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Stereotypes of perception of Ireland and Irish in the British press of the 19th century

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Article came to edition 28.01.10

UDC 008:351.858

S.Yu. Kuznetsova, applicant of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, E-mail: STEREOTYPES of PERCEPTION of IRELAND AND IRISH IN the BRITISH PRESS of the 19th CENTURY

In this work processes of formation of a stereotypic image of Ireland in Britain are investigated of the 19th century, the role of the British press in creation, distribution and fixing of negative stereotypic ideas of Irish in the British society is defined.

tansky press, image of Ireland and Irish.

Each country, each nation has a certain stereotypic image in the opinion of other nations. This image is reflection of ethnic and cultural features of the people, specifics of national psychology and traditions. This work investigates processes of formation of a stereotypic image of Ireland in Britain of the 19th age and a role of the British press in distribution and fixing of these stereotypes.

The concept "stereotype" for the first time was introduced for scientific use by the American journalist, the sociologist and the politician Walter Lippman in work "Public opinion" in 1922. Lippman treated stereotypes as the inexact and selective way of perception of reality leading to its simplification and creating prejudices. Lippman considered stereotypes the inevitable phenomenon as they are objective function of interaction of the person and the reality surrounding it and a projection to the world of own feelings and values of the person. The known definition of stereotypes as "pictures in the heads" saving the person from difficulties and variety of surrounding reality, also belongs to Walter Lippman [1].

Some scientists consider the problem of motives of stereotypification, proceeding from the theory of the conflict. According to G. Tedzhfel, desire to reach positive social identity is the reason of origin of stereotypes. According to opinion of the researcher, stereotypes represent function of interaction between "I" and to "Others". Similar positive assessment develops when comparing the group (ingruppa) with other groups (autgruppa). So, merits, and to autgruppa - opposite, negative qualities are attributed to an ingruppa only, as provides a condition of the conflict [2]. A bright illustration of similar theories are stereotypification of Irish in the English society and the English autostereotypes.

The issue of relationship of British and Irish was always particularly acute in both countries. According to the words of the outstanding Irish playwright John Millingtona Singa, "a half of problems in the relations between England and Ireland arose because of misunderstanding by British of national character of Irish. The misunderstanding based on prejudiced judgments of the British and Irish historians and on absurd comical stereotypes" [3, page 18]. Alerted and often hostility of British towards the closest neighbors was formed under the influence of the English colonization and reciprocal fierce Irish resistance. Thus, for understanding of the reasons of negative stereotypification of the Irish people it is necessary to address the difficult history of formation of the relations between England and Ireland first of all. Consideration of the key periods of history of Ireland and its relationship with England allows to understand the reasons of the scornful and derisive attitude of British to Irish and also the reasons for-

a mirovaniye of a large number of the anti-Irish stereotypes remaining in the English consciousness to this day and having bright reflection in modern English.

So, word & #34; Irish" (Irish) for many years in itself has a number of unizhitelny values both in colloquial English, and in the English and American slang. For example, Irish clubhouse (brothel); Irish mutton (syphilis); Irish shave (excrement); Irish toothache (¡.безнравственность, dissoluteness; 2. beremen-

nost); to arouse someone’s Irish, to get someone’s Irish up (to anger); Irish by birth but Greek by injection (homosexual) [4]. Word & #34; Paddy" (Paddy), the reduced form of the popular Irish name Patrick, became nominal for Irish from the second half of the 18th century and has a scornful shade, especially, in lips of British. Paddy is a careless and irresponsible drunkard, the clumsy, the idler and the poor in addition to everything having rebellious character. In colloquial English a word & #34; Paddy", as well as word & #34; Irish", has a number of negative values, for example, 1. anger, rage; 2. insignificant person; 3. the white person who is (especially despised). Phrases with this word also carry a negative connotation, for example, of to be in a paddy (to be in rage); to put in a paddy (to infuriate); paddywhack (anger attack, rage); paddy wagon (the van for transportation of prisoners) [5].

Throughout centuries constant opposition to the Irish Paddy was John Bull. John Boole - a nickname of the typical Englishman, benevolent full common sense, balanced, hard-working and possessing good manners. In a word, complete antithesis of the unrestrained Irish Paddy. The name John Boole was for the first time taken from the pamphlet by the English publicist John Arbetnot "John Boole's History" (1712). So in the pamphlet called the simple-minded English farmer. Late this nickname became widespread thanks to the play by John Kolmen Mladshy "John Boole or family life of the Englishman" (1803), the play by Bernard Shaw "Other island of John Boole" (1904) and also to numerous illustrations of John Boole, the 19-20th centuries, especially popular in the English press. On pages of the English newspapers and magazines of that time the main fight of Englishman John Boole and Irish Paddy was started.

It should be noted that, along with literature, the press plays a huge role in creation, distribution and fixing of stereotypes in society. It is possible for this reason the term and was introduced for scientific use by the journalist. Arguing on influence of the press on public consciousness, U. Lipp-man put forward the concept of simplification according to which, process of perception is "mechanical adjustment still of the unknown phenomenon under a stereotype" [6]. The message has to be perceived by audience easily, unconditionally and without critical

analysis. Thus, real images extremely become simpler and turn into the lungs for representation perception for a long time remaining in consciousness of readers.

In the English press of the 19th century racial, religious and class stereotypes had the main impact on formation of a negative image of Ireland. Depending on ideological bent and the discussed problem the journalists could emphasize one of the listed elements. But, despite this, the image of the Irish in the British newspapers was steadily characterized by set of religious, racial and class signs. Therefore the Celtic heredity, the peasantry and Catholicism were considered as the reason of all negative qualities attributed to Irish. In the opinion of Britain "eternal Irish Paddy forever remained the Celt, Catholic and the peasant" [7, page 5].

The scientific racism which arose in Europe in the middle of the 19th century served as one of the main reasons of the prejudiced attitude of British to Ireland. Researches of ethnologists and anthropologists of that time were based on the ideas of inequality of races popular at that time. Due to the development of the British Empire there was a need to classify various cultures and the people [8]. The great popularity was found a kraniologiya (from Greek kranion - a skull and logos - the doctrine), the science studying the sizes and shapes of a skull of the different people, and phrenology (from Greek phrenos - soul, character and logos - the doctrine), the doctrine that on the external device and a type of a skull it is possible to judge mental capacities of the person and lines of his character. Anthropologists measured skulls and distributed them on different "races" on the basis of the jaws which are more or less given forward. As the prof. Douglas Lorimer notes because the general standard when comparing skulls of the different people was the European's skull, any deviation from this standard was considered as an indicator of a degeneration and more primitive development [9]. The cultural anthropology and phrenology were not limited only to studying the African and Australian tribes. These sciences were also used for comparison and identification of distinctions among the European people, including British and Irish. Special attention was paid to the Irish Celts. Similar exercises not only strengthened traditional stereotypes, but also offered a scientific explanation of poverty and disorder of Ireland and prosperity and stability of Britain. The English historians said that British - the people consisting of lineal descendants of Anglo-Saxons whose German racial heritage gave them special talents to management of other people. Studying differences between Anglo-Saxons and Celts, the famous Scottish anatomist Robert Knox claimed that in Ireland there was no racial mixture of Celts and Saxons: "Presently the Irish Celt is also far from the Saxon, as well as was 700 years ago" [7, page 11]. The scientist considered that the individual sets of lines and qualities inherent in Saxons and Celts were the reason of so huge difference in economic, political and social development of life of Britain and Ireland. Speaking with the Celt about character of the Saxon, Knox claimed: "with it always an order, welfare, comfort; with you - disorder, a mutiny, ruin, losses" [7, page 12]. The scientist draws a conclusion that only tyranny approaches in treatment of Celts.

The impressive contribution to development of scientific racism was made by the English doctor John Beddo who removed "a negro-idnost indicator" - the formula defining a ratio of white-skinned and more swarty population in different parts of Britain and Ireland. According to its researches, the most swarty people with the jaws which are strongly acting forward lived in the west of Ireland. Beddo called them "afrikanoida", considering that the western Celts have the African roots. Thanks to researches of Beddo, Irish began to be called "the European Blacks" [10].

It is remarkable that some scientists put the Irish Celts even below the African people. The anonymous author of the book "What the Science Tells about Ireland" said that the African people are at an early stage of evolution, in

that time as the Irish Celts - the people which were mutating, having more than similarities to animals, than to the person. Thus, there is no hope for its harmonious development [11, page 38]. Also the famous British historian and the novelist Charles Kinsli held the similar opinion. Traveling around Ireland in 1860, he wrote the wife: "I was pursued by people chimpanzees whom I saw everywhere on hundreds of miles in this awful country. White chimpanzees of a koshmarna. If they were black, it at least not so was evident" [12, page 84].

These researches could not but find reflections in the British press. From the middle of the 19th century in Britain there are popular caricatures representing Irish in the form of black monkeys and apelike monsters. In 1862 the comic magazine Punch published the satire under the name "Missing Link" which was cruelly deriding the Irish immigrants. The satirist of the magazine wrote: "Between a gorilla and the Black, certainly, the whole abyss. In the African forests there is no such animal which it would be possible to consider intermediate between them. But in this case, as well as in many others, scientists in vain look for abroad what can easily be found in the homeland if to look. The animal standing between a gorilla and the Black can be found in the most disgusting quarters of London and Liverpool. It arrived from Ireland from where it was forced to migrate; it belongs to family of the Irish savages. When it communicates with similar to it beings, it makes strange sounds. Sometimes it soils everything around in a condition of excitement and also is capable to attack civilized people who cause his anger" [12, page 100]. On pages of magazines jokes about Mr. G'Orilla appeared (Mr. G’Orilla). New chimpanzees, brought to the London zoo in 1892, called Paddy. Caricatures of Feniansky brotherhood, the revolutionary natsionalnoosvoboditelny movement based in Ireland in the middle of the 19th century were the most widespread. On these caricatures Ireland was represented in the form of the weak, fragile girl, younger sister of Britain. Britain was represented by the strong and courageous elder sister hurrying to save Ireland from the spiteful feniansky apelike monster. It should be noted that in popular English comic magazines the Irish were represented not only in the form of monkeys but also dragons, a pig, a dragon, vampires and sea monsters. Only courageous and fair John Boole, according to the English journalists, could enter fight against the Irish monsters.

Up to the end of the 19th century on pages of the British newspapers the opinion on primitiveness and wildness of the Irish people which "were changed by neither time, nor circumstances" dominated [13, page 213]. One of confirmations of similar opinion is the following quote from the The Manchester Courier newspaper for 1881: "The problem is that any government will not be able to improve in an amicable way the relation with the Irish who are not realizing that they only begin to leave a condition of absolute barbarity that their civilization is superficial. Only hundred years ago residents of Kerry and Konemara and also the South and West of Ireland represented half-naked savages. And, it seems, they kept the most part of the primitive wildness to this day" [14].

Popular and scientific concepts of ethnic origin of Irish, it is indisputable, had huge influence on formation of understanding and perception of Ireland by the ordinary British. But it should be noted that not less important role in formation of an image of the country was played by its religious and class status. As throughout ages of Protestant Britain it was not succeeded to suppress Catholicism in Ireland, opposition of religions was one of the main problems in the relations of two countries. The belief that God costs on side of Protestant Britain was fundamentals of the British anti-Catholicism. Arguments about the high standard of living and prosperity of the British society in comparison with the disorder and disorders reigning in Ireland, Italy and other Catholic countries were given to confirmation to it. British

considered the country the "God's darling" designed to execute its will consisting in distribution of Protestantism. The Catholic church was considered as the reactionary force which is slowing down necessary social and political reforms [15]. The British Protestants opposed Catholicism "for theological, moral and political reasons" [16, page 3]. The immorality of clergy, prejudices, lack of true Christian values, idolatry were distinguished from religious shortcomings of Catholicism neglect to the Bible. Catholicism was proclaimed the religion which does not have a bible basis, pagan in essence [17].

Thus, the popular British belief concerning Catholicism and its negative influence on social and cultural aspects of life influenced formation of an image of Ireland at British. Traditional religious stereotypes found the reflection and on pages of the English newspapers. In 1869 the comic magazine Judy published a caricature under the name "Absolution" on which first picture Paddy, having leaned against a wall the gun, confesses in yet not committed murder, and the Catholic priest absolves it this grave sin in advance. On the second picture the dying English land owner and the running-away Paddy who fell to the ground with a gun under the arm is represented [18].

according to the British journalists of the 19th century, "Paddy's religion" was full of prejudices and mysticism. It was the cause of trustfulness, ignorance and ignorance of Irish. Servitude and "idolatrous religion" did to Paddy by the easy victim of local and foreign propagandists. Was considered that being traitors by the nature, and besides Catholics, Irish will never be able to serve faithfully and truly the country.

Catholic priests forced Paddy to marry and have early many children that as British considered, was the reason of overpopulation and land hunger [7, page 17]. These beliefs were reflected in colloquial English where expressions & #34; Irish twins", & #34; Irish triplets" matter "children stair-steppers", symbolizing the high level of birth rate in Ireland [5].

"Irish hate our prospering island. They hate our order, our civilization, our enterprise, our freedom, our religion. These wild, reckless, unpredictable, idle and superstitious people cannot take a liking for the English character", - future English prime minister Benjamin Disraeli wrote to The Times of April 18, 1836 [19].

The Irish peasant who, according to opinion of the British, hated working and preferred to live at the expense of the British taxpayer was considered as also impoverished morally and not deserving public aid. Unwillingness to work, the tendency to violence and readiness for accommodation in insanitary conditions put the Irish peasant on the lowest social step and even did it dangerous to society. According to newspaper articles, Irish not only were guilty of own poverty, but did not even suffer from it. "Unless Britain is guilty that Irish prefer to eat potatoes, but not bread; what are they capable to live in the conditions unsuitable even for a pig? Vegetating in poverty from generation to generation, Irish became in many respects insensitive to it", - claimed the The Times edition [20]. The English press trying to blacken the Irish peasants called them "bandits", "bandits", "savages", "the cannibals sucking Protestant blood", "monsters in a human appearance" [7].

Speaking about an image of Ireland in Britain the 19th century, it is necessary to dwell upon lighting in the British press of Great Hunger (The Great Famine), the most serious social disaster throughout all history of Ireland which struck the country in 1845-1949. Great Hunger was caused by a three-year crop failure of potatoes. Potatoes

was the main food of the large country families moved by the English settlers from fertile lands. For this reason its crop failure became for the country really national tragedy. By estimates of scientists, during Great Hunger in Ireland more than 1 million people died. The mass character was gained by emigration. From 1846 to 1851 Ireland was left by 1.5 million inhabitants [21]. In spite of the fact that during Great Hunger the whole settlements became extinct, export of the cattle and grain from Ireland to England did not stop as the British land owners demanded the rent which was due to them from the population. The leading British newspapers led by The Times treated Great Hunger as providential chance to correct and improve life of the Irish peasantry. According to Peter Gray, professor of modern history of Ireland, the author of a number of the works devoted to the period of Great Hunger, similar interpretation of the tragedy by journalists had huge influence on the British government believing that a potato crop failure - not that other as divine providence and a God's penalty at the same time [22].

The great influence on formation of public and political opinion concerning hunger in Ireland had the prejudiced relation to Irish based on prejudices and already settled stereotypes. Lighting in the British press of Great Hunger was always followed by prejudiced beliefs about the Irish laziness, ignorance, indifference to beggarly existence and obsequious devotion to Catholic clergy. Many newspapers openly claimed that its Celtic accessory is the reason of distress of the Irish people and again called an anglization the only way of rescue of Ireland. The Irish land owners who allegedly generated dependence of the Irish population on potatoes were also accused of consequences of a potato crop failure. The British observers claimed that potatoes were the main food of Irish only because it was easy to be grown up. The unpretentiousness and high-productivity of potatoes gave to Irish the chance "only to sleep, drink and beg two thirds of year" [23]. In general, there was an opinion that Irish have nobody to blame, except itself. In 1846 the The Economist magazine wrote that "the defects and recklessness Irish drew upon themselves a trouble" [24].

According to many British observers, Irish never knew anything except poverty and their life in days of a potato crop failure not too differed from usual life in other years. In August, 1848 the The Bristol Mirror newspaper claimed: "To live in purity, to be hardworking, independent, not to be at war - probably, for Irish it sounds as a damnation because they avoid all this. To sit in the dirty huts, to share them with the cattle and pigs, to eat one potatoes, to store the dirt as gold surrounding them, - here the habitual and quite satisfying the Irish picture" [25].

Journalists especially emphasized a difference between the hardworking British worker and the lazy Irish peasant. The comic magazine Punch represented the smiling parasite of Paddy dressed in tatters with the bag of the money received from honest British taxpayers, sitting on shoulders of the emaciated English peasant [26]. As wrote The Times in May, 1847, "the working population of our country shares with Ireland the last piece of bread" [27]. The British historian Thomas Carlisle who visited Ireland soon after the end of Great Hunger called it "the human pigsty", "black scandalous Babylon superstitious savages" [12, page 114].

At the end of the 19th century in Britain the accurate opinion was created that Irish cannot be changed, and it is possible to operate them only. So, in 1867 the The Daily Telegraph newspaper reported that "Ireland is infected with an incurable disease. And though we can use a strait jacket at blind furies, there is no hope that once we will see it in senses" [28].

For understanding of all complexity Anglo-Irish otno- a landsky question. In spite of the fact that also Welshmen, and shot-

sheniye throughout the 19-20th centuries it is necessary to consider landets became objects of jokes from time to time on

traditional superiority British national pages of the English newspapers, they were perceived as equal

consciousness over Irish. English historians and zhur- members of the United Kingdom. Irish, in fact, tako-

nalist called Ireland "younger sister", "nepo- as vy were never considered, despite multiple not -

the slushny child", "the sick patient" and "helpless successful attempts of Britain to anglicize Ireland. On

madman". There was a popular belief that in all a cart- to the words of professor Michael de Ni, Irish were "zer-

the mozhny relations Ireland needed support, dis- kalny contrast of the British" [7, page 315].

the tsiplena and the help from "elder sister" of Britain. On- In conclusion It should be noted once again importance of study

stoyanny opposition of the Irish and Englishman on stories and the reasons of formation anti-Irish stereoti-

an extent of all the 19th century, so favourite English about- p in the British society. Researches in the field,

zrevatel, played a huge role in formation and for- certainly, help to understand all complexity and protivorechi-

fastening of a bright stereotypic image of the Irish people in a vost from carrying between Irlandiyeyi Britain.

eyes of the British considering that the lack of the English values and qualities at Irish was a kernel ir-


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Article came to edition 28.01.10

UDC 81’255.2

I.V. Voynich, graduate student of PGTU, Perm, E-mail: "GOLDEN MEAN" AS STRATEGY of the TRANSLATION: About (NOT) the POSSIBILITY of ITS ACHIEVEMENT

Article is devoted a problem of search of "golden mean" between two opposite strategy of the translation known as the free and literal translation. In article opposite methods of the translation are described, the essence of the concept "golden mean" is opened, the question of a possibility of existence of "clean" translation methods and also achievements of "golden mean" is brought up.

It is known that translation practice two ways which still Cicero and Jerome were determined as "verbum e verbo" (a word by a word) and "sensum exprimera de sensu" were offered (sense sense). The first type of the translation can be defined as literal reproduction of original language to the detriment of target language, and the second - as the translation based on the aspiration to convey the meaning of the original means of the native language. The example of two ancient Roman playwrights, Plavta and Teretion is known: "Plavt takes the Greek book, reads it, then closes, postpones and begins to write safely the transposition, without looking more in the original; Terentsy, having read the Greek comedy, puts it before himself and begins to translate a scene offstage, it is captious

being verified with the original nearly on each line"

(vyd. ours - V.I.) [1]. Before us two trends between which any translator inevitably hesitates. This rivalry of the semantic and word-by-word translation, Scylla and Haribda, continues to this day.

In our work we do attempt to compare opposite translation strategy on the example of the translations of the dramaturgic text and also to find out how opposite translation strategy at the translation of the work of art are implemented.

We believe that the research of various strategy of the translation has the scientific importance leaving far beyond classical translation theory. The strategy of the translation —

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