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Migration processes of ethnic minorities in the North Caucasus at the end of XX beginning of the 21st century



m. I. Mamayev

MIGRATION PROCESSES of ETHNIC MINORITIES IN the NORTH CAUCASUS at the end of XX — the BEGINNING of the 21st CENTURY

Conflict situations in the North Caucasus at the end of XX — the beginning of the 21st century formed a basis of deterioration of the situation of ethnic minorities. At this time approaches and mechanisms of the solution of so complex problem of statehood as regulation by territories, elimination of disputable territorial claims, etc. were developed by Natsio-

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nalny ethnic communities departed from a civilized solution of problems. Other way — a way of confrontation, withdrawal from stability was taken advantage. Finally there was an interethnic conflict which led to migration processes.

M. Mamaev

MIGRATION PROCESSES OF THE ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS AT THE END OF XX-BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURIES

The conflict situations in the North Caucasus formed the basis of the aggravation of the condition of the national minorities. Different approaches and mechanisms of regulation of the territories, liquidation of the disputable territory claims were working out. National ethnic communities rejected the civilized ways of solving the problem. They adopted another way - the way of confrontation and loss of stability. As a result interethnic conflict arose and caused the migration processes.

Conflict situations in the North Caucasus formed a basis of deterioration of the situation of ethnic minorities including among the minorities which underwent earlier repressive influences from the state. Conflict situations showed how directly they influenced a social status of ethnic communities, on regulation by the national processes proceeding in the 90th years of XX — the beginning of HH1 of century. It is necessary to recognize that for these reasons the North Caucasus already long time remains among one of the most difficult and problem regions of the Russian Federation. Difficult economic and social situation of its components of territories, a certain crisis in the sphere of the organization of management of society, in ensuring national security are especially noticeable. Besides more than 40 autochthonic people having the languages apart from about 100 more languages dialects compactly live in ten independent republics which are a part Northern the Caucasus in general.

During the period considered in our article in the national republics of the North Caucasus mainly authoritarian regime was set. From the second half of the 1990th years the ethnic mobility in the North Caucasus through a number of transitional forms gradually was replaced by ethnic process of sharp reconstruction, reorganization in more democratic system that was accompanied by ethnocultural revival of ethnic communities. However the national conflicts which arose directly in the territory of the North Caucasus not less sadly and tragically affected life of ethnic minorities including on the representatives who underwent earlier repressive influences of ethnic communities.

On a problem of the conflict which arose in the late eighties between Ossetians and the Ingush part of the population in the territory of the Republic Northern Ossetia-Alania the considerable literature is created [4]. In these works the process of ripening of prerequisites of such conflicts is generalized, the reasons and contents structure - were analyzed

lyayushchy parts of the conflict. Special attention to a role and the place of federal and local public authorities was paid during resolution of conflict, an exit from a conflict situation. Nevertheless the conflict still long time will excite minds of many researchers. Possibly, all this is explained by difficult resolvability of its consequences if to take in attention the fact that since 1989 and so far it was not succeeded to cope with consequences of the arisen claims between two really fraternal peoples which lived in common several centuries, had the total area and even the general capital.

Of course, of the causes of conflict, in our opinion, the remaining consequences of deportation of Ingushs in the 40th years of the 20th century to Kazakhstan and to the republics of Central Asia are main nevertheless.

The decision of the Soviet government mentioned the main thing — a question of territories. However acquaintance to documents of that time, the available researches, publications of political scientists, social scientists shows a certain sequence in the decision of territorial disputes and concern from public authorities regarding preservation of the territory in the economic capacity of the North Caucasus. Apparently, it caused such distribution of lands after deportation of the people from the territory of the North Caucasus.

Demokratizatsionny processes of the end of the 1980th years, then disintegration of the Soviet Union, emergence of the Ingush Republic considerably aggravated also a question of its territory that is quite natural. However the decision it should be made, in our opinion, first of all by consecutive negotiations, search of consensus between two independent subjects of the Russian state which only arose and ready to solve problems including territorial, is-

klyuchitelno on the basis of the right. And such step answered civilized calls of historical process.

It is natural that in these conditions nobody addressed provisions of the main state document — Constitutions of the Russian Federation and it at that moment was in a development stage.

During this period approaches and mechanisms of the solution of so complex problem of statehood as regulation by territories, elimination of disputable territorial claims, etc. were developed

National ethnic communities departed from this civilized way, and other way — a way of confrontation, withdrawal from stability was taken advantage that finally came to the end with the interethnic conflict in which the vital issues were resolved in armed conflicts.

At the solution of this controversial issue there was powerless a Law of RSFSR "About Rehabilitation of the Repressed People" adopted on April 26, 1991. Of course, today there are various points of view and estimates of the called normative legal act. It is possible to estimate it differently. It is necessary to recognize that the political orientation deserves it an appreciation as it works for achievement of stabilization in society, on correction of the made gross political blunders and miscalculations in the state national policy in the past.

However the mechanism of implementation of the proclaimed provisions of the law was imperfect. If provisions of the law do not create conditions of regulation of a situation, then and its appointment in this case and also a basis for its realization poorly help with achievement of balance at the solution of the last problems having negative accent in society.

Appearance of the refugees who made about 50 thousand people in total was a serious consequence of these events.

Not only Ossetians and Ingushs, and representatives of all ethnic communities were cast into this abyss. The principle of stability in the region was broken. The negative role was played at the same time also by sluggishness of actions of federal public authorities which could prevent the arisen conflict directly in a germ.

On June 17, 1993 the President of the Russian Federation published the order (No. 447-rp) "About measures for prevention of a further complication in a zone of the Ossetian-Ingush conflict for management of an emergency rule in the territory of the Mozdok district, the Suburb and the areas adjoining to it North Ossetian the ASSR and the Malgobeksky and Nazran districts of the Ingush Republic" [1].

According to researchers, since November, 1992, for mitigation of consequences of the events which took place in North Ossetia about 143 normative legal acts, from them 46 decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation, 10 instructions and addresses of the President, 48 resolutions and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation, 23 resolutions of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation were issued. Presidents of the republics (Severnaya-Ossetia-Alania, Ingushetia) signed 16 contracts, agreements, working plans and programs [1]. However the relations between the republics remained long time intense, many questions are not settled and until now.

Certainly, in this situation it was necessary to experience difficulties and that to ethnic minorities insignificant in a quantitative sense which lived in the territory of the republics and in general in the territory of North Caucasus region. The fact is that the arisen interethnic conflicts of so wide scale did not allow to pay attention to improvement on -

lozheniye of ethnic minorities, distracted huge efforts to a solution of the problem of the interethnic conflict in general.

The burdening factor in the North Caucasus, and especially for ethnic minorities, were the events connected with long Chechen crisis (1993-2005). Consequences of these events also caused high social tension in the territory of the North Caucasus. It was caused by suspense a long time of a problem of restoration of a constitutional order, lack of necessary conditions for full-fledged life in the territory of the Chechen Republic, destabilization of situation in the neighboring republics and the Regions of North Caucasus region, inconveniences for accommodation of all ethnic communities, including also ethnic minorities.

Consequences of "the Chechen events" for the region in general were catastrophic. They received detailed lighting in the scientific works published in recent years [5], however in the conceptual plan the conclusions connected with similar events are very important for ethnic minorities. Practice showed how difficult are for them processes of arrangement in society, adaptations, integration into edge economy, the solution of social problems. Events considerably worsened also the developed relations with the neighboring regions of the North Caucasus that was also reflected in the general condition of life of the people, on their financial position, including also ethnic minorities.

In a word, in the 90th years of the XX century the question of ethnic minorities considerably became aggravated, including also those who were exposed to earlier repressive influences. Of course, first of all among them there were Chechens-akkintsy, then both the Russian Germans, and Roma, and Meskhetian Turks, Koreans and others. Nablyuda-

las during this period their ethnic mobility and, being in the territory of other territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, they formed the relation to the taking place events. They had to be influenced by both losses of housing, and discomfort from military operations, and search of new places for accommodation, and difficulties of arrangement in new regions.

Steps on consolidation of ethnic communities in the republic by means of creation of institutes of civil society were one of measures in this difficult situation, however in the conditions of a military situation of their action were extremely limited.

It is necessary to notice that actually all ethnic minorities left the Chechen Republic. So, the Meskhetian Turks settled earlier in the territory of the Chechen Republic were forced to move quickly from the republic to Stavropol Krai. They settled in Budyonnovsk, the Kursk and Kirov districts. However and in this group migration processes were observed.

Due to the difficult ethnopolitical situation in the Chechen Republic and with the imminent military events the republic was left also by Greeks, Germans, Jews and representatives of other ethnic communities.

The processes of restoration of uniform legal space of the Russian Federation which began in 2000 (including and the territory of the North Caucasus), strengthenings of federal structure (originally through centralization of the power), overcomings consequences of disorganization and an economic crisis allowed to turn to a question of improvement of the federal relations, to development of more acceptable "model" of management of society. It was necessary that it will provide the civil rights of the personality, the rights of the people as component of society, parity interaction of cultures and religions.

The ethnopolitical situation and in the territory of those subjects which directly were not subject to military operations was restless. So, according to Committee of Stavropol Krai for nationalities and the Cossacks, "in 1991 — 1997 years about 50 international conflicts, in 1998 — 2005 years — 12 conflicts" were recorded [11]. Thus, existence of military zones near Stavropol Krai, powerful migration inflow of the population which was not living earlier in the territory of the region affected et-nopolitichesky situation, everywhere introduced an instability element. All this caused the necessity to take cardinal measures for stabilization of a situation.

The difficult situation was noted not only in Stavropol, but also in Krasnodar Krai and constantly demanded from regional administrations of accurate control over development of an ethnopolitical situation. Moreover, it was impossible to allow strains of relations between local community and the arrived Turks - meskhetin-tsami. These contradictions could develop into armed conflict. In a certain measure complicated a solution on the basis of consensus and some leaders of public associations, especially Cossack. The situation in areas of residence of Meskhetian Turks remained intense. At the end of September, 1997 the head of local government of Abinsky district of Krasnodar Krai V.P. Radchenko appealed to Legislative assembly of the region to solve a problem of a zhizneobust-roystvo of the regions of one and a half thousand Meskhetian Turks which are illegally arriving to the territory.

By this time considerably the number of representatives of the Kurdish ethnic minority who massively moved to Krasnodar Krai, to the Republic of Adygea increased in the North Caucasus. At once there were difficulties with predos-

a tavleniye to them registration and with receiving housing. Situation tension increased in the region. These conclusions contain also in works of many researchers of a problem. According to V.N. Rakachev, Ya.V. Rakacheva, in Krasnodar Krai "were created and considerably ethnic communities of Turks - meskhetin-tsev, Kurds" grew in the numerical relation [6].

Were concerned by the created situation in the Southern Federal District also in the center of the Russian Federation. On the basis of the adopted plan of settlement of a situation the departure of members of the commission which was headed by the minister of the Russian Federation A.V. Blochin took place on March 12-15, 2001. Experts visited areas of compact accommodation of Turkish month-hetintsev and considered questions of relationship between Meskhetian Turks and local community.

Obviously, a lot of work in respect of formation of national consciousness of the turko-meskhetinsky population, education of culture of international communication and the solution of other tasks connected with adaptation of Turkish month-hetintsev was necessary.

These questions were the focus of attention and the Temporary government commission on studying the migration situation headed by the Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation Vladimir Vasilyev working in January, 2002 in Krasnodar Krai.

Confrontation generated the natural aspiration of ethnic minority to find protection of the rights. Letters with complaints to illegal acts of Cossacks more often began to come to the central authorities. Authors of letters recommended to form the special commission at Administration of the President of the Russian Federation which work has to be carried out with all interested parties and under neposredst-

wine control of the President of the Russian Federation.

The solution in general moved ahead very hard though the situation was under control of the authorities supervising the national relations. Law enforcement agencies directly participated in realization of the principle of prohibition of the activity directed to undermining safety of the state, to kindling of social, racial, national and religious discord, hatred, or hostility. And in this plan considerable work is carried out by administration of Krasnodar Krai what it was stated also at the meeting of a round table which took place in April, 2007 on a subject "Harmonization of the international relations in consolidation of peace and consent between the people, prevention of offenses and manifestations of extremism. Experience of interaction, problem" [3]. Also the causes of the international conflicts, measures of their prevention and prevention were analyzed. Special attention was paid to need of establishing expeditious exchange of information about an imminent conflict. It was considered as anticipatory corrective action on a situation, opportunities to develop and carry out a complex of joint efforts on localization of the arising conflict situations.

From the above it is possible to draw a conclusion that the international conflicts destabilize the situation on places, create intense conditions for activity of ethnic minorities. Fully the ethnic minorities which underwent destructive influences from the government had to test it. Ethnic minorities it is free or are involuntarily involved in these difficult social reasons, sustaining losses and testing moral damage. Very complex is an exit problem from a similar situation.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Bull N.F., A.M. Gonov North Caucasus: new reference points of national policy (90th years of the XX century). M, 2004.
2. V.D. Dzidzoyev. In search of national consent. Makhachkala, 1992.
3. Caucasian Node news agency. 2007, April.//http://www.narodru. ru/article9272. html
4. A.V. Kulakovsky, V.A. Solovyov. Problems of post-conflict settlement. Vladikavkaz, 2001.
5. T. Muzayev. Chechen Republic. M.: Panorama, 1995.
6. V.N. Rakachev, Ya.V. Rakacheva. Ethnodemographic processes in Kuban of 1989-2000//the International academic and research conference "Problems of Migration and Experience of Its Regulation in the Multiethnic Caucasian Region"//http//chairs.stavsu. ru/geo/conference/d-48. htm
7. Russia and Caucasus: history and present. Vladikavkaz, 2005.
8. Yu. Soslanbekov Chechnya (Nokhchi-cho) is a look from within. M, 1995; A. Kolyev. Chechen trap. M, 1997; Bull N.F. Chechen Republic: confrontation, stability, world. M, 2006.
9. A.I. Tetuyev. The international relations in the North Caucasus: evolution, experience, trends. Nalchik, 2006.
10. S. Yushenkov. War in Chechnya and problems of the Russian statehood and democracy. M, 1995.
11. http://www.eawarn.ru/pub/AnnualReport/AnnualReportWebHome2005/18_Anrep2005_Stavropolsky.pdf

REFERENCES

1. Bugaj N. F., Gonov A. M. Severnyj Kavkaz: novye orientiry nacional&noj politiki (90-e gody HH veka). M., 2004.
2. Dzidzoev V. D. V poiskah nacional&nogo soglasija. Mahachkala, 1992.
3. Informacionnoe agentstvo "Kavkazskij uzel". 2007, aprel&.//http://www.narodru. ru/article9272. html
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5. Muzaev T. Chechenskaja Respublika. M.: Panorama, 1995.
6. Rakachev V. N., Rakacheva JA. V. Jetnodemograficheskie processy na Kubani 1989-2000 goda//Mezhdunarodnaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferencija "Problemy migracii i opyt ee regulirovanija v polijet-nicheskom Kavkazskom regione"//http//chairs.stavsu. ru/geo/conference/d-48. htm
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Bertha Dortha
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