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Rural cult architecture of Altai of the end of XIXnachala XX in

nost" [1, page 16]. One of the first in studying art life regions, in particular art life of Siberia, P.D. Muratov addressed. In the work he pays special attention to art education in Siberia and to its main forms [2].

At first sight can seem that the phrase "art life of the region" is taken without the sufficient scientific bases: it can be submitted too ordinary; has no noticeable trace in the history of a world esthetics, art criticism, philosophy of public consciousness; does not contain, does not bear in itself the scientific and search beginning. And nevertheless we are convinced that behind a phrase "art life of the region" there can be a big scientific future in light everything the activity approach deepening the positions in characteristic of public processes and the phenomena.

The fact is that in this approach the social life appears not as scientific abstraction, and as the real processes of life of society involving in themselves all participants of social community in a certain vector of its existence. In this case such art activity which is not limited only to workshops of painters, schedules and sculptors, theaters, film studios and television stations, writer's or musical offices, rehearsal halls and classes for dancers and horovik, etc. means. To put it briefly, art life of society is not only productive activity of direct creators of works of art. It is also activity of all participants of art education, i.e. the teachers of professional art education and teachers teaching fundamentals of the fine arts, music, dance and rhythmics, writers at the most ordinary comprehensive schools, tutors. It is activity of a big circle of the experts serving readers, the audience, listeners, i.e. recipients of perception of the created works of art professional and amateur creativity making in mass media critical analyses of works of art and professional installations for those who will read, watch, listen to these works of art.

At last — and this the most important for this term — this activity is defined by degree of readiness of masses to a full-fledged vospriya-

Tia of works of art, their activity and coauthorship with creators of works of art creativity.

In such understanding there is no replacement or substitution of the concept "art of the region" as the last focuses the reader and the researcher product activity bigger, than on the process conducting to it. It first. And the fact that the term "art of the region" though is associated with an all-philosophical concept of forms of public consciousness is even more essential, however not really reveals obshchestvennodeystvuyushchy scale of creative process of creation of the work and its real life through the attitude towards him as to subject to assignment, distribution, spiritual consumption in masses.

We consider this circumstance the serious lack of the general theory of art narrowing borders of its functional role and, according to understanding of art in the sociological plan. Without denying considerable achievements of philosophy of art, an esthetics and Art Studies in disclosure of the nature of art as forms of reflection of reality, we nevertheless consider that activity approach to identification of the nature of art assumes broader coverage of participants of creative process and their kachestvoobrazuyushchy function in the final product of any art activity. To this purpose also has to serve the concept "art life of society". Through a prism of this concept it is easier to make out such parties of art as an activity product, as national and its international peculiarities, lines of traditional character and nationality and innovative increments, ethnocultural and regional signs.

It is quite natural that art life of society is inseparably linked with political, economic and other social processes of life of society. Therefore, it is impossible to consider art without interrelation with other institutes of life of society. And if we compare art life of the capital and regional cities, then we will see a certain unevenness of development which will be in certain respects proportional to unevenness of development of spiritual and material living conditions of people in these settlements. However it does not mean that they develop separately from each other, without interrelation and interference. Higher development of material progress does not mean big achievements in spiritual production yet.


1. Sternin, G.Yu. Art life of Russia of the second half of the 19th century 70 — the 80th years / G.Yu. Sternin. — M.: Science, 1997.
2. Muratov, P.D. Art life of Siberia of the 1920th years / P.D. Muratov. — L.: Artist RSFSR, 1974.

Article came to edition 20.10.08.

UDC 172.03

R.Yu. Volosnoye, applicant of AltGU, Barnaul, Altai Krai


The research is devoted to rural cult architecture of Altai of the end of the Õ1st — the beginnings of the XX centuries. On the basis of scientific literature

and archival documents hramostroitelny processes in the Altai village are considered at the turn of the century.

The cult architecture of rural Altai of a boundary of XIX- Since the 17th century is entered into practice new type proyek-

The 20th centuries owing to the mass character of the tny activity caused sharp — creation of model projects and increase in the population represented frequent a cart- a new way of construction activity — sooruzhe-

maintaining wooden temples on exemplary and standard ny buildings on these projects. Nevertheless, to the first

to projects. quarters of the XIX century model projects ispolzo-

fall only in civil architecture. The Russia's first album of model projects of churches was published in 1824 and included 30 projects of stone temples. Projects were designed by the rector of Academy of Arts A.A. Mikhaylov and the architect of Department of state farm I.I. Charlemagne. In an album besides plans and facades of churches construction and production comments and estimates of required materials were placed. Three views of temples presented in an album (rotondalny, crosswise and rectangular in the plan) in the spirit of classicism according to believers very much resembled secular constructions but not ancient orthodox churches. In 1838 there was the first album of model churches of work of K.A. Ton in the "Russian" style in which preference was given to five-dome temples, bulbous chapters pozakomar-ny coverings, arkaturny belts on drums, necks of heads and facades are put into practice, it is given to zakomara, platbands and portals keeled outlines, etc. Two first model albums of churches were guided mainly by big and average settlements therefore at the request of the Synod in 1844 there was the second album of Tone which included projects of wooden temples. All model projects of wooden churches of an album of 1844 represent a certain transformation of stone temples. Variations of types and the sizes of temples are reached by change of a form of zaversheniye (tent, vosmiskatny, chetyrekhskatny with demolition) and increases in the main sizes of church by means of additional volumes (roundabout gallery, an antechurch with the bell tower, a refectory with the tent bell tower.

By 1857 "The atlas of plans and facades of wooden parish churches on 250, 300, 400, 500 and 750 people" was published. The atlas of 1857 was repeatedly supplemented and republished later. In fact, and to contents this atlas is similar to the so-called "Atlas of the Sacred Synod" in official documents and an album of model drafts of the edition of 1899. Church the villages of New Poltava, Nikolaevka and Draft are built from the copy of the drawing No. 9 of this atlas (on 300 people) [1, l. 26]. Church in the village of New Ilyinka according to the plan of No. 22 [1, l. 80]. The church building in the settlement of Rodino was under construction according to the plan of No. 5 of the collection of projects of the rural St. churches. Synod [2, l. 99].

In Altai, owing to prevalence of villages with the average number of inhabitants the project of wooden church on 300 people recommended by the Altai district for construction of temples in the resettlement settlements dated for the 150 anniversary of the district was most distributed. On this project the majority of the Altai rural temples, with small differences in finishings of facades were built: in 1894 church for the sake of Saint Pervoverkhovny Apostles Pyotr and Pavel in the village of Ovchinnikovo of the Barnaul County (nowadays the region Kosikhins-ky of Altai Krai) (S.N. Dmitriyev drew), from more extended refectory church for the sake of the Intercession of the Theotokos in the village the Magpie Log (nowadays Pervomaisky district of Altai Krai), the temple for the sake of Saint Nicholas The Wonderworker in the village of Lushnikovo of Talmen-sky district of Altai Krai and others [3, l. 38]. For small and poor settlements of the Tomsk and Tobolsk province the basic project of wooden churches was recommended for 300 people in the simplified look: without covering, without refectories and bell towers also accomodated 80 or 180 people. Space-planning solution of the temple in the village of Lushnikovo: the simple rectangular altar passes into the main volume of the temple with two exits on one axis, the small refectory and an antechurch follow further. Over church towers vosmerik, topped with an octahedral tent and bulbous a central board [4, page 231].

Bell towers of projects of temples on 300 people, as a rule, two-story with a low tent and a small glavka, there was a front stairs with a church porch. Model and standard projects assume a modest decor in the form of a gear sves, frame platbands with nippers in the top part. The decor of church in the village of Lushnikovo is also unpretentious. The extended rectangular window openings are put into platbands with high to a lobanye, coming to the end with eaves - sandriky, the subwindow board from below is noted by a wavy carving. Triangular pediments a krylets have "wavy" at-cheliny. Sides of a drum are decorated by large geometrical figures - an octahedron between two rectangles. The volume of the temple runs all over the developed eaves giving a subeaves shadow [In the same place.].

The project of wooden church No. 31 on 500 people from editions of the same album was implemented in the temple for the sake of God's Arkhistratiga Mikhail in the village Cross the Nizhnekulundinsky volost (nowadays in the territory of the Kamensk district of Altai Krai), executed in 1908 by Homich executing affairs of the Diocesan architect [5, l. 48.]. Along with the Atlas of 1857 the Head Department of means of communication and public buildings published "The atlas of facades, plans and profiles of churches, iconostases and chapels" where projects of stone and wooden temples entered, including and quite considerable by the sizes. Later albums of projects of churches for construction in villages of Specific department and in villages of the state peasants are published. Special albums are created for Siberia and the Western provinces. Often projects pass from one album into another and repeat many times. Because of a set of the duplicating atlases and albums in official documents (especially at the level of rural, volost administrations) plans and drawings of churches were designated by simple numbering without concrete basic data that significantly complicates origin of stylistics and determination of appearance of the temple. For example, the trustee on constructions of church in the village of Voronikhe of the Bohr volost Ivan Kaygorodov in the financial and auxiliary application reports to the Chief Okruga on intention to build church at the suggestion of the diocesan architect Habarov "according to the plan of No. 21", without explanations from what source there was this numbering of the project of the temple and that will be the marked temple [6, l. 117-117 about.]. Projects of Tone were usually used in large settlements and the cities until the end of the 19th century, unlike the basic atlas of 1857.

Besides, in Altai the traditions of construction of temples on samples and analogies proceeded "with a bottom". El-tsovsky rural society of the Charyshsky volost having elected trustees for creation of church asked Mountain Board to issue to the marked persons the plan and a facade of church for an example of again under construction church of the Barnaul volost in the settlement of Chistyunskom (nowadays Topchi-hinsky region of Altai Krai) [7 l. 32. about.]. Close analogs of the church in the village of Lushnikovo constructed on the model project on 300 people existed not only in Altai (church in the village of Vypolzovo Talmens-kogo of the area, church in the village of Charyshskoye of Charyshsky district), but also in other regions of Siberia (Ekaterina's church in the village of Knyazevke of modern Tarsky district of the Omsk region, church in Cela Samojvalovo Muromtsevscogo of the region of the Omsk region) [8, page 232]. It demonstrates about broad practice of construction of orthodox churches according to model and standard projects.

The cult architecture in the villages of Altai at a turn of the XIX-XX centuries is inseparably linked with the main migration and social processes of that period.

Financial and organizational nuances often played the predominating role on total capacious and externally - specific characteristics of rural temples.

Country resettlements to Siberia of the last quarter of XIX — the beginnings of the 20th centuries had significant impact on process of territorial and cultural development of Altai. Resettlement actions of the authorities even more differentiated rural settlements (to already traditional division on the basis of existence or absence of church: the village village) on resettlement and starozhilchesky settlements. First of all it concerned questions of financial aid from the authorities on construction of temples. At a turn of the XIX—XX centuries in connection with the celebration of the 150 anniversary of the district of the power financed construction of a set of churches and schools in the resettlement settlements of Altai, to starozhilchesky settlements the monetary assistance it was denied. How it was noted in reports of Resettlement Management, went to Altai to? all immigrants from the European part of the country. On average from 1884 to 1892 annually years to Altai there arrived about 25 thousand people [9, page 8]. Repeated increase in number of the population of Altai in connection with mass resettlements led to growth of construction of Orthodox churches. By the end of the 19th century in Altai 170 Orthodox churches were built, and in the first decade of the 20th century to them 162 more churches [10, page 14-15 increased.]. The total number of Orthodox churches and churches of Altai by 20th years of the 20th century made about 500.

Process of mass resettlement of peasants of the European part of Russia began

after the publication of the law on July 30, 1865. Till this time the immigrants could be attributed only to the Smolensk volost of the Biysk County which population belonged to the state peasants, "never being in the obligatory relation to the Office" [11, page 19-20]. The ban on resettlements extended only to mining volosts. Under this law the resettlement of peasants was allowed by an addition to starozhilchesky societies on "reception sentences" (for a certain payment) or by "settlement" on the free earth in the resettlement site with a plot of 15 tithes (formation of new settlements).

In 1896 the Resettlement Management which in a consequence became one of the largest independent government agencies with rather well developed organizational structure is formed. In the first decade of the 20th century potential immigrants from the central part of the country practice of sending "walkers" to the Siberian lands for the purpose of exploring of natural, climatic and living conditions of future residences widely began to take root. The delegated "walkers" even before departure to Siberia inquired also inquiries, by the order of reference books, about existence in any given areas of orthodox churches, and in cases of lack of temples about opportunities of their construction.

The second stage of resettlement to the Altai district began since 1906, and is connected with carrying out Stolypin agrarian reform. Nicholas II signed the law on transfer of lands of the Altai district under resettlement sites. After 1906 the resettlement to the Altai district reached the greatest scope that forced local authorities (secular and spiritual) is more organized to equip newcomers of immigrants. An indicator of it was that land management ranks prior to hramostroitelny and organizational actions of immigrants beforehand allocated to future pricht of church spare sites of farmstead and field lands. So, for example, in 1910 for the pricht "having to be built vpos-

to a temple ledstviya to villages Steppe Kuchuk Lenkovskoy to the volost of the Barnaul County" (nowadays in the territory of Rodinsky district of Altai Krai) allocated the spare site (farmstead) at a rate of 1.00 tithes only of "the comfortable earth at the settlement" and the spare site (field) similar earth of 97, 86 dessiatins in the northwest direction from the settlement [12, l. 9 about. — 10.]. Thereby the land management authorities, allocating the earth to potential prichta to some extent very much risked as in the conditions of frequent "crop failures of bread" and the subsequent military-political events a set of rural temples became "unfinished constructions".

In 1907 under the decree of the emperor the Special Meeting at the Synod for cares of religious needs of immigrants was founded. The occupied territory of Asian Russia was subdivided into 12 special resettlement areas in most cases coinciding with administrative borders of the Siberian provinces and areas. At the head of each resettlement area, managers in duties whom church and construction actions entered were put. The meeting requested data on where it is necessary to open new arrivals and to build churches. In each province, special traveling priestly areas were created. To each area it was appointed "traveling pricht" as a part of the priest and the psalm reader. The bishop Tomsk and Altai quite often personally visited new resettlement settlements, blessed newly created arrivals, and in cases of great financial difficulties of immigrants promised comprehensive the help. The visit "drive" of Preosvyashchenny Lord Makari at the beginning of the 20th century to the settlement of the Brittle willow of the Pokrovsk volost (nowadays Mikhaylovsky district of Altai Krai) which residents built many years orthodox church can be an example. Lord Makari having got acquainted with a condition of construction of the temple "blessed for new year pricht for which and houses are ready..." [13, l. 165-166].

At a turn of the XIX—XX centuries in Altai most of new settlers formed the certain settlements on the sites allocated to them, and only an insignificant part was attributed to starozhilchesky settlements. The immigrants who arrived to Altai brought up a question of construction in their settlement of church at once. For them the temple was that "thread" which connected them with the homeland, with a habitual way of life and conditions. Being natives of the European part of the country where Orthodox churches functioned almost in each settlement, new settlers got used to their proximity and frequentations of parish church. Numerous permissions and applications on construction of churches demonstrate to it. In particular, society of peasants of the Kalmakovsky volost of the settlement Yaroslavl writes: "We the people habitual to pray to God in the temples. In the homeland at us that the settlement, honor also the temple." [14, page 108]. Residents of the village of Lotoshina Cherno-Kuryins-koy of the volost (modern Novosibirsk region) in the application on donation of a reward and a free holiday of the wood on construction of church, accented attention of the authorities that: ".derevnya ours is rather poor all from the Russian immigrants to whom without church to live not privychnyya consists... and without God's Temple it is boring for us to live as we got used ancestors in the homeland of near Bozhiikh Hramov..." [15, l. 24]. These data confirm the insufficient number of Orthodox churches in Siberia, in comparison with the European Russia, per capita.

In general as pre-revolutionary literature claims, orthodox immigrants differ from old residents in the fact that are more religious, visit more often

churches and "spend time in idleness less" [16, page 342]. This circumstance divided rather unified country people and caused a peculiar church and construction competition between the resettlement and starozhilchesky population and settlements. So rural society of peasants of the resettlement settlement Yaroslavl the Kalmakovsky volost in the summer of 1897 prepared a sentence of a village assembly and the application on desire to build the temple on what inhabitants of the volost center immediately submitted the similar petition to higher instances for construction of church in their settlement [1, page 108]. Further polemic correspondence between settlements with transfer of advantages of any given settlement before another followed. If that was talked of financing of construction of cult buildings "at public expense" such disputes and the conflicts at a turn of the XIX—XX centuries, as a rule, were solved in favor of resettlement settlements. Besides, differentiation of the Altai country people on old residents and immigrants in some villages reached special cases as, for example, in the village of Kalmanke of the Shadrinsk volost (modern regional center of Altai Krai) "to a .gda new settlers are not content with the general church, build "", new." [17, page 342]. The fact of simultaneous construction of two Orthodox churches in the village Kal-manke (besides not being the volost center), is confirmed by data from reference diocesan books [18, page 320].

From the moment of foundation of the new settlement the immigrants ozabochivatsya by creation of church at once, establishing "church fund" which, as a rule, is "on hands" at the trustee, or stored in volost board. The church fund was formed, "... podushno on a public censure and dobrokhotelny donations taking care to the Temple Sacred.", among villagers [19, l. 233].

Less initiative part of the immigrants wishing to have constantly near the residence Orthodox church overpaid not one dozen rubles for inclusion or settlement in the volost village or are closer to it where there was a church. Somebody Mikhaylovich installed in the Barnaul district of the Barnaul County in the letter home (Poltava province) writes Samoil: ".nas remained a little on that place where we are ranked, and dispersed on the neighboring villages on residence: who went that to the wood is not present, and who that church far. If it is necessary for God, and we will be alive, then and I have a hunting to pass closer to church." [20, page 154].

To Altai the Russian immigrants of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries introduced many construction traditions and advanced technologies used in cult architecture. In particular thanks to immigrants in rural areas began to develop violently brick, oven and plaster crafts, before ".kirpich went to the city at the plants and mines. also there are Dutch furnaces." [1, page 342]. In orthodox church of the resettlement settlement of Nikolaevka of the Pokrovsk volost "to a .dva round furnaces, one Dutchwoman.", ".v churches of the village. Draft Narymsky volost. two furnaces Dutch are put." [3, l. 458, 338]. In temples of starozhilchesky settlements, as a rule, furnaces were put by "Russians" or "counter-easily soiled".

Nevertheless, despite the general positive influence of the resettlement movement of a turn of the XIX—XIX centuries on all aspects of history of Altai, development of this process happened not absolutely smoothly. It is about mass returns of immigrants home the most shown on a closing stage of resettlement process. Numerous returns in

the European Russia was most often caused not by justification of hopes of new settlers, the underestimated climatic conditions, the bad and untimely organization of reception of immigrants on places, lack of vital and household conveniences including lack of cult buildings for satisfaction of religious requirements. To the resettlement settlement Pokrovsky Ordinskoy the volost of the Barnaul County, (nowadays in the territory of the Novosibirsk region) in years of foundation of the settlement (1897), the Office allocated funds for construction of the temple, but by 1905 the Pokrovsk society did not define start date of construction of church and preparation for these purposes of the wood yet, motivating it with that ". that in a zaselka only 129 householders from whom many think remained to leave, in 1896 was 1281 souls, and to 1902 there were 571 souls from which by 1905 200 more souls decreased." [21, l. 628].

Thus, the resettlement movement to Siberia at the end of XIX — the beginning of XX intensified hramostroitelny processes in Altai, by repeated increase in the population and, therefore, and need of increase in construction of orthodox churches. Led isolation of the newcomer of the population from old residents to emergence of the hramostroitelny and moral and religious competition in the Altai villages that qualitatively and quantitatively affected on spiritual development and a condition of country people. Immigrants from the European part of the country introduced many construction and architectural traditions in civil and cult architecture, till this time of little-known.

According to given to the first general census 1897, at the end of XIX orthodox population of the Tomsk province which part the Altai district was made 1743704 people, Old Believers — about 100000 were the second most populated [22]. In places of traditional accommodation of Old Believers (the basin of the Chumysh, Salair Ridge River, Ore and Mountain Altai) between two of these religious and dogmatic groups at a turn of the XIX—XX centuries developed organizational hramostroitelnye contradictions. At procedures of permission of church construction the temporal and spiritual powers surely claimed data on confessional structure of any given settlements. In settlements with prevalence not of orthodox inhabitants of construction of temples it was recommended as a matter of priority. Old Belief societies developed the majority of territories of Altai in the 18th century, and they were wary of resettlement plans of the authorities. Besides in their memory there were memoirs about tough policy of Peter I in relation to the Old Belief population (forced "ashes" of dissenters, elimination of chapels and houses of worship, etc.). Some of means of fight for upholding of the religious and traditional and household tenors of life were rejection in rural societies of new orthodox members and unwillingness to participate in orthodox hramostroitelny activity. Organizational plans for creation of orthodox church in the village the Stokehole (nowadays nonexistent village in the territory of Zalesovsky district of Altai Krai) at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries can be an example. The Kabinetsky administration allocated the sum of money and free construction material for construction of the temple, and everything that was only required from inhabitants - it is only peasants in general refused to make construction, however, at a village assembly from the idea of a construction of orthodox church as most of them adhered to Old Belief traditions [23, l. 25.].

In some Old Belief settlements a situation it was heated to the highest degree of conflictness. To Talits Anuyskoy's village the volost (nowadays in the territory of Altai Republic) where inhabitants "everything is universal the dissenters who are not accepting Priesthood", a number of organizational measures for construction of orthodox church (drawing up a sentence and the choice of the trustee) was predlozhno the volost administration on what inhabitants resolutely said: ". what churches do not wish to have at themselves and if to volume they are forced, then all of them to one will part from the village." [24 l. 88]. In the village of Voronikha of the Bohr volost, modern Rebrikhinsky district of Altai Krai, affected party in the address to the chief of the Altai District writes, that orthodox immigrants began construction of the temple, in response to it in April, 1899 the Old Belief majority of the village "broke" several houses at the moved peasants and in the menacing form insisted about eviction [the 25th page 111.].

Attempt to reduce religious tension between Old Believers and orthodox inhabitants was practice of the organization of construction of edinoverchesky churches (Sibiryachikhinsky Nikolaev church, Baturovsky Bogoyavlenskaya, etc.). Parishes of these churches submitted to the orthodox diocese, and church services were conducted on Old Belief canons.

Besides, in Altai are known practice of reorganization of Old Belief chapels to edinoverchesky temples.

In the middle of the 19th century at the request of parishioners of the village of Shi-pitsyno (nowadays Talmensky district of Altai Krai) the dissenting chapel was reconstructed to the edinoverchesky temple according to the plan of the Barnaul architect Shul-dal [26th page 233-234].

At a turn of the XIX—XX centuries construction of orthodox churches in settlements the Bibliography was also problematic

1. CHAF JSC F. 4. Op. 1 2528.
2. CHAF JSC F. 4. Op. 1 2465.
3. Hramostroitelstvo in Altai (the middle of XVIII — the beginning of the 20th century). Catalog. — Barnaul. 2005.
4. T.M. Stepanskaya. Cult architecture of the Altai / TM Stepanskaya//Altai collection. — The issue XIV is Barnaul: Altai book publishing house, 1991.
5. Hramostroitelstvo in Altai (the middle of XVIII — the beginning of the 20th century). Catalog. — Barnaul. 2005.
6. CHAF of joint stock company. T. 4 Op. 1. 2389.
7. GATO. F.6. Op.1. 872. L. 32.
8. T.M. Stepanskaya. Cult architecture of the Altai / TM Stepanskaya//Altai collection. - Issue of XIV-Barnaul: Altai book publishing house, 1991.
9. N.F. Ivanova. The Siberian peasantry in 1917 — the beginning of 1918 Moscow, 1990.
10. R.V. Mezentsev. Orthodox church in Altai in 1917-1940 the abstract a yew. for a degree of the candidate of historical sciences...
11. Altai. The historical and statistical collection concerning economic and civil development of the Altai mountain district under the editorship of P.A. Golubev. Tomsk, 1890.
12. CHAF of joint stock company. 4. Op.1. 5356.
13. CHAF of joint stock company. 4. Op.1. 2528.
14. Siberian resettlements. Documents and materials. Release 1. Novosibirsk, 2003.
15. CHAF of joint stock company. 4. Op.1. 2528.
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17. Altai. The historical and statistical collection concerning economic and civil development of the Altai mountain district under the editorship of P.A. Golubev. Tomsk, 1890.
18. The reference book on the Tomsk diocese for 1902-1903 under D.E. Berezov's edition. Tomsk, 1903
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Article came to edition 17.10.08.

in the territory of foreign justices of Altai. In total at a turn of the XIX—XX centuries four foreign justices (Kumyshskaya, Bystryansky, Kokshin-Skye and Sarasinskaya), with the national self-government entered the Altai district (as a rule, not the Orthodox Christian). Orthodox inhabitants of a resettlement zaselk the Velizhansky Log of the Kumyshsky Foreign Justice consisting of 9 settlements with the population to 2200 male souls (nowadays a part of the territory of Habarsky and areas Pankrushikhins-kogo of Altai Krai; Krasnoozersky and Koch-kovsky districts of the Novosibirsk region) in 1899 decided to construct Orthodox church. On these purposes the rural society had a necessary monetary fund, the petition from the spiritual administration, and the made public censure which needed to be testified in a justice. The foreign justice, acting through the Country Chief, refused survey of a public censure as did not recognize for immigrants of the right for their independent administrative existence as the legal entity — country society [27 l. 191-193]. In fact the Velizhansky Log — the unwillingness of the foreign authorities to have the temple of orthodox religion in the territory became a cause of failure to residents of the village.

Thus, the temporal and spiritual powers at a turn of the XIX—XX centuries in settlements with prevalence not of the orthodox population on the one hand tried to conduct missionary activity, on the other hand tried to protect small orthodox inhabitants in these settlements from influence and possible promotion of other religions and faiths. Not orthodox residents of the Altai villages in every possible way prevented the ideas and actions of the authorities and orthodox minority in temple construction (refusals, sabotages, physical actions, etc.)

Gjertsen Mathias
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