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Repressed geologists graduates and employees of the Tomsk polytechnical



izvestiya of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. 2008. T. 312. No. 1

UDC 55 (092)

REPRESSED GEOLOGISTS are GRADUATES AND EMPLOYEES TOMSK POLYTECHNICAL

A.Ya. Pshenichkin, L.P. Rikhvanov

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail: lev@tpu.ru; poan@ign.tpu.ru

The short information about geologists, graduates and the staff of the Tomsk Institute of Technology (TIT), the Siberian Institute of Technology (SIT), the Siberian prospecting institute (SGRI), the Tomsk Industrial Institute (TII), Tomsk Polytechnical Institute (TPI) - nowadays the Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU), repressed in the 20-40th of the XX century is provided.

The invaluable contribution was made by geologists of Russia, including geologists polytechnicians, in studying subsoil of our country, in development of its mineral resources, in industrialization, its defense capability, in a victory over fascist Germany and post-war recovery of the destroyed national economy.

The country needed metals, building materials, fertilizers, coal, oil, gas, uranium and other minerals. And geologists fully provided with raw materials the industry and agriculture of the country, both in days of the first five-years periods, and in the heaviest years of the Great Patriotic War and post-war restoration of economy.

The homeland highly appreciated hard, dedicated work of geologists, awarding their awards and the medals, honorary titles of pioneers of fields. But the Homeland, hands of its retaliatory bodies, and cruelly finished with objectionable to its system experts.

In 20-50 of the 20th century the political repressions in the country were carried out almost continuously. Punishment of potential and obvious "counter-revolutionaries" and "enemies of the people" in the conditions of total ideologization and an ogosu-darivaniye, in the atmosphere of fear, shadowing and informing, according to the general fixation of the party country leaders on "aggravation of class fight" and opposition to the international imperialism was made [1].

According to official figures from 1921 to 1954 for "counterrevolutionary crimes" 3,777,380 Russian citizens, including to a capital punishment - execution - 642,980 people were condemned [2]. This fate and geologists bypassed. There are no official data on the number of repressed geologists. In the book "Repressed Geologists" [3] about 1000 crippled fate of geologists, from them not less than 39 geologists polytechnicians are described. It is, apparently, not the complete list.

Students of geological higher education institutions, scientists, geologists of the production organizations, large geologists whose researches were closely connected with the solution of practical problems of the country - ensuring the industry and

were exposed to repressions

agriculture mineral raw materials: M.N. Godlevsky, I.F. Grigoriev, V.K. Kotul-sky, V.M. Kreyter, P.I. Poleva, M.P. Rusakov, N.N. Urvantsev and many others [3].

Many geologists shared GULAG lots of the Soviet citizens regardless of their professional accessory. But there were and actually "geological affairs".

One of the first was "the Shakhty business" (1928) [4], OGPU inspired by the plenipotentiary on the North Caucasus E.G. Evdokimov which presented the accidents which are often happening in mines of Donugol trust as result of activity of the illegal counterrevolutionary harmful organization consisting generally from old pre-revolutionary technical specialists. "The Shakhty business" was, in fact, the beginning of repressions against the scientific and technical intellectuals in the USSR.

"Geolkom's Business" [5] was not less loud. In the indictment it was said: "The counterrevolutionary and espionage organization in Geological committee... carried out the activity on the basis of the program developed by Club of mountain figures and, seeking to use the richest statistical and explored data, available Geolkoma, for a curvature of economic policy Sovpravitelstva in the field of the mining and mining industry and to these to promote restoration in the USSR of a bourgeois-capitalistic system" [5. Page 398]. To "Geolkom's Case" 32 persons were connected, 15 of which are sentenced to various measures of punishment for transfer of data of mountain and economic character abroad.

"Geolkom's business" ranks another political cases directed against "old" experts and scientists: "The Shakhty business" (1928), "About wrecking in the gold-platinum industry" (1929), "About wrecking in oil industry" (1929-1931), "Industrial parties" (1930), Academies of Sciences (1930-1931), "About harmful and espionage activity of counterrevolutionary groups in the geological industry" (1930-1932) [5].

In 1929-1931 on the "Academic business" [6] fabricated by employees of OGPU also Leningrad, Moscow, Minsk, Sverdlovsk over 100 employees of Academy of Sciences, including 4 academicians (S.F. Platonov, E.N. Tarle, N.P. Likhachev, M.K. Lyubavsky) and 9 members correspondent of Academy of Sciences of the USSR were arrested. During the investigation from the arrested P.V. Vit-tenburga, S.F. Platonova, E.N. Tarle tried to obtain testimonies against the academician A.E. Fersman. And the Leningrad newspapers "Krasnaya Gazeta" and "Leningradskaya pravda" began persecution of the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR A.P. Karpinsky.

Among arrested there were geologists: To D.N. Bena-shevich, P.V. Vittenburg, A.A. Zelenetsky, M.O. Claire, A.N. Krishtofovich, V.I. Kryzhanov-sky, P.I. Poleva.

Arrested on "The academic business" were sentenced to various measures of punishment: to execution (6 people), the conclusion in the corrective-labor camp (CLC) for the terms from 3 to 10 years, expulsion to Siberia. Forty three persons were released during the investigation.

"The academic business" became the finishing company which was conducted by party and soviet leadership against "the bourgeois intellectuals" in the Academy of Sciences which kept until the end of the 1920th some signs of autonomy [6].

So-called "Pulkovsky business" (1936-1937) [7] concerned geologists, geophysicists, surveyors, astronomers, mathematicians of a number of scientific and educational institutions of Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Novosibirsk, Tashkent and other cities. The experts who were connected to this case were anyway connected with search of mineral deposits, first of all oil, with development and application of new methods of exploration works. The trial of them passed without call of witnesses, without protection and justification of the brought charges. For consideration of each business only a few minutes were allotted. A number of scientists were sentenced to a capital punishment - execution, many received for 10 and more years of ITL.

For geologists of Siberia "The Krasnoyarsk business" [8, 9] which began with search of fields of uranium, "guilty" of absence of Krasnoyarsk Krai, and gained the nature of the large-scale repressive action directed against "wrecking", "blackmail", "counterrevolutionary activity" in geological department was the most known. In Leningrad, Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk and other cities in March-April, 1949 about 30 geologists among whom there were famous scientists and teachers, large experts, employees of the Ministry of geology were arrested.

In Moscow members correspondent were arrested. Academy of Sciences of the USSR A.G. Vologdin, director of GINa academician I.F. Grigoriev, assistant of the minister of geology M.I. Gurevich, chairman of technical council Mingeo professor V.M. Kreyter, chief geologist

Tuva GRE Yu.M. Sheynmann; in Leningrad - research associates of VSEGEI V.N. Vereshchagin, V.N. Dominikovsky, B.K. Likharev, Ya.S. Edel-stein, professors V.K. Kotulsky, M.M. Tityaev; in Tomsk - professors and teachers of TPI and TGU I.K. Bazhenov, A.Ya. Bulynnikov, M.I. Kuchin, N.E. Martyanov, V.D. Tomashpolskaya, V.A. Hakh-lov, F.N. Shakhov; in Irkutsk - the teacher of Mining and metallurgical institute L.I. Shamansky. The academician of AN KAZSSR M.P. Rusakov, the chief of an expedition of ZSGU B.F. Speransky, the chief engineer of Zap-sibtsvetmetrazvedka trust K.S. Filatov and big group of geologists from Krasnoyarsk were arrested: V.V. Bogatsky, N.Ya. Kogan, Yu.F. Pogonya-Stefanovich, O.K. Poletayeva, A.A. Predtechensky, N.F. Ryabokon, G.M. Skuratov and others [8].

Arrested by trains and planes delivered to Moscow to Lubyanka and placed in the loner camera. Long months of the investigation began. Along with conducting the investigation of the power started establishing order in geological institutions: audit and reorganization of their activity, to selection and placement, withdrawal from editions of manuscripts, from libraries of articles and to deletion of mentions of "enemies" and "wreckers", classification of special literature.

Defendants on "the Krasnoyarsk business" to court were not brought. Almost in a month after court it declared that they are condemned by OSO USSR Ministry of State Security on October 28, 1950 for "the wrong assessment and notorious concealment of mineral deposits, wrecking, espionage, counterrevolutionary propaganda" and were sentenced to various imprisonment terms in ITL (up to 25 years) with confiscation of property and disfranchisement for 5 years.

Convicts were transported under guard on geological objects of GULAG, in so-called "sharashka" where were engaged in search and investigation of minerals including uranium: to Krasnoyarsk (OTB-1 "Yenisei"), to Magadan (Northern KTE No. 8), to Norillag, Vorkuta, Mariinsky the camp.

In certificates of rehabilitation of March 31 and on April 10, 1954 it is told: "The resolution OSO of 28.10.50 is repealed and the case in absence of proof of charge by production is dismissed" [8]. The state did not find it necessary to apologize to victims. It did not apologize and still.

In the heaviest conditions of forced labor to many geologists-prisoners their profession which became necessary on construction and mining objects of GULAG, devotion to a professional duty helped to survive, not to break. In OGPU expeditions, the geological organizations of GULAG ("sharashka") in Norilsk, Vorkuta and also in Dalstroy, on the Kola Peninsula, in Kazakhstan the geologists-prisoners solved many geological tasks; the conducted geological researches and generalizations led to opening and development of new fields on -

Herman Avgustovich Helkvist (1894-1968). Ended GF TTI in 1923 of D. of g - m of N, professor, the member correspondent of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the expert in the field of oil geology. In 1924-1936 - the geologist, the deputy director of prospecting management in Baku. In 1936-1953 - the head of geology department of the Ministry of oil industry. It was repressed during Patriotic war.

Grigory Tseft (1909-?). Ended GRF TII in

1934 . Geological engineer. In 1936 it was arrested. The future is unknown.

Lev Iosifovich Shamansky (1894-1950). Ended GF TTI in 1922. To. g - m of N, the geologist mine, one of pioneers of a matematization of geology. Explored gold and copper fields of the South of Siberia, was the chief of the Minusinsk mountain and economic party and geological service "Soyuz-zoloto", the chief engineer of ZSGRT. In 1936-1949 - the head of the department of prospecting business of the Irkutsk mining and metallurgical (nowadays polytechnical) institute. Arrested 31.03.1949 on "the Krasnoyarsk business". Died during the investigation. The case is dismissed "for lack of evidence" in 1954. Rehabilitated 28.04.1993

Felix Nikolaevich Shakhov (1894-1971). Ended GF TTI in 1922 and it was left at faculty for teaching and preparation for a professorial rank. Of g - m of N, professor, the member correspondent of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the founder of the Siberian ore and geochemical school of sciences. The participant of Brusilovsky break in World War I for what it is awarded the order Saint Anne. Did military service the admiral A.V. Kolchak. In the 20-30th was a consultant of Zapsibredmedrazvedka trust, ZSGU for ore formation problems, regularities of placement of gold deposits, rare and scattered elements, a technique of exploration. In

1935 on GRF TPI it organized department of ore fields. Since 1944 worked in the West Siberian branch Academy of Sciences of the USSR part-time. Awarded the order to V.I. Lenin (1944) and

Labor Red Banner (1946). Arrested 25.04.1949 on "the Krasnoyarsk business". It is sentenced to 15 years of ITL and sent to Kolyma. Worked in "sharashka" of Northern KTE No. 8 at gold and uranium deposits. Rehabilitated 31.03.1954. After release worked at GRF TPI, since 1957 - in IGiG (Novosibirsk) the manager. laboratory of geochemistry of rare elements, Head of Department of geochemistry [18].

Lazar Maksimovich Shorokhov (1898-1937). Ended GGF TGU, to. g - m of N, the associate professor of paleontology and historical geology of GRF TII, the geologist of coal fields, was engaged in studying the Tungus coal basin, the pioneer of the Baskunchak field of flux limestones [19]. Arrested 03.11.1937 as "the participant of the officer cadet and monarchic insurgent organization". Shot 05.12.1937 in Tomsk. Rehabilitated 02.02.1956

Stammberger Friedrich (1908-?). German writer, geologist, member of the Communist Party of Germany. Emigrated to the USSR in 1933. It is arrested in 1936 or 1937, served sentence in Norillage. It is released in 1947 and left on the settlement in Norilsk. Studied geology in absentia. Rehabilitated in 1954. Defended the thesis in TPI or TGU and in 1954 moved to the GDR where worked as the geologist.

The heritage of the past whatever it was heavy and burdensome, always remains heritage from which we have no right to refuse, to refuse our history which we who were born later have to remember, analyze without any political involvement.

We always have to remember ancient saying that "the fowls in flight is kept by wings, and the person - historical memory".

Many innocent people suffered, but to their great honor most of them passed this hardest time of tests with high feeling of human dignity, did not become hardened and did not become hardened soul. Light to them memory!

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. L.P. Belyaev. Camp system and political repressions (1918-1953)//Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo, 1999. - Page 385-391.
2. The ITL system in the USSR (1923-1960). Reference book. - M.: Links,
1998. -600 pages
3. Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: VSEGEI, 1999. - 452 pages
4. L.P. Belyakov. Shakhty business//Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo,
1999. -Page 395-398.
5. E.M. Zabolotsky. "Business of a geolkom"//Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo, 1999. - Page 398-403.
6. A.N. Tsamutami. "Academic business"//Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo, 1999. - Page 404-407.
7. V.Yu. bugs "Pulkovsky business"//Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo, 1999. - Page 411-418.
8. L.P. Belyakov. "Krasnoyarsk business"//Repressed geologists / Chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov. - The m is SPb.: MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo, 1999. - Page 422-427.
9. V. Ivaniya. "Krasnoyarsk business" of geologists//Tomsk bulletin. - 1993. - March 31.
10. The Hamshen N.N., Gorelov G.F. Ivan Kuzmich Bazhenov is a teacher and the researcher//Geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and the metalgenius of the South of Siberia. - Tomsk: TGU, 1990. - Page 6-11.
11. Zavalishin V.A. Alexander Yakovlevich Bulynnikov//Geology and geophysics. - 1967. - No. 11. - Page 142-143.
12. Ukrainians M.A. V.A. Kuchin. (to the 80 anniversary since birth)//Geology and geophysics. - 1967. - No. 12. - Page 135-137.
13. Mikhail Petrovich Rusakov//Soviet geology. - 1964.-№ 2. - Page 166-167.

News of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. 2008. T. 312. No. 1

14. B.I. Zubarev, N.P. Laverov, N.I. Borodayevsky, etc. Alexander Petrovich Smolin's 90 anniversary//Soviet geology. - 1978. - No. 1. - Page 106-107.
15. I.S. Gramberg, D.A. Dodin. The graduate of Tomsk Institute of Technology of 1918 is a great polar researcher Nikolay Nikolaevich Urvantsev//News of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. - 2002. - T 305. - No. 6. - Page 6-21.
16. V.M. Podobina, D.A. Vasilyev, Rodygin S.A. Professor V.A. Halfin is the outstanding scientist and the organizer of geological education in Siberia//Problems of geology of Siberia. T 1. - Tomsk: TGU, 1994. - Page 4-6.
17. V. Ivaniya. Science above all (about the fate of professor V.A. Halfin)//the Siberian old times. - 1993. - No. 5. - Page 43-45.
18. Felix Nikolaevich Shakhov (in essays, articles, memoirs). - Novosibirsk: Research Center OIGGM Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1998. - 180 pages
19. D.P. Slavin. Scientific heritage of L.M. Shorokhov (1898-1944)//Works of the Tomsk state university. - Tomsk: TGU, 1974. - T 234. - Page 261-264.

Arrived 15.01.2008

UDC 553 (09)

PROFESSOR S.S. ILYENOK (to the 95 anniversary since birth)

I.V. Kucherenko, O.K. Skripko

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail: kucherenko @. ru.ru

The course of life and scientific activity of the head of the department of petrography of Tomsk Polytechnical Institute of professor S.S. Ilyenk is described (1912-1983).

This case was told by Lidiya Nikolaevna Kra-evskaya, the participant of those events, the senior paleontologist of the West Siberian geological management (ZSGU, Novokuznetsk) - "the lady with ministerial mind" according to one of heads of ZSGU S.A. Skrobov.

Professor S.S. Ilyenok (1912 ~ 1983)

At the beginning of the 30th of the last century in the geological party working under the leadership of Boris Fedorovich Speransky whom colleagues called

"Salair's king" for a big contribution to studying geology of this area, there arrived to practice a student of the Siberian prospecting institute. B.F. Speransky as the chief of party, sent him to the next village behind products, gave to a supply, money. Soon the student returned without products and in tears: he saw in the village of the people dying of hunger. It was time of the begun collectivization.

This student is Sergey Sergeyevich Ilyenok, subsequently the geologist, the scientist, the soldier-volunteer of the Siberian (Stalin) voluntary division, the head of the department of petrography of Tomsk Polytechnical Institute, professor, the deputy director of TPI for scientific work, Berezovsky's pioneer of the iron ore field in Krasnoyarsk Krai.

On September 25, 2007 to S.S. Ilyenk 95 years would be executed.

It took out sound moral principles from patriarchal country life of the grandfather - the immigrant from Ukraine who went at the beginning of the 20th century on a Stolypin appeal behind the better lot to Siberia. Sergey Sergeyevich told that the grandfather Demyan with the Ukrainian surname of Ilyenko who with all family when checking could be removed from the train for "hokhlyatsky" origin quickly thought to change it on Ilyenok. So it reached the Irkutsk province where the son Sergey was born in the settlement Ust-Uda on Angara at one of sons Demyan

>- Sergey Sergeyevich Ilyenok. His father is Sergey Demyanovich Ilyenok much and difficult worked to support numerous (7 children) family,

>- was a storekeeper, the supply manager, the conductor of the train. Positions, residences changed: Bo-

James Davis
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