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The international projects of RAS on agrarian history XX of Russia century.



e. N. Kananerova

The INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS of RAS ON AGRARIAN HISTORY XX of RUSSIA V.

Work is presented by department of National history and a technique of teaching history of the Penza state pedagogical university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.V. Kondrashin

In article one of the relevant and not studied problems of a domestic historiography - history and results of the international scientific cooperation on the example of the international projects, under the direction of RAS, devoted to the agrarian history of our country is considered.

The article deals with one of topical and not yet studied issues of Russian historiography - history and results of international scientific cooperation by the example of international projects of Russian Academy of Science on agrarian history of our country.

The end of the 20th century became time of the serious changes which gave a new impulse to development of science, an exit from an ideological underground long ago ripened at the scientific ideas, to emergence of the new directions of a research and scientific concepts. Besides, political liberalization gave to domestic and foreign researchers the chance to combine efforts that, undoubtedly, enriched world science. The international cooperation is an important factor of development of science in all its industries.

For years of the Soviet history the high level of the academic culture and the whole generation vysokopro-were created

fessionalny scientists-historians. Were in detail studied by them, let and within permitted by ideology, many questions of agrarian history of the Soviet Russia. It gave vision of "white spots", created an outline of future researches. At the same time studying important stages of agrarian development of our country led historians to understanding that for objective assessment there were not enough documentary evidences, and what managed to be found, often did not coordinate with official estimates. There were two problems: on the one hand, weakness, ideological bias, emasculation dokumen-

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talny base, with another - former concepts became outdated, were strongly distorted. In this regard need on the basis of newly opened sources, the closed documents of party and state archives became ripe mainly before, to overestimate events of agrarian history of Russia of the first quarter of the 20th century

In the last decade of the 20th century the Russian historical science worried real archival likhoradku1 that caused a wave of publications unprecedented before. History of the Soviet peasantry became the champion according to the publication of archival documents. Only serial collections of documents is chetyre2, three of which were realized on the basis of the international cooperation. Eventually objective and comprehensive study of country revolution of the first quarter of the 20th century (namely as country revolution, authors of projects of an event of the first quarter of the 20th century treat), the first attempt of large-scale social engineering of the Soviet power (collectivization) became one major problems of a world krestyanovedeniye. The main task of science began not to estimate who it is right who is guilty, and "to rise over a fight" 3 to see the tragedy of the people.

January 15, 1992. The academic council of Institute of the Russian history of RAS approved proposals of historians-agrarians on implementation of three research projects: "Country revolution in Russia. 1902-1922", "Soviet village eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD", "Tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. 19271939". Each project assumed the publication of documentary editions as first investigation phase. On the second creation of the generalizing work on stories of Country revolution of 19021922 was supposed what, unfortunately, is not realized yet in connection with a premature demise of the project manager with the Russian side V.P. Danilov who was an ideological mastermind international nauch -

ny projects, author five large monografiy4, one of the leading historians-agrarians of Russia. Its creative energy and long experience helped to unite for work of the best historians and archivists of the country including. E. Vyl-tsana, M.A. Zelenina, Yu.A. Moshkova. Their scientific way began in Soviet period, on their example it is possible to track the general trends of evolution of views of the Soviet historians under the influence of significant changes in the 1990-2000th 5 and also researchers new pokoleniya6. Foreign scientists were presented by professor of the Manchester university T. Shaninin, the sociologist and the historian, the author monografiy6 and scientific articles on history of the Russian peasantry and theoretical questions world krestyanovedeniya7 (the coeditor of a series "Country revolution in Russia. 1902-1922"), French researchers, co-directors of the project "Soviet village eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. 1918-1939" N. Ver-tom, A. Berelovich (Sorbonne, France), representative of the University of Toronto (Canada), professor Leann Viola, Boston college (USA), professor Roberta Manning and also R. Davies (Great Britain), R. Johnson, S. Uitkroft (Australia), X. Okuda, T. Matsuzato, O. Taniu-chi (Japan), Kim Chan Jean (Yu. Korea), etc. Cooperation happened not only between certain scientists, but also between institutions and departments of member countries (in work on the project "The Soviet village eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. 1918-1939" took part Institute of the Russian history of RAS, the Intercentre is the scientific cross-disciplinary organization headed from the Russian side by professor T.I. Zaslavska from the British - professor T. Shanin, CA FSB, RGAE, RGVA, the House of sciences about the person, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France).

Identification and the publication of documentary materials, earlier inaccessible for the researcher, with an exit on

became a main goal of the international scientific projects

new conceptual uroven9 - as bases of concrete historical development of the country movement of the beginning of the 20th century and all revolutionary changes and shocks which occurred in Russia. Thus, it was talked not of addition of old representations before with the unknown facts and details any more, but of formation of "new knowledge" 10.

The period of revolutions and Civil war is documentary covered in many editions of the Soviet historiography. The general for all these works is the unilaterality according to events, subordination of ideology and reflection only of the state position. One of project tasks "Country revolution. 1902-1922" began to meet this lack. The complete analysis of country revolution of 1902-1922 11 was the main purpose of the project. For the most exact reconstruction of the processes happening during this period in the village it was allocated several regions which had social or national peculiarities. This division also formed the basis of future collections of a series. Authors neglected the chronological principle in favor of the historical importance of events.

The first prepared the collection "A country revolt. The movement in the Tambov province in 1919-1921 Anto-novshchina. Representatives and the central and regional archives (it is characteristic feature for all collections of a series and other projects) took part in work on it that allowed to reveal unique documents in the Tambov archives: The State Archive of the Tambov Region (SATR), the former party archive of the Tambov region, nowadays - the Center of storage of documentation of the latest of history of the Tambov region (TsDNITO), archive of regional Management of FSB. Tracking events with local to the state level allows to estimate how dangerous the power considered the insurgent movement. Authors consciously paid special attention to documents from the circle of insurgents. It is connected with how it is not enough of them

remained in comparison with the state documentation, so, these certificates are really invaluable. Such types of insurgent documents as declarative and program (programs, charters, appeals, instructions of STK and guerrilla army, the leaflet) and also daily documents of organizational character (minutes of joint meetings of representatives of STK and the command and political structure of Guerrilla army, the report of propagandists, orders, expeditious correspondence, sentences of regimental vessels, minutes of meetings of regiments, the description of staff, the certificate of insurgents) were a part of the collection. "... in confrontation there were armies identical on structure - country. And between these armies the armed struggle reached extreme heat, became fight on mutual destruction" 12. In the final section of the collection the authors give a group portrait of heads of insurgents that is very important, heads define the purposes, place priorities and choose fight methods. (The last section contains judicial sledstven - ny materials which were declassified and are for the first time presented as a historical source.)

The second collection of a series is devoted to events on Donu13 which after the revolution of 1917 became the place of the most violent confrontation of country and state interests. The historic figure - Philip Mironov, the poor Don Cossack, the person of unique destiny became the main thing in this collection. Documents of its personal archive (letters, appeals to the party of the opponent), formed the collection basis, disclosing dramatic nature of "decossackization" and resistance of Cossacks.

The third collection is devoted to events in the Volga region 1919-1922 14 Authors set for themselves the task of other plan, than in the previous collections, by means of documents to show a consecutive picture of country opposition in the Volga region differing in complexity and non-uniform

Stew of ethnic and social composition. Main types of documents of the collection it is reports, reports, minutes, telegrams, reports, records of a talk, letters including country, decisions of village assemblies, i.e. the documents fixing everyday life of peasants and documents country oppozitsii15. Documents, as well as in the collection on Antonov-shchine, represent a group portrait of leaders of country resistance and also characterize the policy of the ruling power.

The fourth collection - "The Country Movement in the Tambov Province (19171918)". "The historical value of the country movement in the province of this period was that here it for the first time gained a victory: in the middle of September

1917 (i.e. to the Decree about the earth)" 16. Documents reflect events of increase and a victory of the antipomeshchechy movement in 1917, events of 1918, drawing prerequisites of "An-tonovshchiny". In materials, especially for
1918 , normative documents (instruktsii17, circulars and instructions, often meet postanovleniya18, telegrams), i.e. the sources characterizing peasants "from above" prevail (peasants seldom fixed the actions and moods). And many commissioners and other authorities who were often dealing with peasants transferred their statements in office documentation fully and authentically.

The collection about Nestor Makhno, the main hero of events in Ukraine 1917-1922, the creator of the Gulyaypolsky republic became the research which finished a series. On the key characteristics he reminds the collection devoted to F. Mironov. Authors sought to show a true image of N. Makhno by means of documents and to objectively cover the events connected with his name.

On materials of the Russian-French project "Soviet Village Eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD" it was also published documentary seriya19. Tasks issledo-

vately steel: the publication of information reports and reviews of bodies of Cheka - OGPU-NKVD, on their basis reflection of real relationship of the village and a political regime. The main distinctive feature of this series is the uniqueness of istochnikovy base. Authors for the first time faced problems of a source study and an archaeography of a documentary source of a new type. Its uniqueness consists highly reliability as its main appointment was to register events of everyday life, to analyze and inform the highest state and departmental figures on the state of affairs in the country. Besides, these documents often contain the information about what other sources inform avariciously on. Documents belong to mass historical sources by origin and to contents therefore the sample was the necessary procedure, and here the main principle for originators was to be guided only "by conscious, consecutive scientific objectivism, to refuse any party membership" 20. Information reports and reviews became a main type of a historical source for the collection though their character underwent eventually you mean - ny changes. From almost military, laconic and informative reports (made usually by the territorial principle) for several highest state and departmental figures all of them began to turn into state-of-the-art reviews for expanded number of addressees more often, gaining social or thematic character. The collection gives the fine chance for studying various aspects of country life and a role of the peasantry as social group in development of the Soviet society.

The third project is devoted to agriculture collectivization history throughout Russia since the end of the 1920th prior to World War II: "Tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. 1927-1939". In work over

the series consisting of 5 volumes all main archival institutions of Russia took part: RTsHIDNI, GARF, RGAE, RGVA, CA FSB, led by Rosarkhiv and also Regional archive of the Novosibirsk region, scale became distinctive feature of the project. Consideration of an economic situation in the village and economic policy of Stalinism concerning the peasantry, resistance of peasants, especially mass and also repressions against the peasantry are here main goals of the collection.

The subject of collectivization was one of the most documentary lit, but also at the same time one of the most forbidden in Soviet vremya21. It is possible to find in collections of those years only resolutions, resolutions, certificates from places reflecting official assessment of events in the village. It does work of authors very relevant. The collection includes three main groups of documents: directive character, documents on the real situation in the village, the documents proceeding directly from krestyan22. Detection of documents on all power vertical allowed to show who stood at the origins of important political decisions as they were made out through practical resolutions, directives, explanations, circulars of the supreme bodies of the government and as there was an implementation of these decisions on places. Authors traditionally paid special attention to a problem of country resistance. Thus, the group of scientists and archivists managed to create extensive istochnikovy base for detailed and comprehensive study of this tragic page of history of our country, peasants the first faced Stalinism and its methods of management.

Each collection is supplied with the extensive and useful scientific device. There are introduction articles of originators, arkheografichesky prefaces, name and geographical indices which drawing up on -

demanded from authors not of smaller efforts, than identification and selection of documents.

Summing up the results, it would be desirable to note that the scientific projects considered by us are an example of successful international cooperation of scientists and archivists what an appreciation domestic and foreign istorikov23 testifies to. A large number earlier closed and even confidential materials was introduced for scientific use. According to an apt remark of one of coauthors of the Russian-French project "Soviet Village of the 20-30th Years Eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD" of A. Berelovich: "You should not wait for a find... documents which will be a key to all Soviet history. but on very many questions we receive. such knowledge of the real situation and behavior of the peasantry in the postrevolutionary village without which it is impossible to have exact and complete idea of the past" 24.

Also experience of joint work of the international group of researchers, various institutions and departments of the member countries united by the general plan is not less important. During collaboration, methods, approaches, the principles and the possible directions of future work were developed. Constructive dialogue, exchange of views and practices important and necessary for both parties took place.

Work on projects helped to formulate finally and evidential basic provisions of one of modern concepts of agrarian development of Russia of the first half of the XX century, consisting of two key provisions. Events of the first quarter of the 20th century are nothing but the country revolution which came to the end with a victory krestyan25. Collectivization is an original tragedy of the Russian village, return to "chrezvychayshchena" whose consequences were very deplorable, and crisis into which it plunged the village was not overcome decades later.

1 In more detail about it see: N.S. Tarkhova. Peasantry history in the Russian documentary publications for the last 15 years//History of Russian Peasantry in 20th Century. Vol. 2. Tokyo, 2004. P. 117.
2 See collections: "Country revolution in Russia. 1902-1922", "Soviet village of the 20-30th years eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD", "Tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. 1927-1939" and also thematic publication of the documents "Special Immigrants in Western Siberia 1930-1945.
3 The country movement in the Volga region. 1919-1922: Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V. Danilov and T. Shanin. M.: Russian political encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2002. Page 6. (Series "Country revolution of 1902-1922: Documents and materials").
4 V.P. Danilov. Creation of material prerequisites of collectivization of agriculture. M, 1957; It. Documents testify. M.: Politizdat, 1989; V.P. Danilov, S.A. Krasiljnikoye. Special immigrants in Western Siberia. Novosibirsk, 1993, 1996, 2003.
5 N.A. Ivnitsky. Destiny dispossessed in the USSR. M, 2004; M.A. Vyltsan. Repressions against peasants in the 30th years//the Power and society in the USSR: policy of repressions (20-40th): Sb. article / RAS Institute of the Russian history; Edition of M. V.P. Dmitrenko, 1999; I.E. Zelenin. State farms of the USSR in days of pre-war five-years periods, 1928-1941. M.: Science, 1982; Yu.A. Moshkov. A grain problem in days of continuous collectivization of agriculture of the USSR (1929-1932). M.: Publishing house of the Moscow university, 1996.
6 Each volume of documentary series and also special office documentation of Institute of the Russian history of RAS contain detailed lists of participants of projects with the indication of a role of everyone.
7 T. Shanin Revolyution as moment of truth. Russia 1905-1907-1917-1922. M.: Whole world, 1997.
8 Informal economy. Russia and the world / Under the editorship of T. Shanin. M, 1999.

& #34; Archive of Institute of the Russian history of RAS. V.P. Danilov's report at a meeting of Office of history of RAS of February 1, 1996 Page 3.

10 This term was often used by V.P. Danilov for characteristic of results of new Post-Soviet researches.
11 IRI RAS archive. The report of group on the history of agrarian transformations on work for 1992 of Page 2.
12 A country revolt in the Tambov province in 1919-1921 Antonovshchina: Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. Tambov, 1994. Page 6.
13 Philip Mironov. The Quiet Don in 1917-1921. Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: International fund "Demokratiya", 1997.
14 The country movement in the Volga region. 1919-1922: Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: ROSSPEN, 2001.
15 The report of department of management of the Sengileevsky uispolkom in Simbirsk a gubispolok about the causes of a country revolt//the Country movement in the Volga region 1919-1922 / Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: ROSSPEN, 2002. Page 235.
16 The country movement in the Tambov province (1917-1918): Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: ROSSPEN, 2003. Page 5.
17 From the instruction of Provincial land committee in addition to order No. 3 for district and volost land committees//the Country movement in the Tambov province (19171918): Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: ROSSPEN, 2003. Page 57.
18 The resolution of the Borisoglebsk volost executive committee of June 3, 1917//the Country movement in the Tambov province (1917-1918): Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: ROSSPEN, 2003. Page 67.
19 Soviet village of the 20-30th years eyes of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. 1918-1939.: Documents and materials in 4 t. / Under the editorship of A. Berelovich, N. Vert, V. Danilov. M.: ROSSPEN, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004.
20 V.P. Danilov. A problem of selection and the publication of declassified documents on stories of the Soviet peasantry. IRI RAS archive. Page 2.
21 Only within the "Agriculture Collectivization History in the USSR" series from 1961 to 1989 appeared 36 collections, their full list can be found in t. 1 of "Tragedy of the Soviet village".
22 Kudyukina M. M. Arkheografichesky preface//Tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. 1927-1939 M.: ROSSPEN, 1999. T. 1. Page 68.
23 Social History. Vol. 25. N. 3. October 2000. P. 382-383 (D.U. Daly's review, S. Maksudova); Domestic archives. 1995. No. 4 (T. Osipova's review); National history. 1996. No. 1 (Yu.I. Korablev's review); History Questions. 1996. No. 2 (V. Samoshin's review), Revue des Etudes Slaves. Tome LXXI. Paris, 1999 (review Zh. Van Redzhimortera).
24 S. Myakinjkov. The presentation of the international scientific projects on stories of the Russian peasantry of the 20th century//Krestyanovedeniye. Theory. History. Present. 1996. Page 159.
the Concept of country revolution of 1902-1922 is in detail stated to
25 in the collection: The country movement in the Volga region. 1919-1922: Documents and materials / Under the editorship of V.P. Danilov, T. Shanin. M.: ROSSPEN, 2001.
Jessie Dean
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