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Baron V.V. Meller-Zakomelsky (1869-1920)



138

ANTI-BOLSHEVIST RUSSIA

L.L. Sardak

BARON V.V. MELLER-ZAKOMELSKY (1863-1920)

Became known to Meller-Zayumelskiye in Russia at the end of the 18th century

In 1740 in the Russian artillery the ordinary gunner enlisted 15-year-old Ivan Meller-Zakomelskaya coming from "the German nation of petty bourgeoises of the Lutheran law". Competent, clever and desperately courageous, he quickly promoted in that "a loud age of military disputes, the witness of glory of Russians". He became famous as the conqueror of fortress Ochakov during Russyu-turetsky war of 1787-1791

Catherine II highly appreciated military talent and courage the general-anshe fa Mollera: in 1789 he was built with descending posterities of ohms in baronial to a stoin-stvo with command to be written "Meller-Zakomelskaya - the Zakomels-cue".

Two sons of Ivan Ivanovich, Egor and Pyotr, made outstanding military career: both were involved in wars with Napoleonic France, in Patriotic war of 1812 and in foreign campaigns of the Russian army of 1813-1814 Pyotr Ivanovich Meller-Zako- in in Meller-Zakomelsky

melskiya in 1814 was about - (Kyshtym history - revolutionary

museum. It is published for the first time)

it is exhausted in generals from artillery and appointed the commander of all artillery of the Russian army, since 1819 to the death in 1823 held a post of the Minister of War.

And his son Vladimir chose in unlimited career. At the beginning of the 1850th he married Claudia Aleksandrovna Zotova, the granddaughter of the merchant L.I. Rastorguyev and sdny of successors of the iron and ironworks plants belonging to volume Kyshtymskosh of the mountain district of the Perm province. After death of Rast of an orguyev, management of the district secretly passed to the father of his son-in-law - the fanatical Old Believer of GF. Zotova, to one of heads of sect of Old Believers-bespopovtsev in South Ural. Meanwhile the emperor Nicholas I began persecutions on Old Believers with the purpose to eradicate split of church; sectarians-bespopovtsy were especially strictly pursued. And Zotov which despite arrangements of the highest clergy and temporal powers to pass into edinovery, remained the firm adherent of Old Belief, in 1837 according to the personal order of Nicholas I the settlement in the Finnish horst Kevsgolm was banished on e eternally. Of course, Meller-Zayumelsky' rsdstvo with Old Believers could not be left without consequences, and the major general V.P. Mel-ler-Zakomelsky was forced to resign in 1857 "for family reasons". After his death in 1862 his widow, the hereditary tradeswoman Claudia Aleksandrovna Zotova owning two profitable houses on Ofitserskaya Street in St.-Petersburg kept the right to be called as baroness Meller-Zakomelskaya.

From their six children only the younger son Vladimir who was born in 1863 gained fame in Russia. As the son of the general and the grandson of the Minister of War he was enlisted in the Pazhesky building (pages passed the training program of military gymnasiums in the first five classes, then they studied two more years in special classes according to the curriculum of military colleges). Vladimir was going to become a cavalryman and in the senior special class, except the military sciences, general for all pages of vurs, completed a full course ezets, cabins and equestrian vaultings under the leadership of the instructor of Officer cavalry school. Being one of the best pupils of the case, in senior class he served cameras pages at court of (cameras pages consisted at persons of a royal surname for performance of their instructions and rendering various services to them when holding palace ceremonies and balls where the ordinary servants were not allowed).

The Pazhesky case V.V. Meller-Zakomelsky ended in 1883 by the 1st category with production in cornets and was released in l. Model year.

Horse regiment. Monotonous and not slishyum the heavy service which is closely bound with a social life of the highest capital society and rich in festivals and binges, became it in burden soon. And about sluzhiv in a regiment several years, it left in a stock of a Guards cavalry in a rank of a cornet and began to participate actively in Kyshtymskikh's affairs of the mountain plants, sdny of successors of which it was.

In 1892 the baron Msllsr-Zakomslsky was included into the Main government of Kyshtymsyugo of the mountain district (consisted from a Torah x the members elected by a general meeting of owners at a closed ballot). And after his mother redeemed from one of successors of the plants, A.P. Golovnina-Kharitonova, her share, Meller-Zayumelskiye was become the largest shareholders from all co-owners of the district.

In 1893 it got in Yamburgsyum S.'s county - the St. Petersburg province the big manor which had two estates. Having put it on favorable terms in the National noble bank, on the obtained loan he built the bridge through the Luga River which connected two estates and was engaged in expansion and improvement of a manor. And a cher z several years it became the best in northern districts of the province. Picturesquely races - on lozhenny, it had "the spacious, richly trimmed mansion, two dachas for leasing, the house of the forester, the extensive park extending far on the bank of the river of Luga, the magnificent garden, the farmyard on 200 heads of a cattle equipped with the railroad for giving of a forage and a water supply system with trenches in concrete on lu, the magnificent stable on 30 horses, a kitchen garden, greenhouses, the hen house, molochnyu, different lordly inventions". The manor was recommended "for summer residents from well-founded a class and, St. Petersburg wishing to spend with full comfort summer in the village of the design and estimate documentation".

Economic "the cornet reserved and" became the active figure of the Yamburg district zemstvo, and he was elected by public S. - the St. Petersburg provincial territorial meeting. In 1903 he was elected the leader of the nobility Yamburgsyugo of the county.

Remaining at the same time the member of the Main board of the Kyshtym mountain district, he took active part in its work. The plants of the district needed re-equipment, and it demanded considerable financial investments. For streamlining of management of the district and distribution of expenses and income co-owners of the district in 1900 created joint-stock company of Kyshtymskikh the mountain plants" which 50% of stocks belonged Meller-Zayumelsky. The same year the design and estimate documentation the board received pledge of property of joint-stock company in Yaros-

lavsko-Kstromsyum land bank a loan in 3,473 thousand rubles. Having enclosed its considerable part in technical modernization of the plants, shareholders planned to finish it in 1903, but works were delayed. The financial debt of society accrued as difficulties with selling of finished goods appeared: war with Japan began, receiving cars for export of products became difficult and it settled on warehouses, and meanwhile the prices of iron in the Russian market of drop. And the district fell into an emergency: there were not enough current assets, debt at the worker on the salary grew.

In 1904 the Ministry of the imperial yard and destinies offered Meller-Zayumelsyum a position of the chief of Head department of the Altai district whose mines and the plants fell into decay. For management of the district the person not necessarily with mountain education, but vigorous and with a business grasp, capable to resolve economic issues in new conditions was required. Having fulfilled in Altai two years and having gained good administrative experience, he came back to St.-Petersburg.

In 1906 the baron Meller-Zayumelsky was elected the chairman S. - the St. Petersburg provincial territorial justice. Being engaged in affairs of zemstvo, he paid to the Kyshtym mountain district much attention - to the main source of its income because financially e situation joint-stock societies and became everything bo leu menacing. Using its communications, the board since December, 1904, repeatedly addressed to the Ministry of Finance and in National bank with a request to issue money advances, claiming every time that "in case of refusal to society in the asked loan the plants will be left without necessary materials and in the shortest time will be forced to stop Xu action and workers will be left without work and without means of support". However and after receiving loans obshchestyu could not recover from crisis: total debt for January 1, 1906 grew to 8,385 thousand rubles at balance of 15,963 thousand. Over society the bankruptcy threat hung.

Inherited a merchant grasp, Meller-Zayumelsky in 1906 managed to attract the Anglo-Siberian corporation which is just created in London to crediting of the district: a zainter put British extraction of copper-bearing ore and production of copper in Kyshtymsyum the mountain district where copper-smelting production was ostanovdeno more half a century back "on poverty of ores and on not opening still others, the best and for melting more favorable". Director Anglo-Siberian yurpora-

tion, the mining engineer by training, L. Urkart since 1896 lived in Russia where he actively was engaged in oil business and studied a condition of the branches of the Russian industry, and therefore he knew well about increase in demand for copper, the caused fast development of electrical equipment. Increase in prices for copper coincided with strong falling of the prices of iron, and, by calculation the Urkarta, temporary losses from production of iron at the modernized Kyshtymsyugo's plants of the mountain district could be compensated for the account of smelting and sale of copper. Of the Anglo-Siberian corporation sent to Pravdeniye money for taking by mines and the plants of the Kyshtym mountain district, having thought up the difficult scheme of the transaction with Obshchestyum Kyshtymskikh of the mountain plants which would allow to veil transition of the district under control of the British capital. That the scheme worked, the Russian intermediary, authoritative as in a byurokragicha a sky, and business community of Russia was necessary. Offered this role of Urkart to Meller-Zayumelsky, and that agreed. And in 1907. The council of ministers approved the transaction between Kyshtymskikh's Society the mountain plants and the Anglo-Siberian corporation. As a result Urkart joined the board of Society of Kyshtymskikh the mountain plants with the rights giving it the distribution of finance is possible to control St and to manage affairs, and Meller-Zayumelsky, only about become in board from former structure was elected the chairman. The baron became an intermediary at sale by the former owners of the district of the actions to British and, probably, the intermediary not disinterested: in 1911 the complaint of the owner of 1,500 stocks of society V.G Druzhinin, the former member of the Main board of the district demanding revision of conditions of their sale from V.V. Meller-Zayumelsyugo came to the Senate. Anyway, but attraction of the British and American capital allowed to build new mines and the copper-smelting plants, to equip them with the most modern American equipment, and by 1915 the production of copper in the Kyshtym mountain district was nearly a half of volume of its production in the Urals.

Meanwhile Meller-Zayumelsky in 1909 was re-elected as the chairman S. - Peterburgsyuy provincial zemsyuy justices for the second three-year term. Having entered an Union on October 17 party, he became the member of its Central Committee.

In 1912 S. - St. Petersburg provincial to a zemsyua the meeting elected the outdoor adviser V.V. Meller-Zayumelsyugo to the State Council of Russia. Since 1913 he headed the Center group, influential in the State Council, yutory totaled oyulo 60 people, had

the bureau also supported strengthening of a constitutional monarchist system in Russia. In the summer of 1915, after defeats of the Russian army, in the State Duma the Progressive block intending to convince the emperor Nicholas II was created to form the "government of public trust" capable to lead Russia to the victory. Meetings of presidium of the Progressive block were held on Meller-Zakomelsky's apartment (Moika, 75). On behalf of the Center group of the State Council he signed the action program of future government developed by the Progressive block.

Besides political activity he was busy with performance of duties of the member of Registration and loan committee on the commerce and industry credits at Board S. - the St. Petersburg office of Guo of sudarstven-ny bank (the committee considered the bills submitted to account, gave an assessment to goods on the security of which "the loan", "about-suzhda l" the credits of pledgors and their reliability was asked). Members of the committee, well-known PEOPLE in the capital business world (E.L. Nobel, I.A. Voronin, A.A. Schwartz, A.N. Brusnitsyn and others - only 15 people), were elected by Council of a wasp of donative bank for two years and approved to a position as the Minister of Finance. According to the petition of the managing director of office who was the chairman of Registration and loan committee to Meller-Zakomelsky stay term at this position repeatedly lasted.

All prerevolutionary years he closely cooperated with Urkart which actively expanded the business in nonferrous metallurgy of Russia, applying the scheme approved when mastering the Kyshtym mountain district. Through false founders among whom there was also Meller-Zayumelsky three mining societies were created. Their boards were in St.-Petersburg, Meller-Zayumelsky was their formal chairman and the owner of the large equity stakes acquired on favorable terms, but Urkart managed really all three societies.

In November, 1917 the plant managements of Society Kyshtymsyugo of the mountain district refused to carry out the Bolshevist decree about introduction of working control, and in December the Council of People's Commissars accepted a postanovdeniye about a yunfiskation and nationalization of "all property of Kyshtymsyugo joint-stock company of the mountain district".

Meller-Zayumelsky preferred to leave Petrograd. At the beginning of 1918 it appeared in Kiev where entered into bureau of the Special meeting of members of the State Duma of all convocations and the State Council. In October, 1918 in Kiev the congress monarchic took place it is adjusted -

of ny former members of a wasp of a donative thought, of osudarstvenny council, Church cathedral, zemstvoes, representatives of various political parties of Russia opposing Bolsheviks. At a congress it was created the Council of National Association of Russia (CNAR) - the most representative association of anti-Bolshevist forces at that time which played a big role in the White movement. The baron V.V. Mel-ler-Zakomelsky was chosen his predsedagyely, and deputies - P.N. Milyukov and A.B. Krivoshein.

Meller-Zayumelsky hurried to inform the commander of Volunteer army on tasks SGORA generalat A.I. Denikin (letter of October 31, 1918): "Getting nowadays to the work, Council of National Association of Russia charged to me to report to your excellency that it provides all forces, knowledge and experience of the persons which united in it in the order of Dobrovolshesky army and it will be in every possible way happy if it in though to a small share is able to facilitate armies its great feat of arms and its nice service to our common cause of reconstruction of the great, United and indivisible Russia". Welcoming creation SGORA, Denikin in reply wrote Meller Darling-melskomu: "I will not fail to use widely those manpowers and that state experience which you and your employees bear to our common Russian cause".

SGOR began the activity with the appeal to the governments of the countries of the Entente behind support. In the middle of November, 1918 in Yassakh the meeting of military and diplomatic representatives of powers of the Entente and the USA opened, on the one hand, and the Russian delegation - with another (since the end of November till January 6, 1919 continued work in Odessa). Representatives SGORA entered into delegation, the National center, the Union of revival of Russia and other organizations, the baron V.V. Meller-Zayumelsky was its chairman.

SGOR acted on the territory occupied by Armed forces in the south of Russia. His members actively developed projects of state system of Russia after the victory over Bolsheviks, were a part of the governments of Denikin and Wrangel. With defeat of the White movement SGOR stopped the existence. His many members, among them and Meller-Zakomelsky, went abroad.

The baron V.V. Meller-Zakomelsky in 1920 died

Pamela Wagner
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