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Food supply of the population of Buryatia in 1941-1945: rationing system and public catering



Providing the population with food became one of the most burning issues for the power in days of the Great Patriotic War. In the first days of war through the whole country demand for food and manufactured goods sharply increased. Interruptions in supply of baked bread became more frequent. Enormous turns grew. In Ulan-Ude, the capital Buryat Mongolsky the ASSR, big lines for flour, sugar, soap, oil, grain and other products appeared on June 23 and 24, 1941. People got in a queue on two-three times. In the city market on June 26, 1941 from 8 o'clock in the morning to 13 o'clock in the afternoon about 2.3 t were sold out. muki1.

Economically to spend food products, the power first of all resorted to bureaucratic regulation of consumption - to rationing by means of a rationing system. In Buryatia the rated supply was entered in September, 1941 by the resolution SNK Buryat Mongolsky the ASSR No. of a 544-of August 22, 1941. The main food products (bread, sugar, grain, meat, milk, oil and others), and then and some industrial (soap, matches, footwear, clothes, cotton and woolen fabrics and some other) were distributed by cards.

Subsequently, since January 1, 1943, on the basis of the order Narkomata of trade of the USSR No. 380 of November 13, 1942. "About streamlining of a rationing system on bread, some food and manufactured goods" uniform forms of cards on rated goods and paid (for 5 kopeks) standard references on receiving these cards were entered. To the persons receiving cards after the 1st or for incomplete month delivery paid (for 5 kopeks) one-day or five-day coupons on bread and other products was provided.

In Buryatia the food-cards were entered in the cities of Ulan-Ude, Kyakhta, Grandmother's and in industrial settlements Chiky, Dzhidastry, Tang-hoy, Lower Angarsk, Ust-Barguzin, Gusinoozersk2. The population "captured" by a rationing system of supply made about 25% of all inhabitants respubliki3.

Norms of supply were differentiated. Four groups were established: workers and technical officers, employees, dependents, children up to 12 years. The rationing system of supply with bread had two categories. the 1st - for workers and employees defensive, fuel, threw -

lurgichesky, chemical industry, mechanical engineering. the 2nd - for workers, technical officers, the serving subsidiary and serving enterprises of the same industries and other urban population which did not enter the 1st category. In Buryatia, workers and employees, technical officers and their dependents of plant No. 99, Ulan-Ude parovozovagonny plant, city power plant, the 4th and 5th offices of East Siberian Railway, the Lysogorsky coal mine and also workers of floatable office and Selenga timber mill were referred to the 1st category. To the 2nd category - employees of all other enterprises, institutions and organizations of Ulan-Ude. Referred to the 1st category received 800 gr. bread in day, to the 2nd - 600 gr.

For providing with food-cards the enterprises, institutions and organizations, for control of correctness of delivery of cards at SNK Buryat Mongolsky the ASSR created Bureau on delivery of food-cards. I.V. Sadov-nikov4 was appointed his chief.

The Executive committee of city council of deputies of workers was engaged in delivery of food-cards to institutions, enterprises, organizations and house managements of Ulan-Ude, and at Executive committees of regional councils Bureaus on delivery and accounting of food-cards (cards bureau) were created. Rated food product by cards was sold through network of trade enterprises and public catering. At the enterprises, Departments of working supply (ORSy) which were engaged in the organization of trade service and food of workers, employees and members of their families were created. Additional types of food were established, the network obshchepita5 is expanded.

According to the Central kartbyuro at SNK Buryat Mongolsky the ASSR, in Ulan-Ude in September, 1941 gave 95,817 cards on bread, including: the worker - 31,860, to the employee - 5,096 and to children up to 12 years - 26 8596.

On average in the country the usual norm of supply on a working card with other food was following (in a month): meat, fish of-1.8 kg, fats - 0.4 kg, grain and pasta - 1.2 kg.7 Distribution of food had to be carried out on the established norms. However completely it was impossible to provide the population of Buryatia on these norms: volumes of the allocated funds did not allow, goods and products on them never completely arrived. In 1942 only in Burmongollesprodtorg trust on the main goods was not "developed" funds on 2,099.8 thousand rubles by 8 Main reason for "nonfulfillment" of funds interruptions in deliveries were. So, in eight months 1943 of ORS of the Paravo-zovagonny plant, supplying 24,178 people, received less 68.3 t. meat, 31.3 t. fats, 98.9 t. grain, 41.1 t. sakhara9.

Provisioning for most of the population of the cities came down generally to "merchandising" by bread and it could be received hardly. So, the Selinginsky timber mill vyshchavat on May 23, 1942 bread only on working grain cards on 600 gr. instead of 800 gr., on cards of dependents bread did not vyshchavatsya at all. On May 24-25, 1942 even a part of workers did not receive bread on kartochkam10.

And since November 31, 1943, because of a drought, norms of a vyshchacha of bread were reduced. According to the Resolution of Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of November 15, 1943, new norms were: the worker in limits to 500 gr. in day, serving in limits up to 300 gr. in day; to dependents and children in limits to 200 gr. in den11.

Emergence of favorable conditions for plunders became a reverse side of introduction of a rationing system.

In February, 1943 the employees of Management of militia of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs BMASSR revealed group of 15 people (forwarding agents of the plant, hlebovozchik, employees of shops) who in three months (from December, 1942 to February, 1943) plundered 12 t. hleba12. And in kartbyuro the Central district of Ulan-Ude only for September and the first decade of October, 1942 506 rub 20 kopeks, vyfuchennyk from charge for cards were dissipated, and it is stolen 512 kartochek13. As a result a part of the products which arrived for supply of urban population did not reach inhabitants.

Frauds with prodkartochka became one of ways of criminal "redistribution" of products. Sometimes lists on receiving cards joined fictional faces. So, L.I. Loskutova authorized on receiving and delivery prodkartochek the worker and the employee of one of shops of the Ulan-Ude meat-processing plant included in the list on receiving cards of two not existing persons. Having undersigned for them for the list, she appropriated these prodkartochka (in 600 gr.) also used them from March 1 to March 16, 1943 14

Employees of Baykalrybtrest the inspector Prokopyeva and the accountant Ivanova underestimated figures in the reports provided to them from places at the expense of what stole 295 prodkartochek15.

Became widespread also illegal vyshchacha of cards with the increased norms of supply, plunder of cards from kartbyu-ro the enterprises and printing houses, underground printing of cards. So, in 1942 the secretary of a domupravleniye Muratova appropriated 10 cards which are written out on others lits16. Cards of the 1st category, for the working most important industries, were acquired by the employees who had the right only for cards of the 2nd category. Heads of the family received cards on family members though the last worked and received cards. The faces tied with agriculture (managers of visiting houses and apartments) and receiving bread on

to workdays, at the same time received prodkartochka in the city. At a vyshchacha to residents of standard references managing directors of houses filled them not completely, and the blank fields did not cross out then recipients of references entered in them fictional family members on whom received prodkartochki17.

The small number kartbyuro became one of the reasons creating conditions for wide circulation of abuses with cards. On average in them about six-seven people worked. They were practically not engaged in check of citizens at delivery of cards. Besides it is frequent, making secure, ordered a large number of excess cards. At last, kartbyuro had no necessary conditions for reliable storage kartochek18.

The set mode of printing of cards was not observed: they were printed in the general shop of printing house, a set of a font and casting of matrixes it was made in the general shop too, and the made cards were stored in the working room where working printing houses almost every minute came. Account and control of consumption of figured paper on which cards were printed was organized badly: one chief of the printing shop from which printers accepted paper without account.19 did calculations of figured paper All this also promoted various abuses.

The government of Buryatia undertook measures against these abuses: approved an operating procedure kartbyuro at SNK BMASSR on delivery prodkartochek and standard references, published orders about the organization of instructing among sellers of bakery shops, forbade printing prodkartochek in regional printing houses. Besides, carried out instructive meetings about an order of issue of standard references and kartochek20. But these measures considerably did not improve a situation. From 1943 to 1945 the prosecutor's office Buryat Mongolsky the ASSR prosecuted 294 officials for abuses food and industrial kartochkami21.

The put norms of supply on products were not maintained. Narkomtorg of the USSR systematically underestimated and not vyshchelyal funds of provisions, and this difference could not be compensated on places therefore it was necessary to underestimate norm of a holiday of products. Moreover, instead of them various substitutes very often were given. So, instead of wheat flour of a vyshchavala oat, mixed with straw and having green


The country people also fell into a difficult situation. In the years of war the state provided with bread and other food army, workers and employees of the industrial enterprises, buildings, gosu-

donative institutions and the organizations together with members of their families and also orphanages, nursing homes, hospitals. All difficulties on providing with food these groups of the population fell on workers of collective farms and state farms. At the same time the country people which are directly occupied with agricultural production were not supplied with the state.

Instead of food-cards in rural settlements coupons and lists according to which gave bread and other food products were entered. First of all, supplied with bread teachers, health workers, the rural intellectuals and also disabled veterans and the evacuated city dwellers. In Buryatia, in connection with identification in Bauntovsky, Bichursky, Dzhidinsky. Horinsky, Pribaykalsky, Tunkinsky, Zaigrayevsky aimags (areas) of the facts of uncontrolled expenditure of bread from public foundations and lack of due consideration, Government decree No. 29 of January 16, 1943 according to which the coupons issued to workers, employees, the evacuated population worked 15 days, and to teachers and doctors - one month was accepted. Several categories of the population had the right to coupons. First, military personnel, disabled people of the I and II groups, pensioners if they are not members of collective farm and have no economy. Secondly, members of trade collective farms, trade artels, artels of disabled people, huntings and also loner hunters and loner handicraftsmen were accepted on supply if these organizations and persons completely handed over products of the trade to the state and cooperative organizations for contracts. Thirdly, workers and employees of MTS, MTW (motor and tractor workshops) and state farms, except for the persons receiving bread as wages in kind or who are served through the closed retail chain stores. Fourthly, workers and employees of the enterprises and institutions without members semyi23.

So, D.Ch. Handazhapova, working as the teacher at Altacheysky school of the Mu-horshibirsky aimag, received according to coupons: 0.5 poods (8 kg) of flour, 400 gr. sugar, 400 gr. vegetable oil, 1,200 gr. grain (generally gave oat and pearl barley) 24. But this norm was received not always and not everywhere. Often there were failures in supply with bread. For example, teachers of Tsagan-Usinsky school of the Dzhidinsky aimag did not receive bread during five mesyatsev25. Sale of other products to the country people which are not connected with agriculture was made within the funds allocated for these purposes which were extremely poor. So, for 1944 for consumer cooperation of BMASSR it was allocated: fats - 29 t. at requirement of 69.4 t., sugar - 39 t. at requirement of 66 t. Meat and fish was not allocated at all though 214.8 t.26 were required

As a result the villagers making about 20 thousand were supplied with big interruptions and on the underestimated norms.

In such difficult situation the villagers hoped only for personal subsidiary farm. At the same time not less than 90% of vyfashchenny products in personal economy were donated to the state. And that part of meat, milk, eggs and others which remained with collective farmers, was on sale in the market or exchanged on manufactured goods. The state trade for country people in essence was closed.

Decrease in production of agricultural products, limited possibilities of collective-farm and state-farm production, poor homestead farms led

to almost hungry existence of collective farmers. "Eternal feeling of hunger. Having felt hungry always. Ate everything that came to hand: a nettle, an orach, frozen potatoes, wheat cones", - such children's memories of years of war remained with E.I. Vinogradova living in UlanUde27.

Especially difficult situation developed in 1944. Since fall the population of Dzhidinsky, Kudarinsky and Kizhinginsky aimags lived without bread. To spring of 1945 the situation in the republic even more became aggravated. Within February-March in the Kyakhta and Kudarinsky aimags more than 35 people died of hunger. The survey which is carried out by Narkomzdrav BMASSR revealed in the Kudarinsky aimag more than 2,000 patients with dystrophy, in Kyakhta - more than 1,100 patients. The similar picture was also in other aimags of the republic. Despite prohibitions, hungry people ate meat of the fallen animals. As a result cases of incidence and death became more frequent. Collective farmers refused to come to work, children did not attend school. To save people from hunger, it was required to get special permission at the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). In response to the petition the permission to delivery 200 gr was got. grains in day on cheloveka28.

Except introduction of a rationing system, for urban population the additional food in dining rooms, cafe, snackbars was organized. Only in October, 1943 in dining rooms of Ulan-Ude 23 thousand chelovek29 ate. The authorities began to expand network of dining rooms, snackbars, buffets. If for June 1, 1941 in BMASSR was 127 stolovyk, then for January 1, 1943 - already 201. In Ulan-Ude during this time the number of dining rooms increased almost twice (from 21 to 41). Respectively vyfoslo quantity of the prepared dishes: on the Ulan-Ude trust of dining rooms it was produced in 1940 7,074.2 thousand dishes, in 1942 - 9,096 thousand, in 1944 - 17,895 thousand. In 1944 the system of a public catering, including buffets and snackbars, increased to 377 edinits30.

However the quality of work of dining rooms, cafe and snackbars did not improve. In most of them there were catastrophically not enough spoons, plates, tables, stools. There were no cloths. The insanitary conditions were the widespread and constant phenomenon. So, in 1942 36 spoons, 70 glasses were available dining room No. 3, Ulan-Ude, on 80 seats; not

there were enough also soup plates. When checking this dining room in kitchen the barrel with cucumbers closed by a dirty cover was found ", and on a cover the crude peritoneum with which all dirt flew down in a barrel with cucumbers lay". In the factory canteen of Torgrechtrans the workers had dinner, without undressing as there were no hangers. Ate with dirty hands: was not umyvalnikov31. Ware which came to dining rooms was instantly taken away as to buy spoons, plates and glasses it was impossible (the ware made at the enterprises of the local industry practically all came to the system of a public catering, child care and other facilities). The quality of dishes was bad. Sometimes because of use for preparation of dishes of substandard products there were mass poisonings. So, at 11 - ti the people eating in the canteen of Management of the Selenga river shipping company on May 25, 1942 happened gastrointestinal rasstroystva32.

The diet of dining rooms was extremely poor. Workers were fed sometimes only with one "finish" (boiled water and flour). Some cooks diluted soup crude vodoy33. In dining rooms No. 3 and No. 7 Ulan-Ude of the menu consisted of one dish (soup vegetable, noodles soup, rassolnik, borsch) and all these dishes had the low caloric content as meat to dining rooms was released redko34.

ORSy systematically did not give the rest to dining rooms of products. Only for the third quarter 1944 of ORSy gave short to canteens of schools and FZO schools: fats - 234.44 kg, eggs - 21,597 pieces, potatoes - 20,084 kg, torments - 276.68 kg, sugar - 144.58 kg, tea - 109 kg, vegetables - 37,498.6 kg35.

Because of bad catering services there were escapes of workers. So, from the Sredneudinsky splavpartiya 80 collective farmers of Mukhorshibirs-kogo aymaka36 ran away.

At the expense of subsidiary farms of trusts of dining rooms, collecting wild-growing edible fruits, shooting wild zhivotnyk and fishing on mestnyk reservoirs it is essential to improve situation it was not possible. So, the subsidiary farm of the Ulan-Ude trust stolovyk instead of the planned 1,200 pigs had only 283, at the plan of 100 heads of cattle - had no, and hens instead of 3,000 - only 19937. For 1943 the plan of preparation of vegetables vytolnit trust of dining rooms of Ulan-Ude for 46.7%, and on wild-growing - for 12%, the plan for sagination of pigs - for 16.9%, the plan of catch of fish - for 68.4%, the development plan for livestock production - for 63% 38.

There were hardly enough arriving products to support much the increased network of public catering, but it is essential to improve quality of food it was not possible. Improvements on the separate enterprises had incidental character. At the same time there was no control of workers of dining rooms that allowed them to abuse the official position. So, at the end of 1941 the catering manager Chelutayevsko-go of a lesprodtorg Pletnev plundered goods and products on 147 thousand rubles 39

For inhabitants of rural areas public catering gained value in the period of a sowing campaign and harvesting. In BMASSR for years of war the network of public catering in the village increased from 67 points in 1941 to the 182nd in 1945, and goods turnover volume - from 18.31 million rubles in 1941 up to 31.368 million rubles in 1945 40

Despite all difficulties, the system of a public catering expanded because through it high-performance work was stimulated. The workers who were carrying out and exceeding performance standards could count on additional hot meals. Though the ratio of products in food changed: less valuable meat and fish products more products cheap - vegetable, flour were used. Food was low-nutritious and poor, did not get proteins, fats, vitamins.

Significant growth in network of public catering was observed till 1944. Since the second half of 1944, the number of dining rooms began to decrease because of the reduction of population which was on rated snabzhenii41.

Thus, in days of the Great Patriotic War the providing the population of Buryatia with food by means of card distribution and through a public catering was extremely poor. It was caused to the preena of all by small volumes of the allocated funds which besides constantly decreased and also systematic failures of deliveries. Situation was worsened by criminal "redistribution" of cards and food. At the sharpest deficiency of products those groups of the population which were near the system of distribution of goods fell into the most advantageous position or directly participated in their production. Therefore the deficiency of food became aggravated more and stronger that led to half-starved and hungry existence of bulk of the population of Buryatia.

Tried to compensate acute shortage of the food distributed by cards, the government of the republic for the account of expansion of network of public catering. However the shortage of products and abuse of official position of workers of a public catering, plundering of products did not allow to provide at least tolerable food of the population of the republic through a public catering.

In general the rationing system and a public catering of Buryatia were calculated on the minimum maintenance of vital forces of people, but at the same time they played a considerable role in survival of inhabitants of the republic in the years of war.

1 National Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (NARB). F.1-P. Op. 1. 3785. L. 52.
2 NARB. F. R-663. Op. 1. 314. L. 3.
3 BûcomuHa E.A. Material and household position of workers//Buryatia in days of the Great Patriotic War. Ulan-Ude, 2000. Page 100.
4 NARB. F. R-475. It. 7. 322. L. 156.
5 In the same place. L. S7.
6 NARB. T. 2-P. It. 2. 1059. L. 77.
7 U.G. Chernyavsky. War and food. Supply of urban population in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) of M., 1964. Page 74-75

S NARB. T. 1-P. It. 1. 4157. L.10.

9 NARB. T. 1-P. It. 1. 4326. L.143.
10 NARB. T. 1-P. It. 1. 3945. L.126.
11 NARB. T. P-248s. It. 3. 106. L.31.
12 In the same place. L.34.
13 NARB. F. R-475. It. 7. 339. L.24.
14 NARB. T. P-248s. It. 3. 106. L.258.
15 In the same place.
16 NARB. F. R-475. It. 4. 39. L. 35ob.
17 NARB. T. P-248s. It. 3. 106. L.259.
1S NARB. T. P-248s. It. 14. 9S. L.61.
19 NARB. T. P-248s. It. 3. 106. L.26.
20 In the same place.
21 NARB. F. R-465s. It. 2. 53. L. 10-51; 55, L. 14-5S; 5S, L. 6-24.
22 Archive of the author. An interview with D.Ch. Handazhanova of January 10, 2006
23 NARB. T. Р - 475. It. 7. 431. L. 100.
24 From an interview with D.Ch. Handazhanova of January 10, 2006
25 NARB. T. Р - 663. It. 1. 315. L. 34.
26 NARB. F. R-663. It. 1. 912, L. 1.
27 From an interview with E.A. Vinogradova of January 20, 2006
2S 0aëaê A.B. Social problems of the population of Eastern Siberia (19401950) Irkutsk, 2000. Page 122.
29 NARB. F. R-661. It. 4. 4S. L. 14.
30 NARB. T. 1-P. It. 1. 3946. L. 122.
31 NARB. F.1-P. It. 1. 3790. L. 72.
32 NARB. F.1-P. It. 1. 4263. L. 56.
33 In the same place. L. 56
34 NARB. F.1-P. It. 1. 3790. L. 72.
35 NARB. T. R —155 S. It. 1. 11. L. 14.
36 NARB. F.1-P. It. 1. 3945. L. 126.
37 NARB. T. 1-P. It. 1. 3976. L. 35.
3S NARB. F. R-661. It. 4. 51. L. 45ob.
39 NARB. T. 1-P. It. 1. 4157. L.79.
40 0aëaê A.B. Decree. soch. Page 337-33S.
41 NARB. F.1-P. It. 1. 3727. L. 6.7.
Harold Lawrence
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