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The main problems of formation of the Thessaly union in a foreign and domestic historiography

o. V. Minayev


Work is presented by department of ancient history and the Middle Ages of the Tula state pedagogical university of L.N. Tolstoy. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.G. Zubarev

The main problems of formation of the Thessaly union and its place in development of Hellas are presented in article on the basis of the comparative analysis of researches of a foreign and domestic historiography.

The article coves the main problems of the Thessaly union organization and its role in the development of Hellas on the ground of the historical analysis of foreign and domestic historiography.

The issue of formation of regional Union States takes especially important place in the history of Hellas in view of a number of features of political development of the Greek world. The problem of formation of unity of the Greek nation was particularly acute enough throughout the entire period of the Greek history.

Political life of antique Greece was characterized by extreme fragmentation. The country represented, at least, during an archaic era conglomerate of autonomous city-states, policies. The associations arising because of antique Greece were the most various on character: from the religious unions (Delphic amfitokratiya) and simmakhiya (Peloponnese union) to federations with the developed control system. The last, as a rule, covered a certain Greek ethnos (e/tnoj) occupying the compact territory in one of regions of the Greek world. Regional federations, as a rule, did not overstep the ethnic limits. Such unions existed practically in all areas of Greece. One of the most known and earliest regional unions was Thessaly.

Antique sources call citizens of Thessalia by the word "ethnic group". In historical, philosophical and oratorical literature of the classical period of history of Greece this word meant "people", "breeding association", "tribe". Obviously, citizens of Thessalia can be considered as the ethnic community consisting of related tribes.

The first work on the history of emergence of Union States in Hellas was created in the middle of the 19th century in England. His author - the prominent scientist Ad. Freeman. Its research became the first generalizing work on the history of federal states and institutes. Ad. Freeman noted that during the entire period of the Greek history Thessaly it was integrated as political whole, being under direct supervision to one person, namely a taga (tago/j). After

dniya, according to him, were not the tsar as his position was not hereditary or even a constant, there was no it and the tyrant because his service was authorized by a certain similarity of the law (Xen., Hell., VI, I, 18; VI, 4, 28). Nevertheless tag carried out Supreme

power over all citizens of Thessalia.


A. Zharde also considers that Thessaly represented the confederation of the cities created at the end of the 7th century BC (Plut., Could., 492 V; 760 E, F) Alevy Red, the governor from Larisa who allocated in her 4 administrative districts (tetrads): Fes-saliotidu, Pelasgiotidu, Gestiyeotidu and Ftiotidu. Was at the head of the union tag, chosen from notable family and serving as the military commander and also having the power over army. Existence of the union allowed citizens of Thessalia to become in the 6th century BC the strongest state in Northern Greece.

Considerable attention to a problem of formation of the Hellas unions is paid by V. to Fi-3 of,

Cher. He believes that at a certain stage of the development of federation, created by ethnic groups in early times, turn into the uniform states.

1. Frankott believes that the religious union, an amfitokratiya was an initial form of association of ethnic groups. Gradually need for the general protection and other factors lead to closer unity of ethnic group and formation of league. Subsequently leagues develop into confederations as it and happened to Thessaly.

G. Frankott considers that Thessaly represents a fine example of transformation of league into confederation. According to him, at citizens of Thessalia the political unity existed since the most ancient times. Existence of the all-Thessaly tag (tago/j) was one of factors of this unity.

G. Buzolt and G. Svoboda5 consider that citizens of Thessalia in the most ancient times had "a breeding state". As a result of emergence of the cities the political unity is weakened, but not ischeza-

The main problems of formation of the Thessaly union in a foreign and domestic historiography

et. This unity remains in the form of poorly related breeding union or in the form of an amfitokratiya. According to G. Buzolt and G. Svoboda, emergence of the Union State at citizens of Thessalia belongs only to the beginning of the 4th century BC. They consider more and more ancient associations as the unions of the states.

V. Erenberg allocates the second half of the 5th century - the first half of the 4th century BC as the special period in political development of Thessaly which was characterized by emergence in them of new forms of government.


It is similar V. Erenberg, J. Larsen considers the federal state as the most developed type of the state in Ancient Greece. The scheme of political development of Thessaly appears at it in the following look. During an initial stage after Dorian resettlement the citizens of Thessalia created "the breeding state". The tsar (tago/j) was at the head of this state, there was a Council of Elders and people's assembly. J. Larsen calls early association of citizens of Thessalia by "empire" which reached the highest blossoming during Halkide's help during Lelantsky war, carrying its end to the last quarter of the 7th century

8 and

BC. At the next stage there is a replacement of "the breeding state" with group of city-states which keep among themselves political connections. As a result of it the breeding unity is weakened, but does not disappear at all. Then new political association of citizens of Thessalia in the form of the federal state which is the highest type of association is created. Thus, J. Larsen considers "the breeding state" an initial stage in development of the federal state.

In opinion Greenidge, citizens of Thessalia had the earliest union in Greece created by "voluntary submission of the aristocracy of the cities to the tsar who was elected from Geraklidov, but not always from odes-9

ache also the same branch".

Presence of association at citizens of Thessalia in

of the 7-6th centuries BC is recognized also by X. Vest -

leyk and J. Larsen. The first believes that

"by the end of the 7th century BC the project was created

associations of the whole country in uniform Nazi -

10 ^

anal state". The author considers this state as the Thessaly union created originally "as the military organization which had few chances of existence in peace time" & #34;.

M. Sordi, the author of the fundamental work "Thessaly League", believes that

Thessaly "empire" was created by the settlement-12

le is 514 BC. Some researchers

consider that citizens of Thessalia had an union obra-


zovan only in the 4th century BC. So, U. Köhler refers his education to 369 BC. The same time offers X. Vestleyk, though believes how it was already told above that the union at citizens of Thessalia was created in the 7th century BC, but does not consider it permanent unit. E. Meyer carries time of creation of the union to 368 BC, Yu. Belokh-14

by 367 BC G. Buzolt considers that the union


it was created soon after 364 BC

A number of researchers carries out communication between the process of formation of regional federations and crisis of the Greek policy in the first half of the 4th century BC which was not passing and quite original Thessaly. with a TT 16

R. Pelman considers creation in the territory of Hellas of federations as attempts of overcoming economic and political isolation of the city-state which during the late classical period perezhi-


shaft deep crisis. Also and K.Yu. Belokh sees in education in the first half of the 4th century BC of regional federations aspiration in the conditions of crisis of the city-state to create others, than the policy, forms

national association. N of Ham-18

mond also believes that development of certain Hellas regions, such as Thessaly, in the area of federalism could become recovery from the crisis if the movement of the Greek society in this direction was not interrupted external vozdeystvi-


e1m. Also V. Erenberg notes communication between crisis of the policy as a form of political association and strengthening of a tendency to creation of more extensive political formations in the first half of the 4th century BC

In a domestic pre-revolutionary historiography in general are devoted to a subject of formation of Union States in Hellas

several special works. These are works


S.Ya. Lurye about the Boeotia union, nebol-


Shae Article F. F. Sokolova about structure and

modalities of action of the Boeotia union


and Article E. I. Baybakova in whom the main stages of development of the Arcadian union are lit. Separately the problem of genesis and development of the Thessaly union by any author was not developed.

In the Soviet historiography addressed a problem of Hellas Union States only in the late thirties. However researches of the Soviet historians are generally devoted to semi-federal simmakhiya, their history and political system. These are N.N. Grebensky, G.D. Tsinzerling, V.M. Strogetsky, A.E. Parshikov's works. The Soviet historiography did not pay to a research of the regional unions due attention,


except for the work R.V. Schmidt more devoted to domestic economic development of Thessaly.

One more prominent Soviet researcher of a problem of development Thessaly


go the union E.D. Frolov who paid much attention to the glorified Thessaly tyrant Yason is. The last who addressed a problem of emergence of the Thessaly union during the Soviet period,


there was Yu.V. Korchagin, in the article he in a complex approaches an issue of emergence of the Thessaly union as powerful military and political education of that time. The author denies existence of any continuous political education in the territory of Thessaly, up to the 4th century BC, reducing all early allied attitudes towards breeding relationship and need of joint actions on the external arena.

During the Post-Soviet period the domestic historical science actually did not address problems of federal development of Hellas, and the Thessaly union in particular, despite the increased relevance of this subject for modern democratic Russia. Some of the few independent researches of a problem of education Thessaly

the union E.I. Svetilo's works - are

>-26 _ _. 27

howl also E.D. Frolova.

Thus, existence in the western historiography of various interpretations of a problem of formation of the Thessaly union and low degree of readiness of the matter in domestic historical science leaves open the main issues: What was represented by the Thessaly union at various stages of the existence? In what did need of formation of the union consist? How difficult was its management personnel? It is possible to answer these questions by means of complex detailed study of antique tradition at attraction of the latest these archaeological researches.

1 Freeman E. A. History of federal government. Vol.1. London; Cambridge, 1863. Jarde A. La formation du people Grec. P., 1923. C. 110.
3 Vischer W. Kleine Schriften, Bd. I. Leipzig, 1877. S. 308-381.

Francotte H. La polis grecque. Paderborn, 1907. P. 149 ss.

5 Busolt G., Swoboda H. Griechische Staatskunde, Bd. II. München, 1926. S. 1310 ff.
6 Ehrenberg V. I) Polis und Imperium. Zurich; Stuttgart, 1965, S. 36 ff., 108 ff; II) The Greek state. London, 1969. P 120 ff.

Larsen J. A.O. of I) Representative government in Greek and Roman history. Berkeley; Los Angeles 1955. P. 1-105, II) Greek federal states. Oxford, 1968. P. 1-504.

& #34; & I.arsai.J. A J. L of new Interpretation of the Thessalian Confederacy. CI. Philol. 1960. v. I.V.Y04. C. 23!, & #34; Greenidge A H J A Handbook of Greek Constitutional History. London. 1914. C. 221. ln West lake H. D Thessaly in the Fourth Century B. C. London. 1935. C. 25. 11 In the same place.

& - Sordi M. La lega lessala lino ad Alessandro Magno. Roma, 1958. C. 77.

IJ Kohler U. Attische Psephismen aus der ersten Malfte des vierten Jahrhunderts. 11 AM. Bd. 11. 1877.

(&. 2G5.

& J Meyer Ed. Thcopomps Helienica. Halie. 19Ü9. C. 231.

15 Basa It G. Swoboda H. Griechische Staatskunde. Munchen. 1926. C. 1487.

Pel. P ion. Essay Greek source study history ti. SPb. 191G. Page 267.! & Beloch K. J. G G. I I I. I. S. 515 ff.

& #34; Hammond N. G. L A history of Greece to of 322 V. of C. Oxford, 1959. P. 438. & #34; E/irwnberg V. Polis und Imperium. S. 36 ff.


& #34; Ya. S Lurye. In e о&ш the ysky union. SPb. 1914. & Sokolov of F.F. Chetyresovet. ZhMNP. 1897. March. Page 99.

- E. Baybakov. And the Arcadian union in Megalopona. Historical education, 1915. T. 2G. Page 29-5G. R.V. Schmidt. From the history of Thessaly. IGAIMK. Issue 1 G 1. L., 1934.


Frolov of E.D. Grecheskiyetirana. L., 1972. 15 Yu.V. Korchagin. The Thessaly union in the first half of the 4th century BC//City and the state in ancient societies. Interuniversity collection of publishing house Leningrad un-that, 1983. Page 34-43.

г&& E.I. Svetilova. Formation of the Thessaly union//Antique messenger. Issue 1. Omsk, 1993. Frolov of E.D. Rretion during an era of late classics. SPb., 2GG1. Page 195.

Stephen Nickolas
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