuls, Tsakhur, Nogais, Tats, Chechens and others. The special essay is devoted to Russians of Dagestan.

The edition incorporated results ethnographic (including local history), historical, archaeological and also linguistic and folklore researches of the last decades. Reliable scientific materials and data on the main questions of ethnography, history, geography and ethnodemography of the Dagestan people found reflection in it; the main facts which caused development of economy of the people throughout many centuries, a role in this development, natural and geographical conditions, geographical division of labor and exchange communications, social and political history are shown. The attempt to reflect in genesis and development of elements of culture - on the one hand - a role prirodno-hozyayst-

is made

wine factors, with another - inertial and traditional and ethnic, including ethnogenetic sources and ethnocultural contacts and interferences.

According to the name of a series, the people are presented in the monograph and as ethnic groups, ethnic communities with the ethnographic face (contents) and as communities cultural, public and partly political character.

However unlike other releases of a series the authors had to give not only historical and ethnographic characteristic of the people of Dagestan, but also show them as organic set of the people (superethnic group), with the general background conditions and respectively common features and regularities of development of an ethnodemographic situation, economic, social and political and ethnocultural processes inherent in it.

The materials considered in the comparative-historical plan are investigated with possible display of both cultural and ethnic specifics of the people, and all-ethnic, all-Dagestan (regional) features in economy, life, culture, with identification of the factors causing the general and special in ecological, economic, cultural, ethnic elements including special cultural traditions and ethnocultural interactions and interferences.

Therefore in the monograph conceived originally as the collection of historical and ethnographic essays about the people of Dagestan, the big place is given to questions of the all-Dagestan history and ethnography that was expressed also in inclusion in the monograph of articles of the all-Dagestan subject in which an environment, the general history, the ethnodemographic review of the population of Dagestan, economy, religious beliefs, the cities, culture, the modern Dagestan village is considered. This section of the monograph gives a general idea about Dagestan, historical and modern, on the called subject. Here it is shown how a similar environment generated at ethnic groups (or their parts, groups) similar economic traditions, promoted addition of extra ethnic economic and cultural areas, generating partly the forced economic integration of different ethnic communities through exchange of products and labor; the community of historical destinies, the manifestations of the all-Dagestan unity, participation and patriotism which are especially escalating during the periods of foreign invasions and also traditional ethnic tolerance are illustrated. At the same time it is known that in the 90th in Dagestan there was quite critical ethnopolitical situation, there were national social movements, troubadours of an obizhennost and exclusiveness of historical destinies and level a sack - appeared

turny development of the separate people. Even the religion, clergy dispersed on the national apartments. However, as shown in monographs, the Dagestan people pretty fast understood especially mercantile, social and political, administrative (imperious) motives of these ethnic ratoborets, and thanks to it understanding and traditions of the all-Dagestan house and the fatherland prevailed, and Dagestan kept the ethnopolitical unity that showed also several electoral companies and especially events of August, 1999 when the bands created in Chechnya intruded in Dagestan. The Dagestan people stood together against the international aggressors who tried to liquidate the legitimate power and to proclaim Dagestan the Islamic republic.

One of achievements of authors of the monograph and that in it the objective difficult situation of Islamic revival, Islam syncretism, existence in it of pre-Islamic beddings, beliefs and ceremonies, a ratio of traditional (Dagestan) Islam and Wahhabism is given is shown historical coexistence of different faiths. Authors consider (and it is fair) that so far in the republic there was a steady balance of areas of a ratio of the social and political relations and an administrative deal from one party and an ethnopolitical situation - with another.

In the monograph also the contradictory processes of both the economic and cultural growth, and a certain nihilism concerning traditional national culture, mountain mentality traced in Soviet period are considered.

Progressive changes in Soviet period - growth of welfare, urbanizatsionny processes, leveling unification; introduction of industrial standard objects and products of material culture, development of new forms of the Russian and European culture, etc. objectively promoted rapprochement, the general likening of modern forms of culture and life of the Dagestan people. At the same time, the ideological policy of Soviet period promoted, because of identification national tradition and customs with remnants of feudal and patriarchal culture and life, to fading and disappearance of many elements of national culture, undermined positive sides and foundations of mountain mentality.

One more problem considered in monograph essays - about safety of ethnic originality and processes of ethnic consolidation, assimilation and deformation. Ethnic diversity - a lens -

Nye reality of the republic, but it kind of has spontaneous springs which slow down its negative manifestations and hold them in correct ethnopolitical parameters. Though, of course, preservation of the ethnonym, the self-name, language, the most characteristic (allocating them) elements of traditional and household culture and also a possibility of a certain representation in governing bodies and the power, but, mainly, in a legitimate framework is still important for all described (studied) ethnic groups.

The solution of these questions is more difficult for ethnic communities, especially small, undergone numerous resettlements and at which this resettlement continues. For them process of consolidation with the main ethnic group of group (for example, hvarshin with Avars) and even assimilation proceeds more intensively.

In the monograph in defined (perhaps, insufficient, especially in essays) degrees the questions of ethnic consolidation on groups of the people are raised. Materials show that in this question in Soviet period excesses, haste and directivity took place.

Absolutely fairly M.O. Osmanov writes: "The directive aiming at ethnic consolidation of the related people around the largest of them, in particular the people of the ando-Tsez group around Avars was one of errors of that time. However years after the collapse of the USSR showed futility of efforts on support of the imposed "consolidation" (page 560).

A lot of work is not deprived also shortcomings. Separate articles incomplete, in them all circle of the questions which are subject to lighting is not captured. The uniform principle and style of statement, uniform methodological approaches is not always maintained. Occur inconsistency in different articles.

Though in literature the opinion that Mountain Jews and Tats one nationality famous as Tats, nevertheless, in the book are devoted to them separate essays as to different ethnic groups dominates.

Material on the next people is insufficiently attracted (in particular to Georgians, Azerbaijanians, Ossetians, etc.). Separate articles are very poorly illustrated.

Despite the specified wishes, the research "People of Dagestan" is a large contribution to science. It will be useful to the most wide range of readers - pupils, students, graduate students, teachers, teachers of higher education institutions, scientists, all interested history and ethnography of Dagestan and adjacent regions of Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus.

M.R. Gasanov

Adrian Tran
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