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Women's Pedagogical Institute at a turn of eras (1913-1917)



primechaniye

1. Maykov of P.M.I.I. Betskaya: Experience of its biography / P.M. Maykov. SPb., 1904. Enc. Page 37.
2. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 7. 24. L. 1-6; 26. L. 1.
3. PSZ. T. 24. No. 17952.
4. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 9. 429. L. 3; Op. 26. 370. L. 1; 425. L. 1; 477. L. 1-188.
5. In the same place. Op. 20. 156. L. 2; 139. L. 1-5 about.; 191. L. 1-9; 140. L. 2.
6. In the same place. 147. L. 1-5; 152. L. 1-8; 140. L. 4.
7. In the same place. 149. L. 1B-18 about.; 137. L. 1-14 about.; T. 759. Op. 8. 6. L. 34-36.
8. In the same place. T. 758. Op. 20. 148. L. 1-23.
9. In the same place. 154. L. 1-5 about.; Op. 9. 429. L. 5 about.-10 about.; Monographs of institutions of Department of the empress Maria. SPb., 1880. Page 207-215.
10. In the same place. T. 759. Op. 8. 1. L. 41-43 about.; T. 758. Op. 9. 429. L. 11.

E.N. Gruzdeva,

photo editor of publishing house E.M. Kolosova, director of the museum of history of the university

WOMEN'S PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTE AT the TURN of ERAS

(1913-1917)

In 1913 across all Russia the 300 anniversary of House of Romanovs was widely celebrated. The capital of the Russian Empire to celebrations considerably changed: new ceremonial buildings were built, streets are decorated with flags and flowers, through Neva will throw the largest railway bridge. The festive atmosphere reigned also in Imperial women's Pedagogical Institute which in a year, anniversary for Romanov' dynasty, endured a time of the highest blossoming. It was the only women's institute in Russia which was recognized the government and the Ministry of national education as a higher educational institution.

The Pedagogical courses at the St. Petersburg female gymnasiums opened in the system of Department of institutions of the empress Maria in 1859 were his direct predecessor. Originally the circle of the objects entering the program of courses was directed mainly to expansion of the theoretical knowledge gained in gymnasiums. But courses began to gain special pedagogical character due to addition of special subjects soon — pedagogics, anatomy, age physiology, student teaching in a basic gymnasium.

At the end of the 19th century young vigorous graduates of the university joined faculty members of Pedagogical courses: historians A.E. Presnyakov, S.V. Rozhdestvensky, M.A. Poliyev-ktov, philologist A.K. Borozdin. They vividly responded to the offer to transform courses to Women's Pedagogical Institute. The idea proceeded from the inspector of courses admiral A.N. Stranno-lyubskogo and was approved by the trustee of an institution grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich famous in Russia as the poet writing under the Territory pseudonym. Transformation of courses was promoted also by the public and pedagogical movement of the beginning of the 20th century. On this all-pedagogical wave the group of young teachers was also engaged in development of the expanded programme of four years' training. In 1898 A.E. Presnyakov wrote: "This program we cook in a secret circle from 7 people (all youth). & lt;...> Courses as they are put now — establishment margarine, and we want to create the highest institution of special type" 1.

When curricula of new institute were developed and approved, the grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich invited to a position of the director of famous St. Petersburg professor of the Russian history S.F. Platonov. Choice of the trustee was very good: thanks to authority and S.F. Platonov's communications on the scientific and teaching environment, philosophers E.L. Radlov, N.O. Lossky, I.I. Lapshin, historians E.D. Grimm, A.A. Vasilyev, D.K. Petrov, mathematicians K.A. Posse, N.N. Gernet, estestvennik M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov, V.T. Shevyakov and others entered into staff of Women's Pedagogical Institute. Lectures and a practical training on the scientific level and volume of contents not only did not concede in new institute university, but also were

are presented by wider range of disciplines due to introduction of psychology and pedagogical objects, physiology and hygiene of the person and also private techniques of teaching.

Originally the institute was placed in the building of the Educational house on Gorokhovaya Street (in house No. 20) and occupied one floor. After official establishment of Women's Pedagogical Institute the question of allocation for it the special room was raised. "God grant to us in new year... to find to institute the good room" 2 — the grand duke Konstantin wrote on December 31, 1903 S.F. Platonova. To the new building located on Malaya Posadskaya Street (in house No. 26), the institute moved in 1905. The room was perfectly equipped and had the laboratories equipped all necessary, offices, the student's dining room. Konstantin Konstantinovich took the most active part in its improvement. He gave to institute "for storage and use at studies" the numismatical collection belonging still to his grandfather emperor Nicholas I, systematically allocated from personal means money for expansion of library, acquisition of physical devices, the equipment for hygienic laboratory, for development of a botanical office. On the third floor of the building the house church which was solemnly consecrated on February 12, 1906 in honor of an icon of the Iversky Mother of God was created. (A considerable part of means for creation and decoration of church was also allocated by personally grand duke.) On the first floor of the building there were a gymnasium, kindergarten, apartments of employees and economic rooms.

The institute successfully passed a trial period and in 1907 was recognized as the highest pedagogical educational institution which graduates on the basis of the rules approved on December 19, 1911 were entitled the teacher of average educational institutions. By new situation on May 12, 1912 curricula of two faculties of institute were led up to completeness of the corresponding curricula of university faculties with the additions considering pedagogical orientation of the institute which received the status of imperial. Annual subsidies for it increased from 12 to 92 thousand rubles; 43 new positions, including 22 professorial were approved; the contingent of listeners was established in 500 people, the total number of pupils was about 1000, and the annual number of graduates reached 100. With development and increase in the status of institute its prestige significantly grew.

The imperial women's Pedagogical Institute aimed at the higher pedagogical education of women and training of teachers for all classes of women's educational institutions and also cool and house tutors. At receipt the large role was played by gymnasia training of future girl students. Without examinations the grammar-school girls who had awards for progress in study and the girls who successfully ended a pedagogical class of women's average educational institution or the female gymnasium subordinated to the Ministry of national education were accepted. The others took admission examinations on Russian, arithmetics and a foreign language. Then listeners chose either verbal and historical, or physical and mathematical office (the first enjoyed much bigger popularity).

The first two years of training were devoted to generally theoretical preparation, on a third year student teaching which continued and came to the forefront on the fourth year began. There was still the ninth semester during which were engaged only in student teaching, lectures were not. This ninth half-year intended for the persons meaning pedagogical activity. Those who had no such intentions could receive the certificate on the termination of institute at the end of the eighth semester.

Courses on divinity, psychology, logic, history, philosophy, Russian and a technique of its teaching, mathematics and a technique of its teaching, natural sciences, physiology and hygiene, a foreign language (French or German) were the general for both offices. From the first course the cycle of pedagogical disciplines which included ethics, a technique of elementary training, children's literature, hygiene of children's age, school hygiene, drawing and a molding, the theory and history of pedagogics was studied. Besides, on each office there were "basic" disciplines. Specialization on verbal and historical office took place on a third year, listeners should have made a choice between history, Russian and literature or a foreign language. Orientation of institute to formation of comprehensively developed personality demanded a big classroom academic load and independent work. The choice of disciplines depended on the listener. The freedom of choice at a subject system resulted in need

creations of the individual curriculum assuming independent in-depth study by the student of a certain cycle of disciplines.

On the first three courses the prevailing types of educational activity were hearing of lectures and performance of independent works under the leadership of professors and teachers. A main objective of studies which was pursued at institute the trustee grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich accurately formulated it: to excite mental amateur performance by independent development of scientific subjects and papers, in oral reports, in reading primary sources, in the solution of tasks, etc. A practical training was an essential stage of educational activity: the listeners who did not pass a test on a practical training could not pass, according to rules, to the following semester.

An important role in training of students of Women's Pedagogical Institute was played by student teaching. In 1913 the director of institute S.F. Platonov in the performance at the I congress of teachers of physics, chemistry and cosmography so defined the basic principle of work of institute: "To learn not the story, and display, i.e. to pay the main attention to practical training of future teachers of high school" 3. For this reason own base of student teaching in every possible way developed. At institute there was a female gymnasium which was gradually formed of a pro-gymnasium at pedagogical courses. (In 1904 it received the name Konstantinovsky women's gimnazii4). In it the most favorable conditions for a practical training pedagogichek were created (it was so at that time accepted to call listeners): in preparatory classes about 25 people (in other gymnasiums — on 30 studied at the standard standard of fullness of classes in 40 people here). Along with a gymnasium the educational and practical complex of institute included still kindergarten and a children's shelter.

Already from the first course of the listener began to study the theory and history of pedagogics, didactics and logic. After the choice of specialization the thorough study not only special disciplines, but also a technique of their teaching began. The whole system of gradual entry of practice into life of school was developed. On a third year from students it was required to listen to about 10 lessons of Russian in an elementary grade and to give about them the most detailed written account concerning a subject, material, a method of maintaining a lesson and the attitude towards him from pupils. At the same time communication of this lesson with previous and the subsequent in the general cycle was considered. Positively estimated written report was a necessary condition for carrying out own lessons. Students of verbal and historical office on the fourth year conducted two lessons a week. Each conducted lesson was discussed at a conference under the chairmanship of the methodologist directing practice with participation of teachers of a gymnasium and probationers. Heads of practice and teachers of a gymnasium were a part of the commission which gave the general assessment to student teaching. So strict and attentive relation to practice at that time was an innovation. Subsequently graduates emphasized importance for teaching activity of the experience gained by them in student's years.

Excursions which took place in vacation time were significant addition of institute educational process. Listeners under the leadership of teachers went to the Old Russian cities, got acquainted with sights, folk art, painting and monuments of the Russian architecture. Trips to Moscow, Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov allowed teachers-historians to facilitate to girls understanding of the past, directed their attention to details, important for this understanding. Visit of monasteries and orthodox shrines, life in monasteries spiritually enriched participants of such pilgrimages, allowed "is skilled to learn and make sure what peculiar, remarkable on the relative height and instructive on the integrity, internal jointness culture was in our Ancient Russia" 5. Listeners willingly participated in these trips though such excursions were not in the plan of the given course, financially were not subsidized and had only character of a personal initiative.

The dialectologist and the historian of Russian N.M. Karinsky used excursions for development of practical skills of students in paleography. So, during the trip across the Suzdal Russia at visit of the Yaroslavl Hierarchal house, the museum in Vladimir and some other places he offered girls of a task by definition of the place and time of writing of manuscripts, on identification of characteristics of ornaments in hand-written books. With group of volunteers N.M. Karinsky made also dialectological trips on which he kept records of the dialect speech

on the program made earlier. Participants of such trips with interest wrote down performing folklore, got acquainted with life and life of the Russian village.

Keen on dialectology and history of Russian, N.M. Karinsky scarred memory of students. One of pedagogichek remembered many years later a trip around the northern cities of Russia: Karinsky "built names of objects which surrounded us, everything that we ate or saw, to Old Russian, to Sanskrit, to parent language"; its high figure when at the stops at the sight of locals he "clambered even on the high coast is remembered to write down features of northern dialects" 6. Several times at institute also trips abroad were organized. Implementation of such projects was in many respects provided with financial support of the trustee of institute grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich. "Our institute excursions... give to listeners a big contribution not only to their general education, but also. to self-education" 7 — teachers of institute considered.

The organization of scientific work of students was carried out also through activity of circles. By 1917-1918 academic year there were several scientific circles: historical (A.E. Presnyakov directed it), literary (N.N. Trubitsyn), psychology and pedagogical (V.A. Volkovich and Z.K. Stolitsa), Russian (N.M. Karinsky), mathematical (S.A. Bogomolov and S.G. Petrović), musical and art reading.

The part of end-of-year examinations at the end of every year was assigned to papers. Discussions of papers took place at conferences in which all teachers and students under the chairmanship of directora8 participated. Upon termination of training final exams were organized. The students who received "4" lost the right of teaching this specialty in high school of gymnasiums. Successfully graduated institute acquired the right of teaching in all classes of female gymnasiums.

Except papers and compositions, at institute took also examinations in special objects about which memoirs of listeners of verbal department of history also remained: "No special methods of preparation for examinations were recommended to us, and ourselves thought out them. Some of us prepared by groups on several people, and so organized the little group that they in it appeared different & #34; специалисты" i.e. the students who concentrated special attention on one of objects of examinations" 9.

Listeners before examination were given only the official program. Nevertheless distribution of material under the ticket was made (according to the indication of the program) is individual, and in subgroup — "expert". It was most difficult with manuals. Constant grants usually were not, it was necessary to prepare or according to several books, or on records of lectures of professors. One of pedagogichek remembers: "At first we tried to write down convulsively everything that was told by professor, using own shorthand methods. And houses brought the records into a cultural look. But soon it was necessary to make sure that such order does not leave time for independent reading. & lt;...> Then began to write down concisely, but also it did not satisfy. Tried to alternate then to publish the lithographed lectures, but for some reason it did not leave. In the absence of a certain grant it was necessary to look for material in different books, it is even worse when they were not also at all. So, before the examination it turned out that we have nothing to prepare for the history of the Spanish theater. Someone managed to get the lithographed D.K. Petrov's lectures published on Bestuzhevsky courses, but nearly a third represented them quotes in Spanish. We addressed Petrov for council what to do? He answered: & #34; Cram! & #34;" 10. Usually after all one or several grants were recommended to listeners, and teachers gave marks, according to girls, not too strictly.

Memoirs of listeners allow to experience that atmosphere in which students of institute of prerevolutionary years lived and studied.

Except the lectures determined by the curriculum, students spent the time for selection of the necessary literature. Often "abused" readiness of teachers to render any necessary help: girls haunted them not only between classes, but even consulted in a subject at home. Noticing at listeners interest in some special question which was not mentioned or to poorly lit course, professors allowed them to attend their classes in other places where they taught, agreed with other professors, made to them the recommendation, etc. They in every possible way maintained interest in knowledge at students even if they did not concern directly their subject of teaching. Such trouble-free readiness on -

can in work noted nearly all pedagogichka participating in S.F. Platonov, D.K. Petrov, A.P. Nechayev, N.K. Kulman's circles, etc. Apparently, it was the general phenomenon.

Some teachers of verbal department of history of a pedagogichka were allocated especially. It were outstanding personalities and keen experts, everyone in the area. Not accidental the words of professor of department of pedagogics P.F. Kapterev said by it somehow at a lecture became the epigraph which was used by students to the hand-written student's magazine "Iskaniye": "Not that is valuable in the person that he resembled others, and in what it differs from them; valuably not the general, and individual" 11.

Teachers of institute, everyone in own way, undoubtedly, influenced formation of views of listeners — future teachers.

N.K. Kulman taught Old Russian and Old Church Slavonic languages. To well in time girl students he charged to be engaged with lagging behind grammatical analysis of the chronicle and "Ostromir Gospels". As one of graduates noticed, it allowed to understand the Russian spelling tracing the roots back to Old Russian language better. Subsequently to this graduate, the methodologist on elementary education to mathematics, it was necessary to impart the knowledge in the field of the Russian spelling, explaining spelling of the words which are most used in mathematics. It shows how thorough was study Russian not only on verbal, but also on physical and mathematical office. The clarity and clearness of creation of lectures of N.K. Kulman, great diction and skill of art reading served as a sample for girls by preparation of own lessons in a gymnasium.

Of course, fascinating lectures on pedagogical disciplines of professor P.F. Kapterev could not but affect listeners. Its creative approach to a subject got a ready response at the beginning teachers. The psychology was taught by professor A.P. Nechayev. He tried to reflect some in the lectures psychological concepts new for those times. However he stated this new, from the point of view of listeners, insufficiently intelligibly. They complained that it was very difficult to keep records in its subject. Some teachers of verbal department of history enjoyed such popularity that both mathematicians, and estestvennik came to listen to their lectures. So, much remembered lectures of the philosopher A.I. Vvedensky.

By 1913 the lectures on the history of Ancient Greece and also on history and the culture of Renaissance were read by P.P. Fridolin, and history of the Italian and Spanish literature — young professor V.F. Shishmarev. Especially listeners appreciated fine lectures on history of the Middle Ages of A.A. Vasilyev.

Lectures on the Russian history of the academician S.F. Platonov were popular. One of graduates remembers him: "The talented lecturer, S.F. Platonov turned to us history other its side, having shown, if I may say so, diversity of the fact and its reflection by the document. From here the careful address with it and an appeal followed if not to objectivity, then, in any case — to fair assessment of historic facts and people... & lt;...> Creation of lectures was peculiar: everyone was a part bigger whole and at the same time quite finished work. It was always carefully processed probably written down and so was stamped on the memory of the lecturer that it was said by him occasionally almost without changes not only contents, but also a form.

And one more feature — the author kind of withdrew: in his statement spoke and those about whom he told acted. It were kind of the recovered portraits written by rich colors, in a situation peculiar to them, speaking language of the time. It was rather a display, than the story... & lt;.> Platonov showed us history not as an accidental combination of persons and events, and in their temporary causal relationship which skillfully read document" 12 helps to realize.

The Russian history was read also by professor A.E. Presnyakov. The wonderful researcher Kiyevskoy and the Moscow Rus', he struck with the great knowledge of historical sources of this era and ability to recreate the original historical past from the most difficult contradictory indications.

Girls highly appreciated the kind and attentive relation from teachers. So, professor F.A. Vitberg was remembered not by lecturing (he did not own a gift of the gab), and the thoughtful, humane attitude towards listeners. Many of them were at it on the apartment and received manuals of professor-erudite and also the book from his library for the papers and dokladov13. Graduates of professors of the Russian literature called "Masters of souls"

S.A. Adrianova and N.K. Piksanova. All life of the girl student remained are grateful to teachers who supported their youth initiatives.

N.K. Piksanov headed the literary circle created in 1914. At its meetings papers obeyed, the literary directions were discussed, papers on poetry and prose of new authors — A. Blok, K. Balmont were read.

Professor S.A. Adrianov of the student was esteemed as the talented lecturer who was brilliantly disclosing creativity depths, especially such writers as Lermontov, Dostoyevsky. "When they served as a subject of his lectures, jammed into audiences to so many people (students of different courses and faculties) how many it could contain, and it is even more. Then its small figure was not lost in the mass of the audience only because it stood on the eminence. He read with conviction, passionately, spoke kind of improvising, with inspiration, fine Turgenev language, juicy, sonorous and figurative. He thinly analyzed psychology of characters of the sorted work, behind it opening thoughts, feelings and expectations of the author against the background of his era. Very painful, he so endured the performances that he sometimes after them fainted, and he was taken away home" 14.

S.A. Adrianov during the whole years of his work at Women's Pedagogical Institute remained one of the few professors who took hot part in public life: he attended meetings of listeners, even provided for them the apartment; gave public lectures, giving means from them to student's cash desk of mutual aid, willingly participated in "cultural campaigns", and sometimes it was possible to see him in the dining room for the unemployed peeling potatoes and singing revolutionary songs with students.

History of ancient literature to first-year students was read by D.K. Petrov. "Literatures of Greece we in a gymnasium did not concern, and everything that D.K. spoke about it, was for us new and very interesting. That he managed to show it — in it, of course, his merit. I remember, good there was an introduction: nature of Greece. National singers — rapsoda. Homer. Our first meeting with & #34; Илиадой": D.K. forced us to read it is his big merit. He retold separate songs itself at lectures, especially concerning love... In the beginning it interested as new, before a taboo subject. Perhaps, reaction of audience lightened the mood of the lecturer: he spoke hotly, harmoniously" 15. On older years he gave also lectures on the Western European literature.

N.K. Kulman was pleasant to audience not inspired form of presentation, not scope of the presented knowledge, and clarity and clearness of lectures. He was able and liked to read literary works, using for this purpose any occasion: so, for example, before vacation instead of a lesson lecture of a request of girls read Turgenev's "Singers", Chekhov or something other of the repertoire. For students the fact that he considered art reading an important component of training was instructive, saying that each of future teachers is obliged to study this art and, in any case, will be able to reach that step of competent expressive reading what was reached by it, the ordinary teacher. When girls were engaged in student teaching (analysis of lessons and drawing up plans), N.K. Kulman's lectures became for them a sample of clearness and composite clarity of construction and carrying out lessons.

Memory of the former students was scarred by the outstanding personality of N.M. Karinsky in love with the Russian dialectology. Many remember how he recited before listeners plots, fairy tales and other works of the Russian folk art in the corresponding dialects as he thinly showed relationship and difference in language and the traditional culture of Russian and other Slavic people. Comparison of folklore plots and language forms especially interested those who, except Russian, knew still some Slavic language.

Literature to students of the first course was read by F.A. Vitberg teaching at the end of the 19th century Pedagogical courses. There it enjoyed love of listeners who appreciated it as the progressive teacher, the specialist in folklore who collected big on volume and a card file, various on the contents, the betrayed specialty, the great teacher and just very good benevolent person. In 1913 he was already an old man, read boringly, the grumbling tone. But it conducted a practical training interestingly and very much helped with search of literature to the paper, and even shared the precious books in the specialty. To the listeners who asked it for the help, it always belonged not just friendly, and is warm.

Along with study the listeners had to solve the vital household problems. Training at institute was paid. Training cost within a year was 100 rub -

leu — big money for the 1900th. Not everyone studies could afford it. There was a system of grants, but it covered only an insignificant part of listeners. Among pedagogichek (in the majority not knowing bitter need in daily bread and not considering each kopek in the budget) was nevertheless many girls who learned burden of study in a half-starved state, with firmness struggling with need, overcoming material adversities dedicated study. The listeners who arrived from other cities and independently paying the table and housing even with financial support of parents could not always make ends meet. For the help to such "insufficient" listeners at institute the cash desk of mutual aid, labor office, society of assistance were created. Members of cash desk of mutual aid helped the classmates with providing with textbooks, theater tickets, on concerts, looked for cheap rooms and corners, previously checking on the place living conditions of accommodation at them and also "environment" in the apartment; patients were suited on medical examination and treatment in the best clinics of St. Petersburg, Army medical college and other hospitals; looked for for girls summer "standards" — lessons in wealthy families which spent summer at dachas or in the manors.

The main source of material resources of cash desk were membership fees and solid income from annual concerts balls. On them the best actors of St. Petersburg, singers, musicians, readers reciters acted. Public lectures of S.A. Ad-rianov and other teachers, charitable lotteries enjoyed wide popularity.

Moods and tastes of listeners of institute were very various. They were expressively characterized by one of graduates of verbal and historical office: "Uncontrollably pulled youth to new, first of all in art. Many girls, for example, openly preferred new theater of the musical drama & #34; Мариинке" with its inert shtampovy forms; chamber evening of a song Zoë Lody — to strictly sustained concert of classical music; admired Korovin, Serov, Malyavin, Benois's cloths. But the main preferences of the student-slovesnitsy were given to literature. They sought to go beyond program material, were eager to join modern literary process.

the Beginning of the 20th century was mainly time of words. A word instead of action. Children of the century, students reached for this word. New, especially in the field of poetry, was more than enough. But to read poets in the almanac is one, and to listen to the living poet — completely different, and girls sought to get on readings, concerts though tickets for them it were obviously too expensive for much. Institute administration, considering wishes of listeners, from time to time gave literary soirees, inviting to them some celebrity. In 1914 at institute fashionable then country poets, and in 1916 — Alexander Blok acted.

Such meetings excited youthful imagination. There was a wish to create verses, plunging into the disturbing world of poetic creativity. Lovers of verses united in a circle of poets & #34; Blue лампа" which was directed by N.K. Piksanov. With big enthusiasm of the listener prepared for its meetings. Gathered every time at & #34; another поэта": the bulb was brought with themselves and screwed in that room where there was the next reading" 16.

At the initiative of girl students at institute the public reading room which was placed in the hall through passage was created. One of students directed it. Purchased novelties with the raised funds — almanacs, collections, magazines. The reading room gave first of all the chance to get acquainted with modern literature. There was no release from persons interested to sit in it and to read verses by poets of all ranks, Bunin and Kuprin's new stories, new verses by Bryusov.

The edition of the Iskaniye magazine was other public and literary initiative. He corresponded by hand, bred on the rotator and dispersed in a set of copies. The magazine was conceived as the big institute collection in which, except literary and art department, there were also responses to modern events of life, pedagogical articles, satirical pages, etc. There were, however, only two issues of this magazine, but its articles well transfer the main moods of students of that time. In each number the publishers of the almanac tried to place the debatable articles opposite on outlook, considering that the more dispute, than raskalenny the atmosphere — that more life will be on kurse17.

The poem opening issue of the almanac is indicative. It is a peculiar attempt to overcome passivity and estrangement from life of a part of girl students.

There is a wish new, greedy attracting, Terribly fine, imperceptible, Secretly and passionately itself zhivyashchy, Eternally mighty, eternally favourite. You are eager for work to oblivion burning, the whole world Is wanted by time to fall in love, There is a wish for will, a scope mighty In victorious aspiration — to live! 18

The epigraph — the words of professor S.A. Adrianov from his lecture about Dostoyevsky is premised to article "Where Do We Go?": "We always want to worry as much as possible".

Youth can seek to leave a backwater and to appear in the thick of things. "We do not know minutes of rest, we worry eternally, somewhere we hurry. But this awe of soul sometimes is so far from our course life. Listening to lectures, we plunge into a pure current, and to us such light, but alien lives, such indifferent distances. & lt open;...> And human life constantly demands that we entered it fighters for daily occurrence, for souls of little people.

And 19

And the science sometimes is indifferent to daily".

The Iskaniye magazine was popular. Special success was made by "vaudevilles" in which weaknesses and characteristics of professorate were witty beaten. Future teachers, girls derided "pedagogical skill" of some professors and to smooth down possible offense, the epigraph to vaudevilles chose Gogol's words: ".ozarenny by laughter force, it already brings reconciliation to soul". One of listeners remembers: "All were written out by a brush under Shchedrin and even nicknames were grotesque. To nothing the dandyish Frenchman Balyi-Comte who was not teaching us was called the columns Bolti-Boltay, and Hilin-sky lulling us lectures about Greece — Hilit Prehistoric.

The most courageous image the manner to give lectures, for example, confused Combs-on was parodied. Speaking about progress according to the logic of our course, he spoke at a faculty meeting so: & #34; All of them differ in perfect innocence in logic and suffer from excessive use of the principle of economy of forces. Therefore there will be rather fried ice, a round square, rather some candidate on Specific will imagine en-dimensional space, than they will understand something in the field of registering понятий". — It was the masterpiece! Grebenkin, as live, with his set of wild phrases and sample receptions. And Nikola Karinka, of course, quoted something from a praslavyansky era, characterizing our course: & #34; Seniors tulitsya for average, averages tulitsya for younger, and from younger and the answer нету". It is necessary to tell that this vaudeville was called & #34; Council about a fate младенцев"" 20. The rector of institute S.F. Platonov is called in it Platon Sergius, and professor of pedagogics P.F. Kapte-rev — the Capitol Pedagogius. It is interesting that in this human waxworks exhibition there was no place to professors S.A. Adrianov and N.K. Piksanov: apparently, they were too respected.

After emergence of the almanac the idea about creation of literary circle on the latest literature was born, and its opening took place on March 8, 1914. N.K. Piksanov agreed to direct a circle. The bright portrait it was drawn by one of listeners: "There is in it some warm-heartedness when he smiles precisely one side of a face, and the left mustache rises up; and when listens, having bent — it is very high — our hot plans and offers. Swoops, undoubtedly, are pleasant; he smiles to our sincerity, youth, obsession. On seminar classes he is official, impenetrable, very seriously carps at flow of words in our papers, and then he can really seem prudish especially as it it is difficult to catch a look behind glasses of glasses with a black rim. And yet he agreed to head such touchy business. You never know to what it is possible to agree in the paper about Blok, Vinnichenko, Balmont! Meetings of our circle became the arena of fight. Argued not on the report any more, sometimes there was an open fight. Piksanov did not enter disputes. He likes our youth and enthusiasm to what he undertook much!" 21

Literary innovations, theatrical premieres and vanguard in art nevertheless could not force out a timeless classics. The attentive Petersburger by all means would notice in?

Lawrence Davis
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