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Life of the Rostov outskirts at a boundary of the 19-20th centuries (sanitary and epidemiologic aspect)

12. A. Kappeler Russia is the multinational empire. Emergence. Istoriya. Disintegration. M, 1996.

13. Essays of the history Karachaevo Balkars. Moscow; Stavropol, 2002.
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15. HatuevR.T. Karachay and Balkaria to the second half of the 19th century: power and society//Karachays and Balkars (ethnography, history, archeology). M, 1999. Page 16-32; Malkonduyev of H.H. Tere as tool of national parliament and judicial and legal Karachaevo Balkars system//Karachays and Balkars: language, ethnography, archeology, folklore. M, 2001. Page 194-222.
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17. Hog A.H., V.H. Dumanov, V.H. Kazharov. Modern statehood of Kabardino-Balkaria: sources, ways of formation, problem. Nalchik, 1999. Page 10.
18. Hog A.H., K.F. Dzamikhov. Russia and North Caucasus: stages of relationship//Izv. KBNC RAS. 1998. No. 1. Page 142.
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20. National outskirts of the Russian Empire: formation and development of a control system. M, 1998. Page 290-315.
21. G.N. Malakhova. Formation and development of the Russian public administration in the North Caucasus at the end of XVIII-ò! X century Rostov N / D, 2001. Page 222-223.
22. Istoriya Kabardino-Balkaria. Nalchik, 1995. Page 169; Unezhev K.H. Istoriya Kabarda and Balkaria. Nalchik, 2005. Page 279.
23. Nevsky T.A. Stolypin reform in the North Caucasus. SPb., 1997; P.A. Kuz-minov. Peasant reform in the North Caucasus: problems and decisions//Izv. mezhdunar. Academies of Sciences of the higher school. 2002. No. 4. Page 87-100; Tama-zovm.C. Modernization of Russia and a country question in Kabarda and Balkaria in the 60-70th of the 19th century: Avtoref. yew.... edging. east. sciences. Nalchik, 2002; Hubulo-va S.A. The peasantry of the North Caucasus at the end of XIX - the first quarter of the 20th century: ethnodemographic and social and economic aspects of development: Avtoref. yew.... Dr.s east. sciences. Vladikavkaz, 2003.
24. V.N. Ratushnyak. Current problems of history and historiography of the North Caucasus. Krasnodar, 2000.
25. E.G. Bitova (Muratova). Social history XIX of Balkaria centuries (rural community). Nalchik, 1997.

Kabardino-Balkarian state university On January 16, 2006

© 2006 V. Gotovkin

LIFE of the ROSTOV OUTSKIRTS AT the BOUNDARY of X1X-XX of centuries. (Sanitary and epidemiologic ASPECT)

For construction of railway workshops the railway department bought at the Rostov City Council the land in the valley of the river Te51

mernik. During that time the Temernik River flooded banks, filling in all to the district. Railway workshops had to be built on the boggy area. The bog was filled up with a stone, crushed stone, sand. The bases of buildings for bigger reliability built on piles. "Where the territory of railway workshops came to an end, - authors of the book "Half a Century of Fight and Victories" wrote, - not to sort: the fencing around them was not. Where you will look - continuous swamps, impassable dirt".

Behind the Temernik River, on a city ledge at the Nakhchivan border - the Dog farm, on bogatyanovsky breaks at Don the poor lodged. Lodged, as before, often without asking permission of the authorities, on not allocated places. Quite so there was in the 80th of the 19th century a settlement between the South Eastern Railway and Taganrogsky Avenue. On the waste ground which was not intending under building, suddenly, "in night of unknown number" as wrote then in newspapers, the whole settlement located. At night: new settlers hurried to put by the morning something similar to housing, and, above all - the furnace. Because was considered: if the furnace is, construction cannot be broken already [1].

Having found the illegitimate settlement, the city administration on custom resorted to threats to use force and to expel new settlers, but to go to this last resort did not venture because of the labor movement which began in the south of Russia. Therefore the city administration resorted to peaceful settlement of the arisen problem. It imposed residents of the settlement with the put payment. The settlement for a peculiar emergence was christened in Nakhalovkaya's use, in official documents - the New settlement, and together with Temernik there was it a shelter of factory workmen, railroad workers.

In 1874 along with a start of motion of trains on the site Rostov - Mineralnye Vody was included into a system and railway workshops. But living conditions in the New settlement did not improve. There was no pharmacy, any doctor, water was imported. The life of workers was such difficult that the local newspaper "Donskaya Pchela" paid attention to it. On May 13, 1884 she wrote in article "About Temernik's Needs": "Here to you the first question - about pavements, because if the carrier cannot reach home empty drags, then a water carrier and even less so and if takes by any miracle a water barrel, then not anything has an opportunity to pay 4-5 kopeks for a bucket. Here you the second question - about the fire because the city wagon train will not reach, and do not have the. Here to you the third question - about medicine. For 1000 Temernik's population there is no pharmacy, any doctor and only one paramedic. Under such circumstances it is not sophisticated that on Temernika children die more from diseases, than somewhere" [2]. Having discussed article, the Rostov City Council founded several medical rates for the poor. Despite this the resolution doctors did not lodge on Temernika because workers could not pay medical services. That is why typhus, cholera, but also without them death so often rushed into density and dirt of the city outskirts

collected a plentiful harvest in Rostov-on-Don. "The memorable book of Area of army of Donskoy" called, for example, for the 1901st year such figures: was born in Rostov 4951 souls, 5077 souls died [1, page 35]. The Priazovsky Kray newspaper claimed on November 14, 1904: "Average mortality of children up to one year in all European Russia from 1887 to 1896 was 274 on one thousand, in the Don region - 206 people, and in Rostov-on-Don - 289 people" [1, page 35].

Medical care of the Don workers and peasants had so large shortcomings that even the chernosotenny newspaper "Prizyv" placed on the pages critical remarks concerning the organization of health service. In the editorial "Epidemics and a feldshe-rizm" of July 14, 1910. "Appeal" wrote: "... from different sides areas in territorial committee annually pour complaints and requests for a prisylka of doctors. The committee in return excites the petition where follows, but on permission of these petitions there passes a lot of time. The lack of the out-patient help owing to the big sizes of medical sites cannot be filled up with traveling of doctors. Traveling of doctors, in turn, distracts the doctor from out-patient clinic and inpatients. Frequent change of doctors and goings them from hard work left for many years the site without any medical care. 10000 inhabitants are the share of one doctor, even more they were the share of the paramedic and the midwife. The traveling system of giving of medical assistance under such circumstances excludes any possibility of an attentive research of patients, the correct recognition of diseases and their successful treatment. All fight against epidemics comes down only to mass, so to speak, wholesale form of giving of the help of paramedics. There is nothing to be surprised to hugeness of mortality percentage under such circumstances and to the fact that everywhere along with patent medicine as mushrooms after a rain, grow the whole states. homebrew doctors and sorcerers" [3]. Such situation with medical care of the population proceeded within several years. The begun World War I complicated work of the Don physicians even stronger.

The Dono-Kuban committee of the All-Russian union of zemstvoes received on January 1, 1917 the cable message that the party from 200 wounded is brought to infirmary of the Nevinnomyssk village. In infirmary there is no coal neither for cooking of food nor for heating of the room. Still coal was delivered by management of the Vladikavkaz railroad. Having studied this cable message, the Dono-Kuban committee submitted a cable petition to prince P.A. Oldenburgsky who sent money to management of the Vladikavkaz railroad. Having received this money, management of the road supplied infirmary of the village Nevinnomyssk with coal [4]. On January 6, 1917 members of the Dono-Kuban committee and pupils hospital attendants spent charitable evening at Trade school. Evening began with statement under O.A. Strogonov's rezhisserstvo of the comedy "Princess Kapuchidze". After the performance there was a cabaret in which actors of the Rostov theater took part: Pototskaya, Rayskaya-Dore, Sambora Skye, Shtengel, Rassilanov, Shumsky.

Collecting since evening went to gifts for soldiers [5]. The Dono-Kuban committee was engaged in catering services of refugees who flooded Rostov in a large number. It is visible from the document of the following contents: "on January 7, 1917. The Dono-Kuban committee because of the shortage of medical staff and coal closed nutritious point for refugees No. 2. The refugees receiving food on this point will receive food on nutritious point for refugees No. 6" [6]. The charter of Society of medical mutual aid was sent to the chief of the Rostov post and cable district to a statement. The purpose of society - rendering medical assistance to the members and their families. Society assumed to found out-patient and infirmaries, to organize free or preferential release of medicines, to open free receptions and beds in hospitals, private clinics, accident wards. A membership fee for officials of 3 rubles 60 to. in a year, and for the lower ranks of 2 rubles 40 to. The persons which contributed 50 rubles at a time are entitled permanent members of society [7]. On January 30, 1917 the regular meeting of the Rostov office of Society of the Russian doctors of Pirogov took place. The meeting took place under the chairmanship of doctor N.V. Pariysky. Participants of the meeting honored memory of the died members of society - doctor I.G. Poshchinsky and professor Snegirev. After that participants of the meeting listened to N.V. Pariysky's report "About the organization of the help to crippled soldiers" in which it was indicated on the need of the structure of big special facilities for treatment of crippled soldiers [8]. On February 24, 1917 at a meeting of the Rostov City Council the secretary of a thought S.G. Krasnozhen gave the report on opening in Rostov of traumatologic institute for sick and wounded soldiers [9].

Such imperceptible, self-sacrificing, making the feats not by order of, and on a need of the heart of health workers Maxim Gorky called "Little great people".


1. A. Kutsko of the item Rostov-on-Don. Rostov N / D, 1973. Page 32.
2. I.A. Voloshinov. Chronicle of the Rostov Presnya. Rostov N / D, 1954. Page 11.
3. Kozubenko.D. Meditsina in Taganrog. Rostov N / D, 1989. Page 19.
4. Rostov speech. 1917. No. 5.
5. In the same place. No. 3.
6. In the same place. No. 4.
7. In the same place. No. 53.
8. In the same place. No. 30.
9. In the same place. No. 53.

Rostov state university On February 20, 2006

Anton Lorenz
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