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The political and administrative strategy of bourgeois reforms in the Caucasus (60-70th of the 19th century)

 © 2003 of Z.M. Bliyev


60 - 70 of the 19th century - the rubezhny period in the history of the Caucasus. The end of the Caucasian war in the Northeast and Northwest Caucasus made possible completion of political and administrative development of edge. Carrying out Here the Russian bourgeois reforms had to solve a problem of a total binding of the Caucasus to the Russian Empire.

In 1862 the prince A.I. Baryatinsky, the last two years a serious illness the having and left Caucasus, appealed to Alexander II about his dismissal from positions of the deputy and commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army. As possible candidates for this position in government circles the general aide-de-camp D.A. Milyutin, the St. Petersburg governor general A.A. Suvorov and the grand duke Mikhail Nikolaevich [1, t were called. 5, page 199]. Alessandro P stopped on the brother's candidate. The wide powers conferred at the time to the deputy Caucasian and also the decision in the Caucasus of new tasks - carrying out "great reforms" defined the choice of the emperor. In the grand duke he saw the colleague and the associate in reforms [2]. Mikhail Nikolaevich's appointment to the Caucasus had also political value - it demonstrated change of course of the Russian government in the Caucasus and transition from military operations to civil development of the region.

It operated the Caucasus for eighteen and a half years - from December 6, 1862 to November, 1881, - i.e. the entire period of government of Alexander II. Certainly, its management was closely connected with the main reformatory trends characteristic of the liberal emperor's era. An abolition of serfdom, creation of new financial and legal agencies, bodies of city self-government - all this made the changes to the civil device of the Caucasus.

To arrival of the new deputy the peasant reform affected only the Stavropol province, in the rest of the Caucasus the serfdom or prefeudal forms of the social relations continued to remain. Was engaged in a question of development of special provisions on release of peasants and other dependent estates at the time and A.I. Baryatinsky - for this purpose at Glavny department of the deputy was uchreyaden the Select Central committee, and on places - district nobility assemlies. In 1861 the prince G.D. Orbe-liani replacing the being ill A.I. Baryatinsky developed the project of a land reform in the Caucasus and stated it in "response" addressed to the Minister of War. The most difficult, - according to G.D. Orbeliani, - the question of what system has to become a land tenure basis - communal or private-ownership was. Rural community, - he argued, - had that advantage that it interfered with a peasantry proletarization, private sobst-

the vennost could promote faster development of agriculture. G.D. Orbeliani suggested to assign to princes and noblemen certain lands as a private property, but with a condition that they did not show any claims on other lands including on lands of dependent peasants. According to the project, the earth allocated also the persons which by origin were not belonging to the highest estate, "but zealously and devotion" serving Russia and reached the ranks and awards, under laws of the empire granting the right for the nobility. Thus, the combination of a communal form of land tenure with private was offered [3]. The project got approval in St. Petersburg. However before arrival of the grand duke Mikhail Nikolaevich to the Caucasus nobody started its realization. Activity of the Central Committee and the district nobility assemlies connected with reform preparation also remained formal. On the first reception of noblemen in Tiflis the grand duke set for them the task of "the fastest solution of a country question" [4]. The deputy assigned the general management of the Central committee to himself. The privy councilor A.M. Fadeyev, the valid councilors of state I.K. Bagration-Mukhransky and Staritsky, directors of departments of Glavny department N.N. Baranovsky, and Yu.F. Witte and also the tiflissky governor and the leader of the nobility were appointed members of the committee. The position of the chairman was taken up by the chief G of lavny management of the deputy baron A.P. Nikolay. The projects developed by the Central committee in Tiflis were considered by the Caucasian Committee and Glavny country committee and approved on October 13, 1864. Publication of reform followed in the form of the decree to the Ruling Senate about actuating "Additional to the provision on February 19, 1861 of rules about the peasants who left serfdom in the Tiflissky province", "The local provision on the land device of the peasants installed on landowners' estates in the Tiflissky province" and "Rules about the structure of rural societies, their public management and duties state and public" [5]. In 1865 in the Kutaisi province, Imereti, Guria. Mingrelia the committees which were engaged in carrying out peasant reform were created.

On December 9, 1867, with the edition of statutes about peasants in the Transcaucasian provinces and on the basis of "Regulations on Glavny department of the deputy Caucasian", "for a zavedyvaniye and the device of peasants" were established Committee about the device of peasants and Office for the device of peasants. These bodies were analogs of the highest country institutions of St. Petersburg - of lavny committee about the device of a rural state and Territorial department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The committee and Office was entrusted with the designing of special regulations and rules on a country question, observation of application in the region of statutes on February 19, 1861, conflict resolution at land disputes. Local institutions on country affairs in the Transcaucasian provinces also repeated the authorities intended for

carrying out peasant reform in the internal provinces of Russia. Country cases were considered by two instances - world intermediaries and presence, provincial on country affairs [1, t. 2, page 14].

The extra care was demanded by carrying out peasant reform and definition of the land rights among the mountain people of the Caucasus. Conditions of use of the earth of mountaineers of the North Caucasus, Zakatalskosh of the district and the Sukhumi department had the features and differed from each other markedly. "permission of this question without shocks of public order" [1, t became one of the main tasks in this regard. 1, page 447]. The first land committees appeared in the North Caucasus in 1846-1847 [6, l. 19]. So, on November 29, 1846 in the Vladikavkaz district at the request of tagaursky foremen M.S. Vorontsov open Committee for analysis of the rights of different estates Tagaurskosh of society acting to 1852

In 1857 N.I. Evdokimov ordering troops of the Left wing addressed the prince A.I. Baryatinsky with the offer on restoration of Committee "for the decision of land disputes of natives both the former Vladikavkaz district, and other population of the Left wing of the Caucasian line" [6, l. 22]. This time the Committee worked only one year - from November 16, 1857 to October, 1858; in April, 1859 instead of it in Vladikavkaz the special "District Committee for analysis of the personal and land rights of obedient natives" which also existed not for long opened. On October 16, 1860 its powers were delegated in Office on management of mountaineers at the headquarters of troops of the Tersky region [6, l. 25 - 25 about.]. In 1862 in the territory of the Tersky region there began the work land institutions: two committees - Kabardian and Kumyk and two commissions - Chechen and Vladikavkaz. During peasant reform in the North Caucasus these committees and the commissions as not having unities, were also abolished. On December 11, 1864 at the initiative of the deputy the order of the Minister of War in Vladikavkaz established the general for all Tersky region "The Temporary Commission for Analysis of the Land Rights of the Native Population" [6, l. 66]. In each of four districts of area its departments were created. Such "e land bodies were established in the Dagestan area and the Zakatalsky district. In the Kuban region where bulk local zhsite-leu (more than 400 thousand souls) during 1863 - 1864 moved to Turkey, and the mountain population made only 90 thousand people, the Caucasian administration made the decision on compact resettlement of the mountaineers who remained in the Zakubansky region, in the area which is especially allocated for them. The best lands of the Kuban region were not included into the district of mountain districts and got to the Cossack population [1, t. 1, page 464-465].

The central public authority directing holding a land reform in the North Caucasus was created after the organization of pose-melno-class institutions on places. Its opening took place in the summer of 1866 in Tiflis. One of the main objectives "Committee on release zavisi-

my estates at the mountain people" development of the general principles on release of dependent peasants in the region was. The gene-ral-major Boguslavsky, of village of the village the prince Tumanov, the colonel Staroselsky, the lieutenant colonel of the General Staff of Circassians and the clerk of the General Staff lieutenant colonel Pavlov were a part of Committee. The general aide-de-camp A.P. Kartsov (soon he was replaced by the prince D.I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky) [1, t was appointed the chairman. 1, page 447].

In the 70th of the 19th century of the commission and committees on carrying out peasant reform as executed the function, were raznovremenno closed.

In the second half of the 60th of the 19th century, after carrying out reform on release of peasants in the Caucasus, transformation of the judicial system began. Judicial reform was the whole era in the history of "consolidation of the Russian civic consciousness in the Caucasus" [7, page 292]. Judicial charters legalized on November 20, 1864 throughout Russia new a burzha the azny principles on judicial system and legal proceedings. They entered formal irremovability of judges and independence of court of administration, publicity and publicity of court sessions, competitive process, institutes of legal profession, prisyazhsny assessors, electoral magistrate's court. In the decree on judicial charters it was said that the purpose of reform is "to install in Russia court, fast, right, mercy, equal for all citizens, to ennoble judicial authority, to give it appropriate independence and in general to approve respect for the law in the people..." [8]. On judicial reform in Russia two systems of legal agencies were introduced: courts with the elected judges - magistrate's courts and congresses of magistrates and courts with the appointed judges - to an environment courts and trial chambers.

The Caucasian administration was faced by a difficult task - to agree on the all-Russian judicial charters "with needs of the population and local features" [1, t. 2, enc., page 9] of the Caucasian edge.

At the beginning of 1865 for development of projects of reform in Tiflis the select committee was founded. It was headed by Glavny Upravleniya's chief baron A.P. Nikolay. The Committee included members of council of the deputy, all chiefs of divisions Glavnosh Upravleniya, especially appointed officials. For participation in work of Committee in Tiflis chiefs of provinces were called [9, page 35]. According to the authorities, in the Transcaucasian provinces - Tiflissky, Kutaisi, Erie-vansky and Baku and also in the Stavropol province there were all conditions for immediate introduction to them of new legal agencies; as for Tersky, Kuban and Dagestan regions, Zakatalsky and Sukhumi districts, here carrying out reform was recognized as premature as it was subject still to coordination with the principles of military and national management established in them. In 1865. The temporary office in Tiflis started development of statutes about distribution in the Caucasus of new judicial system. A fruit of its activity was "The provision on application of judicial charters on November 20, 1864", approved on November 22, 1866 9 -

kabrya the decree on carrying out in all parts of the Caucasian namestnichestvo of reform of court took effect 1867 [10].

Under the law on December 9, 1867 in Transcaucasia and the Stavropol province were created: magistrates for each world department, district courts for each province and trial chamber in Tiflis - for all edge. The world department corresponded to the county. All civil cases about personal and real estate at the cost not over 2000 rubles, civil cases "about taking and personal offenses" and minor criminal offenses were subject to trial of the magistrate. Investigative actions, management of an opekama and certification of acts in those areas where there were no notaries were assigned to world legal agencies. Claims between rural zhsitel remained under the authority of country vessels. Magistrates made the final decision on civil cases worth not higher than 100 rubles and on criminal for which punishment did not exceed three days of arrest. In all other cases the decision of the magistrate could be appealed in okruzhsny court [10].

To an environment courts were the court of appeal for magistrates. Besides, all civil and criminal cases exceeding department of magistrates understood them as the first degree of court. Complaints to district courts were considered in trial chamber in Tiflis; its decision was final. The judicial department of the Ruling Senate [10 was cassation body concerning trial chamber; 1, t. 2, enc., page 21].

Boundary affairs submitted to the established judicial authorities. The duties lying at the time on the Transcaucasian boundary chamber were transferred to Tiflissky trial chamber, and obligations of the boundary commissions are assigned on an environment courts.

The general supervision of legal agencies and dolzhsnostny faces of judicial department was assigned to the deputy as the Minister of Justice.

By the end of the 60th of the 19th century, according to the Caucasian administration, prerequisites for carrying out judicial reform in the North Caucasus slozhsitsya. It was promoted, first, change of national structure of the North Caucasian region due to resettlement of a large number of shrtsev-Muslim to Turkey and settling on released the earth of natives of the internal provinces of Russia, secondly, - submission of the Cossack population and mountaineers of civil authorities. We will dwell upon the last fact.

When opening Tersky and Kuban regions for each group of the population - the Cossacks, the mountain people and civil zheitel different governing bodies were established. Soon it became clear that regional institutions are not able to cope with the administrative functions assigned to them. There was a question of reorganization slozhsivsheysya control systems. A.I. Baryatinsky charged development of the project about management of the Cossacks to the Interim committee created in 1860 for reorganization of the Cossack troops under the chairmanship of the chief of the Kuban region general aide-de-camp count N.I. Ev-

dokimova. The idea stated by Alessandro P became a basis of the project: "The Cossack population, leaving still military duty, can and has to use, at the same time, the general for all parts of the empire the benefits of civil management" [11, page 31]. According to authors of the project, application of "the general beginnings of management" to the administrative device of Cossacks was promoted by "exclusive local conditions": cherespolosny possession of the earth of mountaineers and Cossacks and lack of communication between institutions for the civilian, Cossack and mountain population. In 1869 the project made by Interim committee and considered in Glavny department of irregular troops was approved by the emperor. Positions of nakazny atamans were still assigned to chiefs of areas. For military management army headquarters remained and managements of atamans of departments were established; for civil management of the Cossacks it was accepted, "with very insignificant retreats, the system of institutions, general for the Caucasian provinces" [11, page 33] with submission of civil authorities to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the judicial relation the Cossacks to a tayuka were equated to the population of internal Russian provinces.

As for the mountain population, in Tersky and Kuban regions, - according to Loris-Melikov's proposal - the chief of the Tersky region, - military and national management was abolished. Since January 1, 1871 in the territory of these areas for all groups of the population the general civil institutions and the Russian legislation "with some temporary withdrawals for mountaineers" were entered [9, page XII, 60-61].

Thus, in the North Caucasus there was rather large number of the zhsitel subordinated to civil authorities [9, page of HP]; it also made vozmozhsny carrying out judicial reform.

By the time of reforming of the judicial system in the North Caucasus in the Kuban region there were Black Sea okruzhsny court and policemen courts in Ekaterinodar, Yeysk, Temryuk. On the eve of reform of 1864 in Tersky and Dagestan areas, Tersky and Dagestan regional courts took effect. All of them intended for persons of civil department. Mountaineers and Cossacks - the main zhsitel of the Kuban and Tersky regions - could turn to these courts at emergence property and others tyazhsb between them and the civilian population. Till 1869 the role of vessels for Cossacks was played by stanitsa, regimental and army governments of Tersky and Kuban Cossack troops. For mountaineers at the initiative of A.I. Baryatinsky national courts were established: okruzhsny and local. In national courts on an adat all "litigatory" and small criminal cases were considered. Tyazhsky criminal offenses understood okruzhsny courts public judicial investigation. Punishment in this case was awarded by the chief of area or the commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army administratively according to the Russian legislation [12].

Preparatory work on reorganization of judicial system and legal proceedings was completed by the end of 1870. The decree of December 1, 1870 in the Kuban and Tersky regions and the Black Sea district entered judicial charters on November 20, 1864 and the provision on a notarial part of April 14, 1866. Statutes came into effect on January 1, 1871 Tersky regional, Black Sea district courts, the Kizlyar district court and Ekaterinodarsky, Yeysk and Temryukovsky city courts were abolished. In Ekaterinodar and Vladikavkaz district courts with public prosecutor's supervision, judicial world and investigative sites, notarial archives and offices opened [13]. Tersky and Kuban regions and the Black Sea district were divided into judicial and world sites, in each of which the magistrate was appointed.

In the Dagestan area the regional court was cancelled later, than in other North Caucasian regions - in 1875. Instead of it in Derbent, Port-Petrovske and Temir-Khan-Shura world departments which submitted to the Baku district court [14] were open.

District courts of Tersky, Kuban and Dagestan regions were under authority of Tiflissky trial chamber. Feature of the Caucasian district courts was the fact of lack of selectivity of magistrates (they were appointed the deputy) and jurors in courts [15]. The ego was caused by fear of the government in too liberal hearing of cases in the region which main population were peasants and Cossacks and with recent instability in the region. Contemporaries, remembering the first steps of judicial reform in the North Caucasus, wrote: "Who will remember that before it conquest of edge who will only think that he could be at that time this edge was finished, that quite will understand, than the specified withdrawals are caused: magistrates could not be chosen, and jury judges there was nobody to be" [16].


For the mountain people installed the special system of legal proceedings, the mountain verbal courts operating on the basis of "Provisional rules of mountain verbal vessels" and investigating affairs on an adat opened. In districts, district verbal courts under the chairmanship of the chief of the district or its assistant whose members appointed representatives of the local nobility were entered. Felonies understood them. Receivership proceeding and minor criminal offenses were considered in aulny and local courts. In case of discontent of one of the parties with the judgment a complaint was filed to district verbal court.

Jurors also did not participate in mountain courts. The reasons of acceptance of such decision were called "the low level of cultural development of local community, its extraordinary raznoplemennost and insufficient prevalence among foreigners of knowledge of Russian" [17].

Thus, the judicial reform which had vague character in Russia in the Caucasus was carried out in even more limited look. Both in Transcaucasia, and in the North Caucasus there were no important components of reform: you -

a bornost of magistrates and institute of jurors, world congresses were not founded. The small number of the centers of action of magistrate's courts caused considerable inconveniences for locals; introduction of legal proceedings in Russian complicated process and quite often resulted in bias [2, page 279].

Characterizing carrying out judicial reform in the Caucasus, the baron A.P. Nikolay wrote: "It takes root not without effort, not without obstacles, not without inconveniences. Insufficiency of number and abilities of figures, as well as necessary consent between vstupivsheyu in the new rights the power the judicial and limited in the rights administrative authority is continually felt; on the other hand - unpreparedness of the population to realize advantages of the benefits granted to it [9, page V].

In 1865 the military and district reform was extended to the Caucasus. In the internal provinces of Russia the reform was undertaken according to the decree of August 6, 1864. All territory of Russia was divided into 15 districts which heads were chief directors, they are top military commanders. All troops and military educational institutions of the district submitted to them. The top military commander of the district directly submitted to the Ministry of Defence. The Voyennookruzhny system in Russia had a number of advantages: excessive centralization of management was liquidated, more favorable conditions for operational management of troops were created, terms of mobilization of reserves in wartime were reduced. In the conditions of Russia with its huge spaces it gained paramount value [18].

Formation of the Caucasian military district followed exactly in a year, on August 6, 1865 troops of the Caucasian district kept the former name of "The Caucasian army". Military and district reform was undertaken on the basis of general provisions "with conditions of special additional rules" [7, page 330], reflecting local features of edge. The management of this district was entrusted to the commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army; to it the assistant was defined. The structure of military district administration, except military districts, included the Caucasian Mountain management formed then and existed within 14 years in which office-work on management of all mountain people [7, page 330 concentrated; 19]. Besides, in the Caucasian district had to consist the marching ataman of the Cossack troops and field auditoriat. Unlike the Russian commanders of districts, the Caucasian commander-in-chief of the district had big rights concerning staff and at the solution of economic questions. Presidency in military county council was assigned to the assistant to the commander-in-chief; also household departments of military district administration and Mountain management were under its authority. The military county council in the Caucasus presented the conclusions not to the Council of War, and directly to the commander-in-chief. The last had rights of the solution of business "within the power presented to it" [7, page 330];

in case it was beyond its competence, business went to the Ministry of Defence. In the district headquarters, office-work on management of troops of army and the lodged Cossack troops - Kuban and tersky concentrated. The chief and two of his assistants was at the head of the headquarters; at the headquarters there was a priest of the Caucasian army and the voyennotopografichesky department was formed. In all the rest the headquarters of the Caucasian district was identical to headquarters of other districts [20, page 27].

Because of dispersion the troops of one general chief of local troops located in the Caucasus were not. The management of local teams in Kuban, Tersky and the Dagestan areas was assigned to chiefs of these areas [20, page 28 - 29; 21, page 47 - 49]; in the Transcaucasian region and the Kutaisi Governorate-General the special chief of local troops and two assistants was established. At the same time all field troops were withdrawn from under the guide of chiefs of areas and on the basis of the general provision it were charged to chiefs of divisions. For chiefs of areas only supervision of satisfaction economic zero field troops was left [7, page 340].

Military administrative division of the Caucasus extended with formation in 1874 of new military department - Zakaspiysky. Management of department was entrusted to the special chief with the rights and duties of the regional top military commander. In 1877, in connection with application to the Caucasian military district of new provision on management of local troops positions of the chief of local troops of the district and in all Caucasian provinces of a position of military chiefs were founded [22]. Along with carrying out military okruzhsnoy reforms the structure of the Caucasian army was strongly reduced. In 1866 the number of troops was reduced by 336 officers and by 14016 nizhsny ranks, and a little earlier - the term of obligatory service in the Kuban and Tersky Cossack troops is reduced [22; 23]. As a result of reform the general staff and a number of its managements replaced the device military okruzhsnogo managements. The deputy of the Caucasus turned into the ordinary top military commander in the Caucasian military district with the right of the case commander.

Special attention application in the certain cities of the Caucasus of city reform of 1870 deserves. Its carrying out was entrusted to the deputy. He had to report about the events held in this direction in the Caucasian committee. City reform was undertaken not at the same time in all cities, and with a gap in two - three years. In Transcaucasia the first the right of self-government was acquired by Tiflis. On January 1, 1875 here the Tiflissky City Council and presence, provincial on city affairs was open [7, page 350]. In the cities of Kutaisi, Gori, Akhaltsikhe of transformation also began in 1875, and in Erivani and Baku - in 1877 [24]. Gorodovy situation extended also to the cities of the North Caucasus. So, on April 29, 1874 it was entered in Vladikavkaz, since March 13, 1875 began to work in Kizlyar, and since January 1, 1876 - in Mozdok [25].

Bourgeois reforms 60 - the 70th of the 19th century made relevant development of new regulations on civil management of the Caucasus. The question of it was brought up by the Caucasian administration in 1865 [26], and the royal decree "About Transformation of Management of the Caucasian and Transcaucasian Region" was published on December 9, 1867 [26]. He established new administrative division in the region. The fifth was added to four provinces existing in the Caucasus - Elisavetpolskaya; parts of Tiflissky, Baku and Erivan-sky provinces were its part. Besides, borders of provinces changed. The Stavropol province was divided into three counties: Stavropol, Pyatigorsk and Novogrigoryevsky. The last was formed of a part Kizlyarskosh of the county; other its part together with the city of Kizlyar was transferred to structure of the Tersky region. The Kutaisi province consisted of seven counties: Kutaisi, Sharopinskosh, Rachin-sky, Ozurgetskosh, Zugdidi, Senaksky and Lechgumsky. Tiflisskaya - from six counties: Tiflissky, Akhaltsikhe, Gori, Dushetsky, Telavsko-go and Signakhsky. The Baku province included six counties: Baku, Cuban, Shemakhinsky, Gokchayevsky, Dzhevatsky and Lankaran; in Erivan-sky - five counties: Erivansky, Alexandropol, Echmiadzinsky, New bayazetsky and Nakhichevanisky. The Elisavetpolsky province was made by Elisa-vetpolsky, Kazakh, Zangezursky, Shusha and Nukhinsky Counties [27]. The division of counties into sites existing earlier in some Provinces of Transcaucasia was cancelled. "The provision on transformation of management of the Caucasian and Transcaucasian region" accurately defined rules of work and an obligation of administrative agencies of various departments: provincial boards, district chiefs, district and city police, management of the state imushchestvo, etc. [26]. The new device exempted administrative civil authorities from judicial functions. All of them "addressed direct and direct appointment - protection of public tranquility and safety, prevention of crimes and care about development of national well-being" [7, page 294]. Management of provinces, counties and cities and also state imushchestvo was established on the basis of the General provincial establishment operating in the territory of all Russia.

At the beginning of 1871, with introduction of the general civil management, the Kuban and Tersky regions underwent new administrative reorganization. The Kuban region was formed of lands of the Kuban army (12 villages of army were transferred to the Stavropol province), the cities, settlements of the state peasants, soldier's a slobodok, colonies and mountain districts [7, page 296]. It included five counties: Ekaterinodarsky, Yeysk, Temryuk, Maykop and Batalpashinsky. Strengthening Maykop and the village of Batalpashinskaya received the status of the cities. The regional city appointed Ekaterinodar. The territory of the Tersky region was expanded due to accession to it of certain districts of the Stavropol province of the city of Georgiyevsk and a part of the Kizlyar County

together with the city of Kizlyar. Vladikavkaz remained the regional city. The area was divided into seven districts: Vladikavkaz, Of St. George, Grozny, Argun, Vedeno, Kizlyar and Khasavyurt. Fortress Terrible was renamed into the city [28].

In the Dagestan area, the Zakatalsky district and the Sukhumi department the military and national control system still remained. The grand duke Mikhail Nikolaevich specified that, despite the petition to enter all-civil management in Tersky and Kuban regions, he is convinced of full suitability of military and national administration [29, page 118]. By the end of the 60th of the 19th century in the khanates of Dagestan and in Abkhazia, khans and possessors were completely eliminated from the power. Throughout Dagestan and Abkhazia to a tayuka voyennonarodny management was entered [29, page 68 - 73].

Characterizing in general efforts of the Caucasian administration when carrying out bourgeois reforms it should be noted, first of all, that practically all of them in the territory of the Caucasus had even more limited character, than in Russia. A part of reforms did not affect the region at all, for example, carrying out vozmozhsnost in the Caucasus of territorial reform was rejected at once by Select Committee of 1865 [9, page 40]; city reform was undertaken in only several cities of edge. The main reason for a delay of some reforms or carrying out them in incomplete volume was explained by the government unpreparedness to them the Caucasian zhsitel. A social and economic mnoshukladnost, polietnichnost, durability of local traditions, including norms of common law, a polikonfessio-nalnost - all this created serious difficulties on the way of reforming of the Caucasus. However, despite incompleteness of reforms, their carrying out in many respects solved the problem long ago put by the government before glavnoupravlyayushchy and deputies of the Caucasus - an edge binding to Russia not only in political, but also in the administrative relation.


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North Osepitsky state university On July 11, 2003

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