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Formation and evolution of outlook of the prince G.E. Lvov

UDK 94 1471 "19"



1) Chernihiv state pedagogical university

of T.G. Shevchenko

e-mail: bezuala

2) Chernihiv State pedagogical university

of T.G. Shevchenko

Article is devoted to formation and evolution of outlook of the eminent public and political figure of Russia of the end of H1H - the first quarter of the 20th centuries of the prince G.E. Lvov. Features of its communicative sphere, the system of values, a way of life, esthetic tastes and religious feelings of the prince are considered.

The prince Georgy Evgenyevich Lviv (1861 - 1925) played an important role in public and political life of Russia of the end of H1H - the first quarter of the 20th centuries, however his personality long time remained unattended historians. Activity of the prince at the head of Vremenny government (March - July, 1917) 1 and its role in events of internal political life of the country became the object of study most often as heads of the All-Russian territorial union (further - VZS) in the years of World War I howl-ny2. Also attempts to investigate a course of life of the prince and his political deya-telnostz and also in detail to consider the separate periods it zhizni4 were made. However questions of formation of outlook and the communicative sphere of G.E. Lvov, religious feelings, specific features, esthetic tastes, habits and motives of behavior of the prince, found reflection only in memoirs literature of the people who were close knowing knyazya5 and the people facing it especially on business voprosam6. For a research of the identity of G.E. Lvov also his memoirs which cover the period of the childhood and youth knyazya7 have great value.

1 V.I. Startsev. Domestic policy of Vremenny government of the first structure. L., 1980; G.M. Katkov. February revolution. Paris, 1984; N.G. Dumova. Cadet party during World War I and the February revolution. M, 1988; Guide by F.A. Mechanisms of the power of Vremenny government (March - April, 1917)//National history. 2001. No. 2. Page 141-153.
2 E. Chermensky. IV the State Duma and overthrow of a tsarism in Russia. M, 1976; E. Vishnevski. The progressive block//Political parties and society in Russia (1914 - 1917): Collection of articles and documents. M, 1999. Page 89-117; Multatuli P.V. Nikolay Imperator ІІ at the head of field army and a plot of generals. SPb., 2002; The Guide by Fa the Liberal opposition on the ways to the power (1914 - spring of 1917). M, 2003; V.M. She-vyrin. The power and public organizations in Russia (1914 - 1917). M, 2003; S.V. Sandpipers. Bureaucratic elite of the Russian Empire on the eve of falling of an old regime (1914 - 1917). Ryazan, 2004.
3 Pushkarev I.M.G.E. Lvov//Russia at the turn of the century: historical portraits. M, 1991. Page 153195; Rub Accusative G.E. Lvov//the History of Russia (_kh - the 20th centuries) / Otv. edition Ya.A. Perekhov. M, 2000. Page 380-392.
4 Fomin. N.K.K of the biography of prince G.E. Lvov: documents of a family of princes Lvov in funds of archive of Tula region//Local government: traditions and present. Materials of the 1st regional academic and research conference. Aleksin, 2002. Page 12-15; Frolova L.P.G.E. Lvov at the head of the Tula territorial movement in to. H_H - the head of the 20th centuries//In the same place. Page 16-19; Prince Georgy Lvov. Return of a name: The collection of articles devoted to the 145 anniversary since birth. Kaluga, 2006.
5 T.I. T.I. Course of life of prince G.E. Lvov: Personality. Views. Activity conditions. M, 2001; K. K. Syn Otchizny//G.E. Lvov, prince. Memoirs. M, 2002. Page 235-265; M.E. Lvov, princess. Memoirs//G.E. Lvov, prince. Memoirs. M, 2002. Page 317-354; D.A. Olsufyev, count. Prince Georgy Lvov//Renaissance. 1931. September 12.
6 Research department of manuscripts of the Russian state library (Moscow). F.436. P.I.K. Korzhenevsky. 11. 1. Memoirs. Notebook of IV. "War. VZS". [1940 - 1950]. 108 l.; Archive of the All-Russian memoirs library of the Russian public fund of A. Solzhenitsyn (Moscow). E65. A.M. Kolachevsky. Memoirs. [1976]. 20 l.; Doroshenko of D. Mo ї spomin about nedavn ¾-minule (1914 - 1920). Munich, 1969; V.A. Obolensky. My life and my contemporaries. Paris, 1988; S.E. Trubetskoy, prince. Past. M, 1991; V.I. Gurko. Lines and silhouettes of the past: The government and the public in Nikolay's reign ІІ in the image of the contemporary. M, 2000; B.A. Vasilchikov, prince. Memoirs. M, 2003.
7 G.E. Lvov, prince. Memoirs. M, 2002. Page 19-232.

Georgy Evgenyevich Kakim saw the world and the place in him? Let's try to recreate characteristic features of the identity of the prince through a prism of his children's impressions and installations which, certainly, and traced that vital scenario to which it followed during all life.

Since the birth at the prince, considering aristocratic origin, there was very high level of rather future acts and aspirations. The ancient family tree obliged to awareness of the historical and social importance of family and the place in it, and mobilized to following to high examples of ancestors later. Nevertheless, G.E. Lvov was absolutely deprived of snobbery inherent in some aristocrats. Was proud not of a title, not an opportunity to be accepted at court, and the fact that Lvov' family left four svyatykh8.

G.E. Lvov spent the childhood to the village of Popovka of the Aleksinsky County of the Tula province. This small manor became a cradle of five children princes Lvov, with it, according to Georgy Evgenyevich, all was connected its zhizn9. The family atmosphere of Lvov was friendly and democratic, having become, according to the prince, "more valuable capital, than monetary which the father could not give to children" 10. Material difficulties were added to especially educational motives of parents therefore children grew at the real ascetics. Parents made gifts seldom, and even for birthdays the children usually received not store gifts, and something from parental or household things. "How many was pleasures if present, for example, pleasant in herd... a foal, or even a favourite path in a garden., a tree on which it is easy to climb", - the princess Maria of Lvova11 remembered. Her brother wrote that he does not remember toys and games in detstve12 at all. Children lived in the village, did not see shops with their magnificent show-windows, and rare guests did not load with presents candies. For this reason when someone from parents came back from the city, they did not expect gifts and "sincerely enjoyed their arrival for the sake of them" 13.

Younger Lvova since small years were accustomed to physical activity - not on coercion but because it pleased their parents and therefore that was so done by country children near whom they grew. Judging by memoirs of the brother and sister, small adult affairs really carried away them: cultivation of vegetables on own kitchen garden, collecting herbs, poultry farming. Difficulties of years of the adolescence and youth when brothers had "to lift" by own efforts Popovka, finally separated Georgy Evgenyevich from the aristocracy. "Nothing prepares so for life as need and fight against it" 14, - the prince wrote later. For certain, not the last role was played by also territorial and related proximity to Moscow, at least, in registration of external signs of a way of life of G.E. Lvov. The young prince partly represented type of the classical representative of the Moscow aristocracy of the end of H1H of century. Comparing the St. Petersburg and Moscow elite, the cadet prince V.A. Obolensky wrote that Muscovites put on carelessly, had soft, but wide manners, were warm in the personal relations. Knowing country life firsthand, were democratic on spirit and bytu15. And the rural slang of well educated G. E.Lvova16 proves the defining role of a family and social environment in life of any person once again.

The vital principles acquired in the childhood under the influence of parents in youth ideologically were issued thanks to the doctrine of the count L.N. Tolstoy. The Tolstoyism with its slogans of nonresistance to the evil violence got a big resonance in the Russian society of the 1880th when G.E. Lvov studied at the university. Besides, Lvov' family was well familiar with the writer. Though the ideological irreconcilability of the last was alien to compromise character of the prince, in general he lived life according to the basic principles of Tolstoyism: reasonable self-restriction, self-service, feasible physical work, renunciation of personal benefit, privileges and money. The prince never gave great attention sobst-

8 M. Aldanov. Pictures of the October revolution. Historical portraits. SPb., 1999. Page 166.
9 G.E. Lvov. Decree soch. Page 20.
10 In the same place. Page 57.
11 M.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 326.
12 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 105.
13 M.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 326
14 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 200.
15 V.A. Obolensky. Decree. soch. Page 363.
16 P.N. Milyukov. Memoirs. M, 1991. Page 407.

wine appearance that allowed contemporaries to compare it to territorial vrachom17, the landowner of average ruki18, to call spartantsem19 and proletariyem20. He cleaned to himself bo-tinki21, without comfort lived "out of a suitcase" in the Far East 22. Usually Georgy Evgenyevich's diet consisted of traditional national dishes. However, being a great culinary specialist, the prince sometimes from the simplest products prepared very sophisticated kushanya23. It is interesting that neglect to external attributes of the estate and a habit to self-restriction accompanied the prince and in days of poverty (the childhood, an old age in emigration), and in days of financial wellbeing (maturity). Physical work also took not the last place in his life. "Without work of people, as the waterless cloud driven by wind." 24, - the prince in 1922 wrote E.P. Pisareva. As for money, they never occupied an important place in his life. Having revived Popovka and having turned it into profitable enterprise, the prince continued to carry on business for providing the future of family. Other reasons for G.E. Lvov did not exist - personally he almost did not spend money for himself.

Having become the adult and having joined in social and political activity, Georgy Evgenyevich differed from many public figures of the era in lack of hatred to others views and beliefs. "He listened to the person differently conceiving attentively and agreed with it if that talked sense" 25, - the contemporary of the prince remembered. Without exaggeration it is possible to tell that the prince adopted tolerance from the father.

Evgeny Vladimirovich's influence on children and, especially on Georgy, was enormous. All life G.E. Lvov idolized the family, putting on a podium, first of all, the father. V.A. Lvov's princess because of early loss of hearing could not become for children the full-fledged interlocutor and the teacher. And meanwhile the head of the family always was for the son "internal criterion legal and unlawful. It was the test tool which gave the most exact measurements in spiritual and moral area" 26. According to G.E. Lvov, the parental example of payment of so-called "debts of conscience" 27 had huge educational value. When Lvova in the 1870th were ruined, the situation was complicated by many legally not issued debts, and the origin of most of them was lost eventually. The father considered the moral duty to pay them, seeking at the same time not to deprive children of pleasures of life and small entertainments. G.E. Lvov wrote that since then payment is long, as well as execution of a debt in general, brought it joy of deep moral satisfaction, personal and family torzhestva28. By the way, Georgy Evgenyevich paid the last family debt which contained more than hundred years already on the eve of World War I.

Reading memoirs of the prince and people who met it, especially in crisis situations, the similarity of behavior of the father and son in relation to vital disorders is evident. The old prince endured tests of destiny quietly, never lost courage and often repeated a phrase "Well, God willing, everything is formed" 29. The same words employees had to hear often from G.E. Lvov it in the first months February revolyutsii30.

17 R. Bur's Lokkart over Russia. Confession of the English diplomat. Riga, 1933. Page 159.
18 A. Tyrkova-Williams. Rise and crash//Renaissance. 1956. No. 52. Page 68.
19 K. K. Decree. soch. Page 241.
20 D.A. Olsufyev. Decree. soch.
21 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 207.
22 In the same place.
23 In the same place. Page 206, 379.
24 Post cards sent by prince G.E. Lvov from the USA to Paris (From archive of the Aleksinsky art and historical museum)//Development of territorial traditions in activity of modern representative bodies of local government: Materials of a regional seminar. Tula, 2003. Page 44.
25 Tsit. on: A.Yu. Smirnov. History of All-territorial organization (1904 - 1914). Yew. on soisk. Wuchang. degrees edging. east. sciences. SPb., 2001. Page 109.
26 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 55-56.
27 In the same place. Page 28.
28 In the same place.
29 In the same place. Page 27.
30 Of the diary of the general A.N. Kuropatkin//Red archive. 1927. T.1 (20). Page 65; V.A. Obolensky. Decree. soch. Page 375; S.E. Trubetskoy. Decree. soch. Page 109.

As well as the father, Georgy Evgenyevich never and looked for in anything guilty. When Lvova were ruined, the head of the family even in the family circle never grumbled on reform of 1861 31, economic consequences of which, as we know, became the reason of ruin of many landowner farms. Having endured political take-off and falling, G.E. Lvov was not inclined to expostulate on destiny too. "When you will mentally look over endured - it is necessary to thank the Lord for mercy, and you will look forward - it is necessary to hope for it", - wrote knyaz32.

Position of the younger son in family, in our opinion, also became an important factor in formation of character of the prince. G.E. Lvov admitted that "the feeling following from the fact that I really was most less remained at me for the rest of life. Always I felt that all is more senior than me and I did not grow to them" 33. Psychologists consider that often the younger child wants to be ahead of all, always hurries to begin new business, being guided by belief in what has to reach bigger, than ostalnye34. In the childhood and youth Georgy constantly competed to the brother Sergey who was one year more senior than him. At first competitions had an appearance of quarrels and fights, but over time got especially business shade. Jokes added years of restoration of a patrimonial nest, and the fact that Sergey, having thrown a gymnasium, houses "bossed" 35, kindled and concerned the younger brother. The last violently wished to prove to himself and the family that he is capable of self-sacrifice too. High origin and communications at court offered broad prospects the prince, but "he buried in the village" 36.

However, destiny you will not deceive - modest, not public and hardly noticeable G.E. Lvov who never sought "upward", made phenomenal career. It is undoubted that children's aspiration to self-affirmation and a habit to count only on own forces together with personal lines played not the last role in rise of the prince on a social and political Olympus.

It is interesting to look narrowly at features of the communicative sphere of G.E. Lvov, and it is necessary to notice some contradictions. On the one hand, among people who knew the prince he had a reputation for the good psychologist. Surprisingly thinly felt people. With identical success could lower nervousness angry nachalnika37 and bewitch the old maid of friends Lopatinykh a conversation about zhizni38. When at the end of the 1880th G.E. Lvov served in presence, district on country affairs, "everywhere where there were complications, even disorders - sent him, and everything managed" 39. The prince had exclusive talent to speak with the people, with tolpoy40. To speak (italics - O.Z. and K.Ya.), not to perorate at all. In large audience he was always lost, was not able to address listeners with speeches at all and in every possible way avoided such cases. It should be noted that fear of publicity did not belong to the psychological qualities of Georgy Evgenyevich acquired over the years. The tendency to such behavior was shown in the early childhood when once in Popovka put a house performance. Little Georgy had to play the Little Red Riding Hood but, having seen behind the lifted curtain of the audience, "was embarrassed and burst into tears". "It was the part, only for all my life", - he admitted. The contemporary remembered that to the prince it was intolerable to happen on big sob-raniyakh41. Being the deputy І State Dumy42, and then the head Vremennogo pravitelstva43, G.E. Lvov continued to avoid performances, preferring "to sit out imperceptibly and modestly" on the meste44. Meanwhile in social and political activity he was the master of unofficial negotiations, preferring private communication with adherents and vliyatel-

31 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 27.
32 The post cards sent... Page 37.
33 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 117.
34 A. Adler. Education of children. Interaction of floors. Rostov-on-Don, 1998. Page 100.
35 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 157.
36 Kuskovo E. Memories of the prince G.E. Lvov (Evening in Prague)//Days. 1925. March 21.
37 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 56.
38 K. K. Decree. soch. Page 248.
39 In the same place. Page 242.
40 In the same place.
41 Zeeler V. Knyaz Lvov in Territorial and City Committee//the Latest news. 1925. April 16.
42 V.D. Nabokov. Provisional government. Memoirs. M, 1991. Page 39.
43 V.A. Amfiteatrov-Kadashev. Pages from the diary//Past. 1996. Issue 20. The m is SPb.: Atheneum-Phoenix. Page 470.
44 A.V. Tyrkova-Williams. On the ways to freedom. London, 1990. Page 282.

ny people. We place emphasis on the personal reasons of "not publicity" of G.E. Lvov - lexical shortcomings in this case there is nothing. The biographer of the prince T.I. Polner remembered what he told easily, quietly, quickly, sometimes in monosyllables, willingly using tropes of the rustic speech. Its judgments attracted vnimaniye45 at once. Other contemporary, the colleague on humanitarian work in the Far East, the prince struck A.A. Tatishchev with ability to formulate the resolutions capable to unite representatives of different currents. "In this regard he from time to time was the actual chairman though modestly sat at the end of a long table of presidium", - noticed avtor46.

Returning to the contradictory nature of interpersonal contacts of G.E. Lvov, it should be noted that, despite "exclusive insight and vision of people through" 47, he after all, not really well understood people. According to the vital philosophy the prince, unconditionally believing in people, preferred to see in them only the best lines. Sometimes used his trustfulness both some employees on VZS, and small prokhodimtsy48. And again it is necessary to notice similarity to personal qualities of the father Georgy Evgenyevich: ".on it was very trustful, overestimated people..." 49. It is necessary to recognize therefore that psychological talents of the prince had rather intuitivnoemotsionalny, than rationalistic nature.

Esthetic tastes of G.E. Lvov too "it is from the childhood": indifference to classical art, well-known masterpieces of architecture and beauty stranger (more precisely, non-russian) nature. The native nature was the greatest esthetic value always for it. One and all people familiar with the prince, in the memoirs noted his patriotism. Magic pictures of the native nature and life in Popovka issued from Georgy Evgenyevich's pen, and fine memory allowed to recreate numerous details. Since childhood the prince was well familiar with literature. At first the father selected books for children's reading, and during the gymnasia period Georgy was fond of the Russian classics. Years of fight against need did not leave time for reading, in any case, there is no information on his literary addictions during this period, and in the evening of life the prince strongly became interested in evangelical literature. T.I. Polner fairly called him the master of the Russian word - it is obvious to all who read G.E. Lvov's memoirs. The figurative and florid style is undoubted decoration of the work. However use by the prince of grandiloquent turns in social and political addresses on the eve of the February revolution and in 1917 sometimes so ingenuously and fondly looked that over time infuriated some istorikov50. Meanwhile, the mentioned style of the letter was always characteristic of the prince what it testifies its private perepiska51 to.

As for theater, long life in the village showed to the young prince discrepancy well-known to it national characters to the images created by actors on the stage. Though "theaters expanded a framework in which my idea of the Russian life invested, they never captured me, I did not feel passion for them and did not understand in others", - G. E.Lvov52 admitted. Its musical tastes were created on the country soil too: the zhaleyka on whom the prince well played was the favourite tool since childhood. Also he very much liked to listen to a game of rozhechnik. The unique time T.I. Polner saw the modest prince literally raging from delight when accidentally got on a game of the Ryazan musicians. For nervousness the prince dropped a cap, without restraint applauded and shouted at all hall: Thank you! Thank you! Here consoled, so consoled!." 53. Wonderfully sang, "told" folk songs more precisely, capturing the art few guests in emigration. "It was not transfer (songs), and the living Russian man, live Russia, the village with all its sounds and smells. Equally nevoz-

45 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 55.
46 A.A. Tatishchev. Lands and people: In the thick of resettlement movement (1906 - 1921). M, 2001. Page 61.
47 Aldanov M. Kutuzov of the Russian revolution (Fragments)//Days. 1925. April 15.
48 About it: I. Nazhivin. The day before. From my notes. B. m, 1923. Page 116-118; Russian state military and historical archive. F.12564. Op.1. 23. L.111.
49 M.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 344.
50 G.M. Katkov. Decree. soch. Page 173; A.Ya. Avrekh. Disintegration of a tretyeiyunsky system. M, 1985. Page 190.
51 The state archive of the Russian Federation (further - GARF). F.810. M.V. Chelnokov. Op.1. 237. G.E. Lvov's letters to M.V. Chelnokov. 33 l.
52 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 167.
53 T. T.I. Knyaz G.E. Lvov//G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 294.

it was possible to grab also words, a tongue twister keeping up with motive, and those intervals peculiar only to the Russian song.", - Georgy Evgenyevich E.M. employee of Eltsova54 remembered. Crossing Atlantic, the prince did not admire the ocean at all, and Niagara Falls left it ravnodushnym55. Instead of visiting parliament and the Westminster abbey in London, G.E. Lvov asked to bring it to the English farm where with huge interest considered "sights" clear to it hozyaystva56.

The place of religion in life of the prince is a special subject. Being deeply religious person (not only on an office of Baptism, and first of all, on outlook), he divided fundamental values of Orthodoxy which defined both his outlook, and a social and political position. Humility, mildness, a self-afterfeast - here by what evangelical ideals it was guided on vital puti57. Adoption of such destiny demands discipline, mercy, respect which are accepted by the religious person as vital obligations. Each person, it is religious adjusted or not, possesses own limit postulates. He finds out that he cannot live without them and that they for it are istinami58.

G.E. Lvov described orthodox lents in the childhood as the joyful eve of light holidays of Christmas and Paskhi59, always finished own correspondence to the family G.'s abbreviation of page of t. (The Lord with you), and images of Great flatterers Yaroslavl hung on walls of the Parisian office of the prince. A children's dream to become the forest watchman to retire from wordly vanity and under cover of the century wood to plunge into special spiritual videniye60, it was over the years transformed to the aspiration to remain in Optina Pustyn. The sacred monastery attracted it not solitary life, not heavy obedience and a prayer. "Aged men" widely opened doors of the cells for all who were bent under weight immense gorya61. To help the exhausted soul to find the peace, to calm and restore it to new life - such moral feat attracted the prince. Often visiting monastery, twice in the life Georgy Evgenyevich made the decision there to remain. The heavy grief of loss of the wife, confusion and despair after crash of premiership pushed it on this step. But every time the aged man whom the prince addressed sent it to the world, considering not ready to high missii62.

In the attitude towards people the prince was guided by the principles of Christian morals. And though for the sake of success of "business" it could be reconciled from hated to it by royal bureaucracy and even to renounce the political principles, never endangered human life. T.I. Polner remembered the characteristic case which occurred during the Russo-Japanese war when the prince headed All-territorial organizatsiyu63. In August, 1904 the Japanese bombing crushed the railway station Liaoyang, and a part of personnel and property of the dressing station of the organization remained not evacuated. T.I. Polner started looking for volunteers from local community, offering people considerable money, and Georgy Evgenyevich strictly forbade it to it. "You are an adult and can do any nonsenses. But to entice people money and to endanger them life. I forbid it to you.", - sharply told on64. After all, things were shipped on carts, and at night under firing the wagon train started at way.

For G.E. Lvov as representative of a progressive part of the intellectuals of the time, the will to self-sacrifice was characteristic, and the idea of inevitability of the victim made as it seems to us, an important element of its ethics. Contemporaries noted tendency to fatalizmu65 and humility to destiny - it was as if it is created in order that preterpevat66.

54 K. K. Syn Otchizny//G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 263.
55 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 215-216.
56 In the same place. Page 213.
57 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 88.
58 Olport. Formation of the personality. M, 2002. Page 213.
59 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 50, 51.
60 In the same place. Page 222.
61 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 86.
62 In the same place. Page 87.
63 In the same place. Page 118-120.
64 In the same place. Page 119.
65 V.A. Obolensky. Decree. soch. Page 376; GARF. F.5881. Collection of separate documents of emigration. Op.2. 335. A.V. Eropkin. Notes of A.V. Eropkin, member of the State Duma. L.125.
66 N.N. Chebyshev. Trustee//Summer lightnings. 1921. No. 15. Page 1.

The reason of this phenomenon should be looked for in the field of a mystical predugotovlenno-sta, in the Russian Messianizm. "I made revolution, I killed the tsar and all... all I.", - the prince in Paris E.M. of Eltsovoy67 repeated. "Eyes watched it in some distance, and he as if smiled to it", - the employee G.E. Lvova on VZS prince S.E. Trubetskoy remembered. The fixed and at the same time pensive look of the person who, probably, believed in the special purpose did not remain unaddressed contemporaries. Though partly the prince adopted Slavophile beliefs from the father, in youth he quite consciously was fond of these ideas, without ignoring, however, theories of Westerners which works read at the university. He confessed that "both Slavophiles, and Westerners in the different ways, but equally theoretically proved and strengthened in me love for the Russian, but Westerners., imparted the ideas of civic consciousness, broad equality and progress" 68. The statement of Slavophiles that the West decays and decays did not irritate the prince with the injustice as "concerned not the, and the stranger" 69. At the same time denial by Westerners of the Russian historical tradition, independence of culture and public life-giving spirit deep offended G.E. Lvov. He noted that Westerners only strengthened in it Slavophile views. According to Slavophilism ideology, "people" were understood by the prince not only as "human material" while the concepts "spiritual essence" and "Russian nationality" were considered by it "in indissoluble communication with orthodox belief" 70. Exclusiveness of a historical way of Russia, a statement that the Russian people - bogonosets, on own expression of the prince, answered his feelings throughout all life t1.

Everything that was connected with the Russian national tradition, categorically became famous G.E. Lvov. He was so keen on national life that lost ability to notice its shady sides. "Any medal has a reverse side, - T.I. Polner wrote, - but when business concerned the Russian people, book Lviv was not able to see it" 72. S.E. Trubetskoy's assessment is sharper: "Believed book Lviv not in the Russian people in general, and actually in common people (italics - S.E. Trubetskoy) which were drawn to it in false-pink tones" 73. And, at last, about behavior in the February revolution: "Blinded by the belief in wisdom of the Russian people, Lvov he is first starry-eyed took destructive elements of revolution for growth of folk art and made one mistake for another" 74. Really, since childhood the prince did not get used to notice negative sides of national life - alcoholism, cruelty, roughness and wildness as popovsky peasants were ashamed to show all this before young misters. Since then any criticism of "the Russian man" and comparison of the last with workers of other countries were taken by the prince extremely painfully. In youthful years of the prince infuriated pathos of works of poets of "civil grief" which were caused as it wrote political inquiries sovremennikov75. He convinced companions of hot discussions that they do not know the people the same as his poets, narodolyubets and officials do not know.

The prince many times repeated that "the labor weight - the best for measurement and characteristic of the people" 76. Watching summer of 1904 ant action of the Chinese navvies in Liaoyang, Georgy Evgenyevich noticed to satellites that several dozen Ryazan kopachy the mikulinsky work in a month will execute what thousands of Chinese will do year. One of interlocutors reasonably objected: "You forget, the prince that pay your "mikula" sdelno, from a cube. And harch there is them another. From a rice pinch not really you will swing.". However G.E. Lvov was unshakable: "No, it breed such. There is no worker better than our man!" 77. In 1909 for the purpose of studying resettlement experience the prince together with T.I. Polner visited the USA and Canada. It is quite natural that observation of the American labor life could not remain unaddressed G.E. Lvova. Paying tribute to the enormous force of creativity che-

67 Tsit. on: F.A. Stepun. Former and unfulfilled. SPb., 1994. Page 330.
68 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 171, 172.
69 In the same place. Page 172.
70 L.E. Shaposhnikov. Ideology of Slavophilism and modern Orthodoxy. M, 1985. Page 19.
71 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 171.
72 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 225.
73 S.E. Trubetskoy. Decree. soch. Page 109.
74 F. Stepun. Decree. soch. Page 330.
75 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 154.
76 T.I. T.I. Decree. soch. Page 105.
77 In the same place.

lovechesky work, the prince called the USA the working country which honors work, is able to work and organize work. However respectful surprise before "model school of work" did not develop at it into admiration before Americans: "I have no right, having stayed so not enough time among Americans, to concern their internal, spiritual life. Through, their figures - with eternal chewing gum in a mouth - does not illuminate soul... The spiritual interests of the majority, apparently, are hidden in iron chests of banks." 78.

Despite the aforesaid, it seems to us that "idealization" of the people by G.E. Lvov had no especially intuitive and emotional character. The prince as the person who was well knowing rural life could not but understand its shortcomings and mental features of the people. Its optimistic forecasts about spiritual revival of the peasantry and its enormous economic potential were based, first of all, on objective understanding of serfdom consequences not obsolete still: ".ot the generation which accepted. the traditions of a mandative order acquired centuries could not be demanded instant regeneration" 79, - the prince said.

Thus, the vital principles and the main traits of character of G.E. Lvov were created in the childhood under the influence of family. The cultural and emotional atmosphere of family of Lvov allowed to bring up free from prejudices and the developed personality, the conscientious and non-conflicting person who lived in harmony with the world around. G.E. Lvov was the tolerant and compromise person benevolent in the relations with people. However in the situations incompatible with his living position, always showed the hardness of beliefs. The ability to remain itself, not to depend on an environment and not to lose courage because of vital disorders was the important trait of character of the prince which is also acquired in the childhood. At the same time his religious feelings became an internal spiritual reserve and the main motive of the majority of acts of G.E. Lvov.

His father had a decisive influence on formation of outlook of the prince. The moral principles acquired in the childhood, lifestyle and esthetic tastes of Georgy Evgenyevich throughout life remained invariable. A priority of physical work, proximity to the people and Slavophile views define calling of the prince - humanitarian activity which main object was a peasantry which is faithfully loved by it. Optimism and G.E. Lvov's belief in the spiritual potential of the Russian people during all life strengthened his confidence in future revival of the peasantry.


OAZAHAROVA" k.m.yachmem™21

1) Chernigov State Pedagogical University by T.G.Shevchenko

e-mail: bezuala

2) Chernigov State Pedagogical University by T.G.Shevchenko

The article is devoted to formation and evolution of Outlook of Prince G.E.Lvov - the outstanding public and political person of Russia of the end of the XlXth - the first quarter of the XXth century. The features of his communicative sphere, system of values, way of life, esthetic tastes and religious feelings of Prince are analyzed.

78 In the same place. Page 215.
79 G.E. Lvov. Decree. soch. Page 72.
Willie Gonzales
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