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Medieval Istoriya and a historiography in Vasily Grigoryevich's creativity avseenko: Kiev period of its scientific activity (1860-1864)



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MEDIEVAL HISTORY AND the HISTORIOGRAPHY IN VASILY GRIGORYEVICH AVSEENKO'S CREATIVITY: KIEV PERIOD of ITS SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY (1860-1864)

In the first half of the 1860th of a mediyevistik of the Kiev university endured the period of personnel difficulties. There was a generation change of experts. The student and the privatdozent of the university V.G. Avseenko which all for 4 years (1860-1864) managed to publish 4 scientific works devoted to the medieval history and a historiography of England, France, partially Italy could become the leader from them. He the first in domestic science comprehensively characterized activity Tomasa Mora and gave the developed assessment of the reasons, features and consequences of a campaign of Charles VIII to Italy. V.G. Avseenko significantly expanded and concretized the massif of knowledge of a domestic mediyevistika of works of the French historian Zh. Mishle and the English scientist G.T. Bokl. High level of scientific and methodological training of V.G. Avseenko for a long time would provide it a role of the leading medievalist of the Kiev university if he did not become the hostage of bitter intra faculty struggle and a target of squaring of accounts.

a 6o-a years of the 19th century hold a specific place in the Russian history. It is well-known that it was time of progressive reforms, unprecedented public growth, progress of various branches of science, unprecedented on the scope, including mediyevistik. However some of the specified scientific achievements owing to various reasons were, in fact, unclaimed. So, in the history of a mediyevistika of the Kiev university of St. Vladimir the first half 6o-x should be considered the fifth anniversary of the missed opportunities. Despite general liberalization, the beginning of the edition of own scientific magazine "Universitetskiye Izvestiya", introduction of the progressive university charter of 1863 which considerably expanded possibilities of training of professorial scholars, in general, personnel problems in the field of a mediyevistika these years at the Kiev university were not solved. The institute of privatdozents created under the new charter did not become one of ways of the solution of this problem, and serious personal collisions which shook historical and philological faculty in the 1860th years forced to leave forever its one of the first university privatdozents V.G. Avseenko (1842-1913) at the peak

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its research activity. Further he will become the famous writer and the publicist, the author popular romanov1, the editor of the Kiyevlyanin newspaper and main newspaper of the Russian Empire - "The St. Petersburg sheets". However any more will never return to researches of problems of the foreign Middle Ages of V.G. Avseenko. Loss of the Kiev mediyevistika turned back valuable acquisition for

S.I. Estuary

Kharkiv state academy of culture

e-mail: limans@ukr.net

1 See: V.G. Avseenko. Compositions: In 12 t. SPb., 1905-1908.

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the all-Russian journalism and literature, however, in the history of this forced transformation not all accents are placed.

V.G. Avseenko's creativity as the historian-medievalist still died a subject of special study. The short biobibliographic information about him contains in A.V. memoirs of Romanovicha-Slavatinskogo2, in "The biographic dictionary by professors and teachers of the university of St. Vladimir (1834-1884)" 3, in the known historiographic work of Accusative Buzeskula4. Basic provisions of historiosophical views of V.G. Avseenko are contextually shown in the monograph by S. of Item Stelmakha5 and Article O. Sidorenko6. The analysis of appeals of V.G. Avseenko to medieval history and a historiography of the certain countries is submitted in a number of our publications, including in monografii7. Thus, the lack of an integrated approach to studying all scientific creativity of the scientist is entirely obvious. An attempt of such analysis is for the first time made within this article. Its purpose - the analysis of all sides of creativity of V.G. Avseenko in the field of a mediyevistika during the Kiev period of its scientific and pedagogical activity.

Vasily Grigoryevich Avseenko was born in 1842 in the Moscow province in noble family. Shortly the family moved to Kiev which cultural and language and household "polonizm" in the 50th - the beginning 6o-x of the 19th century was repeatedly emphasized in memoirs literature8. Here, in Kiev, there passed years of his study: in 1859 G. Avseenko ended the first gymnasium, and in 1863 - historical and philological faculty of the university of St. Vladimir. This faculty was considered at that time as the best faculty of the university though, by own recognition of V.G. Avseenko, it as the native of the central Russia, inexpressibly was surprised to "improbable accent" of the majority Kiev professorov9.

Years of study of V.G. Avseenko at the university fell on rough time. The first liberal reforms. Abolition of serfdom. The Polish revolt of 1863 and fierce fight against the Polish nationalism and separatism from orthodox residents of the Kiev province. All these events formed an active civic stand of V.G. Avseenko and in many respects promoted that already on the second year of the university it published in the popular capital magazine "Russkoye Slovo" the first scientific essay "Thomas Mora". So serious hobby of the student for science was not interfered also by the idea of an unenviable position occurring in prereform public consciousness domestic professury10. Just in 1860 when there was the first publication of V.G. Avseenko, in "The Russian bulletin" was published on-luanonimnaya article "Several Words about Position of Professors at Our Universities" signed "HL-in". In it it was directly said: "ranks of the scientists devoting themselves to a professorial rank thin... What opportunity to indulge in extensive, capital work when the most part of time leaves on arranging the

2 A.V. Romanovich-Slavatinsky. My life//Messenger of Europe. 1903. No. 5. Page 186.
3 Biographic dictionary by professors and teachers of the university of St. Vladimir (1834-1884). To., 1884. Page 11-12.
4 V.P. Buzeskul. General history and its representatives in Russia in XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries. L., 1929.
5 S. Stelmakh of a _storichn a thought in Ukra§n_ XIX - to an ear of the XX St. To., 1997. Page 91, 93, 100.
6 Sidorenko O. Rozvitok honey і є v_stik in un_versitet_ St. Volodymyr k_ntsya the 40th - 6o rr. The XIX Article y to a zv'yazk _z stanovlennyam pozitiv_stsko ї methodologist і ї//V_snik Chern_g_vskogo majestic pedagog_chny to an un_versitet. 2002. Wines. 15. Page 45.
7 S.I. estuary. The ideas in armor: West or East? The Middle Ages in estimates of medievalists of Ukraine (1804 - the first half of the 1880th). Kharkiv, 2009. Page 153-154, 254-257, 270-271.
8luchitskaya M.V. Memoirs / / Ukra§noznavch_ student і ї that memuar of a _van і Mar і ї Luchitsky. To., 2007. Page 251; A.V. Romanovich-Slavatinsky. My life... No. l. Page 167.
9 V.G. Avseenko. School days. Fragments from memoirs, 1852-1863//the Historical bulletin. 1881. T. 4. Page 717.
10 See: S.S. Tatishchev. Emperor Alexander II. His life and reign. SPb., 1903. T.2. Page 274.

Part 1. Page 97.

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daily existence?" 11. However position of the faculty of the Russian universities significantly improved after introduction in 1863 new university ustava12. The charter increased by 67% number of teachers with the corresponding increase in the sums at them soderzhaniye13. So, professorial salaries grew from two to three thousand rubles in god14.

Professor of department of general history V.Ya. of Shulgin15 was a teacher V.G. Avseenko at the university. The famous scientist, the great lecturer and comprehensively educated prepodavatel16, V.Ya. Shulgin, according to V.G. Avseenko, was "the true head historical seminary", carried out by him within educational processa17. Such, innovative for those times forms of work of students with historical sources offered by V.Ya. Shulgin promoted formation of early research skills at students. Let's note that along with V.G. Avseenko both the historian famous in the future and public figure M.P. Dragomanov was V.Ya. Shulgin's student.

By then when V.G. Avseenko ended a university course, he managed to publish four scientific essays devoted to various problems of medieval history and a historiography. History of a regional mediyevistika did not know such start of the young scientist yet! It was obvious that the university could receive the brilliant medievalist. According to the new university charter of 1863 the institute of privatdozents was entered. The graduates of the university who graduated from it with degree of the candidate and "submitted the thesis (pro venia legendi) on that office of faculty in which they intend to teach" 18 could be entitled privatdozents. As applicants of this rank V.G. Avseenko and his fellow student M.P. Dragomanov at the same time acted. However the dramatic nature of a situation consisted not in their personal rivalry, and in sharp hostility of their teachers and senior colleagues. About this hostility of V.G. Avseenko in detail wrote in the memoirs:

"The department of general history was divided with Shulgin by professor Alexander Ivanovich Stavrovsky. It was the perfect antipode of Vitaly Yakovlevich, and, properly to an antipode, very much it was disliked... As I was recommended to council by Shulgin, Stavrovsky's not arrangement to the last was transferred also to me, and I very well understood that at final examinations he to me will not be indulgent. Perhaps, it also other reason, purely practical property directed: he served term and had to stand on the additional fifth anniversary. If by then the candidate for department of general history, chances to be elected for him was would very much be reduced." 19.

What was V.G. Avseenko's creativity by the time of the termination of the university by it, and its chances were how high not only to receive a position of the privatdozent, but also to become the regular teacher of department of general history?

V.G. Avseenko's publications covered the medieval history and a historiography of England and France, partially Italy. By the beginning of the 1860th history and istorio-

11 N of L-century. Several words about position of professors at our universities / / the Russian messenger. 1860. November. Prince 2. Page 108-109.
12 R.G. Eymontova. University reform of 1863//Historical notes. 1961. T. 70. Page 173; T.E. Novitskaya. Alexander II's reforms//Messenger of the Moscow university. It is gray. 11: Right. 1998. No. 6. Page 50.
13 V.A. Vorobyov. To the history of our university charters / / the Russian thought. 1905. No. 12. Page 6.
14 B.B. Glinsky. University charters (1755-1884)//Historical bulletin. 1900. No. 2. Page 723.
15 Official list of V.Ya. Shulgin//State archive of the city of Kiev. T. 16. Op. 465. 4750. L. 144 (about.).
16 V.Ya. Shulgin's obituary / / University news. 1879. No. 2. Page 9.
17avseenko V.G. School days... Page 718.
18 General Charter and states of the imperial Russian universities / / University news. 1863. No. 7. Addition 1. Page 20.
19 V.G. Avseenko. School days. Page 720-721.

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a grafiya of England were poorly studied in a domestic mediyevistika, and the Kiev scientist had to become a pioneer in development of separate problems.

Told treats, first of all, the first in time publication of V.G. Avseenko - an essay "Thomas Mora" (1860). According to the contents the essay was mainly biographic. At the same time the author presented the general historical situation of England 16th century and briefly analyzed the content of the main works of the hero.

First of all estimates by the historian of the English absolutism and the Reformation are indicative. If in lectures of the famous Kharkiv medievalist M.M. Lunin Henry VII and Henry VIII are characterized as progressive kings who "completed falling of feudalism" 20, then V.G. Avseenko did not feel sorry for the most black paints for the image of government of the first Tudor dynasty. "The avaricious and impudent despot" Henry VII21, "capricious., cruel., whimsical., never receding at any crimes" Henry VIII22 - such crowned contemporaries and tribespeople Tomasa Mora appear under a feather of the Kiev scientist. It contradicted the known positive biographies of these kings in many works of medieval English authors, including Tomasa of Mora23 and also Francis of Bekona24. At the same time many conclusions of V.G. Avseenko drawn by results of Henry VIII's government are in consonance with mainly negative conclusions of the glorified Moscow medievalist T. N. of Granovskogo25.

Absolutely unambiguous, though extremely negative estimates of the main creators of the English absolutism presented in V.G. Avseenko's essay look contrast near that contradictory characteristic which it gave to the hero. Here estimates often opposite: "the severe opponent of despotism" 26, "noble and sublime" 27, "strict and incorruptible" 28, - such Thomas Mora appears along with Thomas Mor alien of "the moral principle" 29, VIII30 fawning in verses upon Henry which is in every possible way trying to obtain arrangement of this "despot" 31, etc.

But the most sharply Kiev medievalist spoke creativity Tomasa Mora. Its "Utopia" "has no social value", - proved to V.G. Avseenko. - "Along with a small amount of the healthy thoughts hired at classics in this illegal child of philosophy of the 16th century there are most rough, ugliest principles uniting everything that it is capable to chain human society in the narrowest form of development" 32. The emotional tone of the Kiev scientist perfectly reflected ideological fight in the Russian society in the last prereform months, and, speaking about "disgusting cynicism" Mora in a question of admissibility of slavery and despotism of the central power, V.G. Avseenko, most likely, meant the Nikolaev mode and modern to it the serfdom. Let's note, however,

20 [M.M. Lunin] Modern history: The lectures of the prof. M.M. Lunin which are written down by the student A. Baryshe-vym / / Department of manuscripts of the Central scientific library of Karazin Kharkiv National University. 404/village of Tetr. 1. L. 16.
21 Avseenko V.G. Thomas Mora / / Russian word. 1860. No. 11. Page 39.
22 In the same place. Page 49, 60.
23 A pestilence of T. Utopia / Lane from Latinas. and comment. A.I. Maleina. M.; L., 1947. Page 39.
24 F. Bacon. History of government of the king Henry VII / Transl. from English V.R. Rokityansky and A.E. Yavru-myan / / F. Bacon. History of government of the king Henry VII. M, 1990. Page 5, 44, 88, 142-143; F. Bacon. About the advantage and enhancement of sciences / Lane from Latinas. N.A. Fyodorova / / F. Bacon. History of government of the king Henry VII. M, 1990. Page 163; F. Bacon. History of government of the king Henry VIII / Transl. from English V.R. Rokityansky / / F. Bacon. History of government of the king Henry VII. M, 1990. Page 169-170.
25 T.N. Granovsky. Lectures on Middle Ages history. M, 1987. Page 137-139.
26 Avseenko V.G. Thomas Mora... Page 39.
27 In the same place. Page 55.
28 In the same place. Page 56.
29 In the same place. Page 38.
30 In the same place. Page 39.
31 In the same place. Page 51-52.
32 In the same place. Page 46.

that in "Utopia" and besides admissibility of slavery, the provisions which are throwing down a challenge to reputation of an ideal society meet. Among them - justification of war for expansion of space against the people, not persons interested to adopt laws of utopiyets; recognition by norm bribery and payment for murder of governors of others countries; quantitative regulation of clothes; acceptance of a church dignity by women, etc. 33. At the same time the question of extent of influence on "Utopia" Mora works Platon and Augustine remains, in fact, open still. Already E.V. Tarle considered their effect, though very significant, but minor, and modern Mora economic development of England - glavnym34. There is no unity of opinions in a historiography and on historical Utopias value. Many foreign authors underestimated it znacheniye35 and did it in the spirit of V.G. Avseenko.

The role of the sign representative already modern to him the English science of V.G. Avseenko was shown in the big essay "By idealism and materialism in the history of" (1863). In it on the basis of the comparative analysis of works of the Belgian scientist Laurent and the English scientist Bokl the Kiev medievalist found out not only an essence of their methodological contradictions, but also stated an own historiosophical position. The English positivist, the representative of geographical school in sociology, the author of work "Civilization history in England" G.T. Bokl deserved in general a high response of V.G. Avseenko who considered him the advanced historian of the present. Bokl, - V.G. Avseenko wrote, - calls the regulating beginning of history of "a natural phenomenon of physical and human nature", places this regulating beginning of history "in the object of history", and its consists in it "the major kapitalneyshy merit" 36. Thus, it was quite accurately specified obvious progress and growth of influence of the English mediyevistika from the middle of the 19th century. This trend noticed by V.G. Avseenko is already hrestomatiynoy37 now. Let's note also that this work of V.G. Avseenko drew attention of modern Ukrainian researchers of history of positivism according to whom the Kiev scientist, though divided many provisions of G.T. Bokl, in the historiosophical plan allowed connection of former idealistic concepts of historical process with new poziti-vistskimi38. From ourselves we will add: the synthetical character of historiosophical views was characteristic feature of development of a domestic mediyevistika of the 1860th 39. Quite capaciously also V.G. Avseenko spoke on this subject: "If that especially characterizes historical science in its current development, then it is the arbitrariness of personal views and subjective logic which is reigning in it." 40.

Continued studying "personal views" the European scientists on V.G. Avseenko's history in work "Publicists of modern times" (1863). In structural terms it consisted of three essays which are devoted to sign representatives of the French science: to the philosopher and politician M. Roye-Kollyar, sociologist A. Tokvil and famous medievalist Zh. Mishle.

In assessment of scientific heritage of Zh. Mishle of V.G. Avseenko showed more critical approach, than M.N. Petrov is the author of the first in the Russian Empire obob-

33 T. Utopiya's pestilence... Page 119, 121, 180, 203.
34 E.V. Tarle. Public views Tomasa Mora in connection with an economic condition of England of its time. SPb., 1901. Page 167, 188.
35 T.N. Samsonova. About studying "Utopia" in the latest bourgeois historiography / / History of socialist exercises. M, 1986. Page 252.
36 V.G. Avseenko Idealizm and materialism in the history. Concerning Laurent and Bokl's compositions / / Domestic notes. 1863. No. 7. Page 28.
37 See: E.V. Gutnova. Historiography of history of the Middle Ages. M, 1985. Page 216.
38 Sidorenko O. Rozvitok honey і є v_stik in un_versitet_ St. Volodymyr k_ntsya the 40th - 60 rr. The XIX Article y to a zv'yazk _z stanovlennyam pozitiv_stsko ї methodologist і ї / / V_snik Chern_g_vskogo majestic pedagog_chny to an un_versitet. 2002. VIP. 15. Page 45; S. Stelmakh of a _storichn a thought in Ukra§n_ XIX - to an ear of the XX St. To., 1997. Page 91.
39 S.I. estuary. The ideas in armor: West or East?. Page 153, 157.
40 V.G. Avseenko Idealizm and materialism in the history. No. 5. Page 8.

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shchayushchy work "The Latest National Historiography in Germany, England and France" 41. So, the Kiev researcher allocated two periods of activity of Zh. Mishle and noted that if till 1843 Zh. Mishle appears at us as the serious historian, then since 1843 it "got off on the pamphlet and began to handle science extremely thoughtlessly" 42. From all works on stories of the Middle Ages written to Zh. Mishle, V.G. Avseenko called "remarkable in the scientific relation" only one - "The History of France". "We have the right even to enhance severity of this response, having told that from 14 volumes of "the History of France" which left still only the first six, devoted to the Middle Ages, deserve attention as serious scientific work; other volumes, since "Renaissance", belong to area of a fiction, than stories rather", - noted Kiev uchenyy43.

Basic disagreement of V.G. Avseenko such lines of creativity of Zh. Mishle as "addiction to a phrase", "anekdotizm", excessive subjectivity and also "caused unlimited loud patriotism which beats at it from each page and sometimes passes into some incomprehensible nonsense" 44. Carried the aspiration to look for a source of the historical phenomena "in the nature of masses and to push aside in a shadow of the personality", study first of all "the internal life of people", humanistic approach to characteristic of historical figures at which assessment of their personal, moral, human qualities means more, than their public zaslugi45 to undoubted advantages of works of the French medievalist V.G. Avseenko. Unlike M.N. Petrov according to whom the French medievalist was the representative of "humanitarian school" 46 V.G. Avseenko did not begin to rank Zh. Mishle as one of the existing historical schools. "Mishle is remarkable that, - the Kiev researcher noted, - that he acquired to himself quite independent situation among the French historiography" 47. It is necessary to emphasize that these conclusions of V.G. Avseenko in general were made at the end of the 20th century by the large specialist in a historiography of history of the Middle Ages E.V. of Gutnovoy48.

V.G. Avseenko sought to remain to right estimates of works of the French historian in an essay "The Italian campaign of Charles VIII and his influence on France" (1863). This essay became the thesis on the right of receiving a rank of the privatdozent (pro venia legendi). In it the Kiev researcher obviously tried to avoid extremes for which criticized before Zh. Mishle. V.G. Avseenko sought to reveal not so much the political and military parties of this campaign how many to show how as a result of acquaintance to advanced culture of Italy the internal regeneration of France begun with cunning policy of Louis XI" 49 was completed ".

This work of V.G. Avseenko was published before capital monographs by the famous French authors F. Delabord and A. Lemonye who are directly devoted to history of a campaign of Charles VIII50. For its writing V.G. Avseenko used a wide range of sources (official acts, Philippe de Commin's memoirs, the chronicle by Francesco Gvicciardini, Johann Burhard's diary, etc.). "the history Fran-

was the main scientific monograph which the Kiev historian used
41 M.N. Petrov. The latest national historiography in Germany, England and France. Kharkiv, 1861. Page 299.
42 V.G. Avseenko. Publicists of modern times: Roye-Kolyar, Tokville, Mishle//Domestic notes. 1863. No. 10. Page 411.
43 In the same place.
44 In the same place. No. 10. Page 412, 413, 415, 416.
45 In the same place. No. 10. Page 412, 415.
46 M.N. Petrov. The latest national historiography in Germany, England and France. Page 299.
47 V.G. Avseenko. Publicists of modern times. No. 10. Page 414.
48 E.V. Gutnova. Historiography of history of the Middle Ages. Page 160.
49 V.G. Avseenko. Italian campaign of Charles VIII and his influence on France / / University news. 1863. No. 4. Page 1-2.
50 Delaborde F.H. L’Expedition de Charles VIII en Italie. P., 1888; Lemonnier H. Les guerres d’Italie. La France sous Charles VIII, Louis XII et Francois I (1492-1547). P., 1911.

tion" Zh. Mishle. It is necessary to explain with its influence one of the main conclusions of V.G. Avseenko that in the new political movement of the 2nd half of the 15th century, "as well as in all in general political revolutions of Western Europe, the initiative and the taking priority role belong to France" 51. The similar thought was expressed also by the contemporary of those events of Makiawelli52. In a modern historiography in many respects the identical point of view is shared by Yu.E. Ivonin and V.G. Tsivaty. So, according to Yu.I. Ivonin, "fight between France and Gabsburgami for hegemony in Europe - the main knot of the international contradictions" late srednevekovya53. V.G. Tsivaty considers frankoispansky rivalry for prevalence in Italy "the main axis around which all states" that vremeni54 formed the foreign policy.

At the image of internal state of France during this period of V.G. Avseenko characterized the state activity of Louis XI mainly black paints. At the same time the Kiev medievalist understood tasks of the French king enough definitely: "Prudent, cold, blood-thirsty Louis XI was as though it is created to flood in blood the last fragments of feudalism" 55. The scientist saw his main goal in strengthening of the central power. At the same time, recognizing its success and noting that "France left politically updated from severe hands of Louis XI", V.G. Avseenko allowed very indistinct, in fact, inexact formulation, namely: "Louis XI created nothing and destroyed nothing completely" 56.

V.G. Avseenko's essay, despite large volume, did not sin with an excessive opisa-telnost. The author managed to allocate accurately the periods of government of Charles VIII, to show fight of two parties at court, to establish the campaign reasons to Italy. Between the true reasons of a campaign to Italy and fight of parties at court of V.G. Avseenko fairly noticed significant communication. At the same time in many medieval sources, in particular, in I. Burhard and F. de Commin's works, the reasons of a campaign were explained by foreign policy calls and laws of succession of Charles VIII57.

Should agree with opinion of the Kiev historian that influence of the Italian culture on French was not result of one campaign of Charles VIII. "It was a consequence of a number of the French-Italian wars", - noticed V.G. of Avseenko58. But, recognizing that in the scientific, art and political sphere this influence promoted further strengthening of the central power and made, thus, positive sense, the scientist at the same time believed that from Italy the French brought perversity of customs and favoritizm59. Between that beginning of female favoritism in France it is necessary to consider emergence at court of the father Louis XI, Charles VII, Agnessa Sorel, and it occurred long before the events described by the author.

We will allocate one more debatable moment in V.G. Avseenko's reasonings. He considered a campaign of Charles VIII "badly calculated", badly prepared and "unfortunate" meropriyatiyem60. However in the conclusion of the work the author, in fact, contradicts himself: "The war postponed out of borders of the state and in itself nakho-

51 V.G. Avseenko. Italian campaign of Charles VIII and his influence on France. No. 4. Page 6.
52 Mak'yawell_ N. Derzhavets / Lane z _t. A. Perepad і] / / Mak'yawell_ N. Florent_ysk_ of a hron_ka. Derzhaveets. Kharkiv, 2007. XIX. Page 467.
53 Yu.E. Ivonin. Formation of the European system of the states. England and Gabsburgi at a turn of two eras. Minsk, 1989. Page 5.
54 V.G. Ts_vaty. French-і spansk_ v_dnosin k_ntsya XV - to an ear of XVI stol_ttya. Avtoref. yew.... edging. _st sciences. Zapor_zhzhya, 1995. Page 14.
55 V.G. Avseenko. Italian campaign of Charles VIII and his influence on France. No. 4. Page 9.
56 In the same place. No. 4. Page 12.
57 I. Burhard. Diaries about the Roman city affairs / Lanes of N.T. Tsvetkov, D.D. Shamray / / Infes-sura S., I. Burhard. Diaries. Documents on stories of papacy of the 15-16th centuries of M., 1939. Page 165; F. Commin. Memoirs / Lane, Article i primech. Yu.P. Malinina. M, 1986. VII. I. Page 265, etc.
58 V.G. Avseenko. Italian campaign of Charles VIII and his influence on France. No. 5. Page 35.
59 In the same place. No. 5. Page 42, 45.
60 In the same place. No. 4. Page 1, 18.

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put necessary money, ceased to devastate France" 61. Let's add to it that though tradition to consider Charles VIII's campaign badly prepared goes from contemporaries of it sobytiya62, in a modern mediyevistika the antithetics which are based on studying more wide range narrative istochnikov63 meet.

Scientific publications of V.G. Avseenko, despite some contentious clauses, demonstrated that the graduate of the Kiev university can receive a position of the privatdozent rightfully. It was necessary to convince of it members of council of historical and philological faculty. According to the university charter, public defense of a thesis of pro venia legendi had to become a condition of receiving a rank of the privatdozent. In conditions when serious personal collisions of two professors of department of general history of V.Ya. Shulgin and A.I. Stavrovsky for years were splashed out too much, and V.Ya. Shulgin just several months prior to defense of a thesis of V.G. Avseenko left the university, this protection could become way of squaring of accounts.

"Stavrovsky appointed in number of opponents. triumphed in advance, told that he prepared more than 100 objections", - wrote in the memoirs V.G. Avseenko64. "The dry and cold author" of Charles VIII's Campaign to Italy", Avseenko, behaved on a debate extremely imposingly - not Gizo, not Shulgin, - A.V. Romanovich-Slavatinsky remembered in the memoirs subsequently. - When he gave the introductory lecture, I was surprised much that it, quite harmonious and beautiful, could assimilate to humpbacked and ordinary-looking Shulgin so: he also kept at department, also adjusted the big glasses, also gesticulated. Perhaps, for this likening the faculty was not kind to it that affected a debate in Stavrovsky's treatment of him. This not goodwill, maybe, also was the cause that Avseenko not long sat at department and that it did not leave the academic person" 65.

Despite a safe result of a debate and V.G. Avseenko's award to a position of the privatdozent, his scientific and pedagogical activity was very short. In "Teaching reviews at the university of St. Vladimir" his lectures on general history appear only in the first half of the year 1S64-65 academic year (on 1 hour a week) 66. The section of general history is not specified here. These data completely correspond also to the text of memoirs of V.G. Avseenko: "I gave lectures only one semester. Faculty, one may say. came to Selin and Stavrovsky's full power. To me for my lectures did not appoint any reward, did not recognize them as obligatory for students and took away for them such hour when all seek to have dinner. I would reconcile with all these conditions because my audience after all was full, but the question for me consisted in they are in what way I will take master examination at such structure of faculty? Obviously, my destiny absolutely was in Stavrovsky. hands, and I accepted the invitation of the governor general Annenkov to divide with Shulgin works on edition of "Kiev resident" 67.

He remained the editor of the Kiyevlyanin newspaper during 1S64-1S65. In 1S66 g passed to a position of the world intermediary in the Kiev County. Since 1869 G. Avseenko lived in St. Petersburg. During this period it much and fruitfully worked both as the writer, and as the publicist. The critic of the liberal ideas and the supporter of a conservative course, it worked in the Zarya and Russky mir editions, and in 1883-1896 was re-

61 In the same place. No. 5. Page 49.
62 See: F. Commin. Memoirs... VII. 1. Page 265.
63 See e.g.: V.G. Ts_vaty. French-і spansk_ v_dnosin k_ntsya XV - to an ear of XVI stol_ttya. Page 19-20.
64 V.G. Avseenko. School days. Page 722.
65 A.V. Romanovich-Slavatinsky. My life. No. 5. Page 186.
66 A teaching review at the university of St. Vladimir in the first half of the year of 1864-65 studies. years//University news. 1864. No. 8. Page 10.
67 V.G. Avseenko. School days. Page 722-723.

doctor of the conservative "St. Petersburg vedomomost". It was obvious recognition of his bright publicistic and organizing talent. Since 1905 G. Avseenko became the employee of publishing house of A.F. Marx, but in Russia of the communistic ideas of his namesake Vasily Grigoryevich did not live up to the embodiment. He was lucky quietly to finish the life in the last peace year of "silver age" of Russia.

Thus, short scientific activity of V.G. Avseenko at the Kiev university of St. Vladimir (1860-1864) was exclusively fruitful for this purpose rather unproductive period of development of a domestic mediyevistika. The young scientist managed to publish 4 works devoted to the medieval history and a historiography of England, France, partially Italy. He the first in domestic science, even before emergence of the known thesis of E.V. Tarle, comprehensively characterized activity Tomasa Mora and gave critical evaluation to the English absolutism of the 16th century. In the thesis on receiving a rank of the privatdozent V.G. Avseenko by the first among medievalists of the Russian Empire gave the developed assessment of the reasons, features and consequences of a campaign of Charles VIII to Italy, having anticipated emergence of the famous monographs of the French authors F. Delabord and A. Lemonye. V.G. Avseenko significantly expanded and concretized the massif of knowledge of a domestic mediyevistika of works of the French historian Zh. Mishle and the English scientist G.T. Bokl. In the methodological plan of V.G. Avseenko divided many progressive provisions of positivistic approaches of G.T. Bokl though in general historiosophical bases of his creativity are synthetic reflection of the late Hegelian and early positivistic doctrines inherent in many representatives of a domestic mediyevistika in transitional 1860th years. The biographic nature of the works of V.G. Avseenko combined with very sharp critical manner of statement. With all confidence it is possible to tell that the high level of scientific training of V.G. Avseenko, certainly, for a long time would provide it a role of the leading medievalist of the Kiev university of St. Vladimir if the young scientist did not become the hostage of the acute intra faculty fight and a target of squaring of accounts.

MEDIEVAL HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY IN WORKS BY VASILIY GRIGORIEVICH AVSEENKO: KIEV PERIOD OF HIS SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY (1860-1864)

Kharkov State Academy of Culture

S.I. UMAN

of In the first half of 1860s of the medievistics in Kiev University suffered lack of qualified personnel. The generations of scholars were changing. Their leader might become student and associate professor of the University, V.G. Avseenko, who within only four years (1860-1864) managed to publish four articles devoted to medieval history and historiography of England, France, partly Italy. He was the first in Russian science to characterize comprehensively the deeds of Thomas More and to give a wide evaluation of the reasons, peculiarities and consequences of Charles VIII’s campaigns in Italy. V.G. Avseenko substantially expanded and particularized the Russian medievistics block of knowledge relating to the works by French historian Jules Michelet and British scientist Henry T. Buckle. High level of scientific and methodological preparation of V.G. Avseenko might secure him the status of leading medievalist in Kiev University, but for his becoming a hostage of fierce struggle within the faculty and a target for settlement of personal scores.

Howard Farmer
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