The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants of the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century in the latest domestic researches on the history of business and merchants



BIBLIOSFERA, 2011, No. 1, page 27-31

Bibliology

UDC 94 (470.23-25) - 05 BBK 63.3 (2-2SPb) - 282.4

MEMOIRS AND DIARIES of the ST. PETERSBURG MERCHANTS of the END of XVIII - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th century. In the LATEST DOMESTIC RESEARCHES ON the HISTORY of BUSINESS AND MERCHANTS

© M.A. Smirnova, 2011

St. Petersburg State University 199034, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5

Article is devoted to questions of history of studying memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants of the end of XVIII - the beginnings of the 20th century in the latest domestic historiography. The main researches on the history of business and merchants of Russia which came out after 1991 and reflection in them memoirs works by the St. Petersburg merchants as source are considered. The nature of attraction of any given memoirs and diaries is analyzed, the general conclusions concerning trends of their study by modern researchers are drawn.

The article is devoted to the problems of history of St-Petersburg merchants& memoirs and diaries (the late XVIII - early XX century) studying in modern Russian historiography The basic research on the history of entrepreneurship and merchants of Russia, released after 1991, and reflection in them the memoirs of Petersburg merchants as a source are considered. The way of using certain memoirs and diaries is analyzed, general conclusions on trends in their studying by modern scholars are made.

The analysis of any historical source is impossible without the appeal to a historiography. Characteristic of literature in which it is presented allows to consider the history of its existing, time and circumstances of introduction to a scientific turn, the nature of attraction by researchers, methods and working methods with it. These reasons are fair also for studying memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants of the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century

In a domestic historiography in the second half of the 80th of the 20th century there was interest in studying the plots connected with the history of business in Russia. Similar researches continue to appear and now. Their considerable share is devoted to reconstruction of history of merchants, in particular such aspects as shape of the Russian merchant, culture, mentality, religious and political views of merchants are relevant. Because during the long period this subject was not studied, modern writers faced need of development of istochnikovy base. Besides use of already known sources, before them there was a need of attraction of new materials, in particular, of memoirs works by merchants. It is possible to speak about a certain attention of researchers to them that was shown in the latest works on the history of business and merchants in Russia. The overview of memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants is reflected in separate Article [1].

In this research the monographs published after 1991 and article as on the general questions of history of business and merchants of Russia, and on private aspects within these directions are considered; special Article [2] is devoted to the overview of a historiography. Due to the large volume of similar researches only the most significant of them for studying this subject are reflected in article. Works on the history of business and merchants of Russia and literature on these plots are separately considered in relation to St. Petersburg and other regions. At the same time it should be taken into account the chronological principle that will allow to reveal trends of the relation to memoirs works by merchants in a modern domestic historiography.

1. Works on the history of business and merchants of Russia

We will consider the latest researches devoted to the history of business in Russia. As in HUSh-H1H of centuries business activity was concentrated generally in hands of representatives of merchants, this group of literature included works on merchants history. By their consideration it is necessary to pay attention to the nature of attraction by authors of memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants and also to estimates of a role and value of these sources.

A.V. Semyonova's article "Decembrists and merchants" [3] became one of the first works at the present stage of development of historical science in which interest in memoirs works by the St. Petersburg merchants was shown. Considering plots of formation and evolution of ideology of merchants, A.V. Semyonova addressed memoirs sources. Among the attracted memoirs - memoirs of the Petersburger G.T. Polilov (Xie-vertseva).

G.T. Polilov's memoirs are present at A.A. Galagan's work on the history of the Russian business [4]. From memoirs of this author are cited in the section "Merchants about (Merchant Memoirs)" along with fragments memoirs of the Moscow merchants.

Memories of the St. Petersburg merchant A.P. Berezin - a rare example of the memoirs work of the merchant of the 18th century - are used as a source in the monograph by N.V. Kozlova "The Russian absolutism and merchants in the 18th century" [5]. N.V. Kozlova emphasized the exclusive value of early memoirs works of the merchants drawing "their vital and trade biographies, means and forms of education, personal qualities, family and public life" [5, page 41].

Memoirs works by the St. Petersburg merchants are present at the monograph by M.V. Bryantsev devoted to the culture of the Russian merchants [6]. In this work such important questions as education, education, formation of consciousness of the Russian merchant are considered. The Istochnikovy base is presented by fiction (as reflection of ideas of the culture of merchants in society), memoirs and diaries of merchants (as reflection of their own representations). M.V. Bryantsev described the technique of identification of memoirs sources of merchants and noticed: "Traditionally it is represented that the merchants seldom addressed such form of the letter, but our investigations show that among various groups of merchants of various cities the aspiration to maintaining diaries, notes and so forth was high. Most often it were unsystematized

records about everything" [6, page 7]. Observation of the researcher about emergence of steady tradition of writing of memoirs in the merchant environment is not less interesting: he carried it to the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century and connected with familiarizing of merchants with book culture [6, page 145]. M.V. Bryantsev revealed and investigated considerable number of memoirs and some diaries of merchants, mainly Moscow. Memoirs of the St. Petersburg dealers O.D. Belyan-kin, I.D. Ertov, natives of capital merchant families of G.T. Polilov, N.A. Leykina and the diary of the merchant son A. Polilov were also attracted by him [6, page 8-9, 41, 45 and further]. M.V. Bryantsev quoted the fragments of memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants illustrating plots from the childhood and youth of authors, drew parallels between certificates of different sources, made remarks concerning reliability of their indications.

Distinctive feature of the modern period of a historiography is the release of several collective monographs on the history of domestic business. First of all, it is the work "Business and Businessmen of Russia from Sources prior to the beginning of the 20th Century." which united a number of articles on the economic history of Russia and also the biography of the largest domestic businessmen [7]. Authors of a research, leaning on various istochnikovy base, addressed including memoirs heritage of the Moscow merchants P.A. Buryshkin, V.A. Kokorev, N.A. Naidyonov, V.P. Ryabushinsky, S.I. Chetverikov and the Perm dealer N.V. Meshkov.

Within this work Yu.V. Tikhomirov's essay devoted to the biography and enterprise business of the St. Petersburg merchant of the Italian origin F.K. San Galli [8] is especially interesting. Considerable attention is paid to "Curriculum vitae" of the manufacturer - in the text of memoirs the main milestones of its biography are tracked: from the beginning of work in Russia before creation of the prospering production and receiving the personal nobility.

This source together with memoirs of Muscovites V.P. Ryabushinsky, N.M. Chukmaldin, P.A. Buryshkin, N.A. Naidyonov and S.I. Chetverikov was attracted by M.N. Baryshnikov in the research "Policy and Business in Russia" in which he emphasized that memoirs sources kept in themselves opinions of businessmen, including on political affairs [9].

G.T. Polilov and N.A. Leykin's memoirs found reflection in M.N. Baryshnikov and K.K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky's article devoted to a role of a family factor in the Russian business [10]. They referred to the latest edition of these sources undertaken by A.M. Konechny in 2003 and according to memoirs tracked the history of family business of a sort Half-silt and Leykiny. Extensive quotes from sources are provided in article, there is no criticism of reliability of the attracted certificates [10, page 182-183, 186].

2. Works on the history of business and merchants of St. Petersburg

Memoirs works by the St. Petersburg merchants of the 19th century were the main source of article of A.M. Konechny "Life of the St. Petersburg merchants" [11] which preceded the publication of memoirs of G.T. Polilov, N.A. Leykina and Yu.E. Polilova's diary, however has independent value. The research represents the description of various aspects of life of the St. Petersburg merchant families based on certificates of contemporaries, these guides and descriptions of St. Petersburg. A.M. Konechny noted exclusive value of memoirs of natives of merchant families Polilov and Leykin ("the most valuable sources on merchants life" [11, page 11]), provided short data from the biography of memoirists. Besides these memoirs, A.M. Konechny quoted memoirs of the merchant A. The item Berezina, Yu.E. Polilova's diary, memories of V.F. Gromov and also essays of the native of the St. Petersburg merchant family M.I. Pylyaev, it was limited to short comments on cited, explaining obsolete words and concepts.

In a number of monographs and articles on stories of the St. Petersburg merchants the memoirs and diaries are submitted as one of work sources. As a rule, researchers attracted them to confirmation of separate provisions and conclusions, and often quoted by way of illustration. Sometimes similar works contained estimates of the importance of memoirs works of merchants as source for studying concrete plots.

Among the authors who were engaged in studying the St. Petersburg merchants in recent time - K.K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky. At its monograph "Foreigners in Structure of the St. Petersburg Business" and the doctoral dissertation as sources there are memoirs of the St. Petersburg merchants G.T. Polilov, F.K. San Galli and N.A. Leykin [12; 13]. The researcher gave fragments of memoirs in which memoirists described biographies and business enterprises of foreign merchants in St. Petersburg. In the review of sources K.K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky defined value of these memoirs for the research: they "give rather less information for studying business operations of foreigners, but contain very interesting material on the family and related and friendly relations among the St. Petersburg businessmen" [13, page 44].

the monograph belongs To similar works

A. I. Osmanova "The St. Petersburg merchants in the last quarter of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century" and also its doctoral dissertation [14, 15]. In a research there is no section devoted to the review of sources therefore about attraction by the author of memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants it is possible to judge directly by the text of work. The researcher quoted memoirs for the sake of an example, sometimes accompanying a fragment with a short phrase about the memoirist and a source, but most often a formulation "on memoirs of contemporaries". N.A. Leykin and G.T. Polilov's memoirs in the edition of 2003, the St. Petersburg merchant of the 18th century are attracted with the author of the monograph. And. Item Berezina and also F.K. San Galli. Quotes are rather numerous, it testifies to very important place of memoirs of merchants in istochnikovy base of the monograph [14, page 40-42, 46-47, 68 and further]. Memoirs And. The items Berezina were attracted by the researcher and in other his Articles [16].

In works on history of the St. Petersburg merchants also sketchy mentions of memoirs literature of merchants meet. For example, A.A. Zhuravlev, quoting I. Parfyonova's memoirs, noted: "Occur in memoirs of merchants, sometimes very interesting estimates of partners" [17, page 69]. M.V. Ivanov in article devoted to the St. Petersburg bibliopoles, got many data from N.I. Sveshnikov's memoirs, referring to the latest edition of a source of 1996 [18, page 161162]. In the same way by way of illustration to a plot about restriction of trade operations with England at the beginning of the 19th century M.N. Baryshnikov quoted G.T. Polilov's memoirs [19, page 5].

3. Works on the history of regional business and merchants

Among researches on history of regional merchants monographs are noteworthy

B. P. Boyko: the first, devoted to the Tomsk trade estate, and the second in which the merchants of Western Siberia are considered [20, 21]. The basis of the first work was formed by two groups of sources, one of which the author called sources of personal origin (including memoirs works by merchants). Generally it memoirs of the Tomsk merchants and also businessmen of other cities of Siberia. One of sources were the memoirs of the Petersburger G.T. Polilov involved by the historian according to the Nashi Dedy-kuptsy edition for the description of plots of merchant life. Work is an example careful the relation to memoirs of merchants as to a source and shows strict methods of work with them. In the monograph "Merchants of Western Siberia" G.T. Polilov's memoirs are attracted in connection with a research of the same plots.

"Curriculum vitae" of F.K. San Galli as the source is present at work as T.D. Markina about a social portrait of the Moscow merchants together with memoirs of P.A. Buryshkin, N.A. Naidyonov, V.P. Ryabushinsky and other Moscow merchants. At the same time the memoirist is mistakenly called by it "the large Moscow manufacturer". F.K. San Galli's biography contains, according to T.D. Markina, curious "pictures of outright revelry among large industrialists" [22, page 57].

In many researches on the history of business and merchants the authors were limited only to citing one - two memoirs sources. As a rule, it were the published memoirs and diaries of businessmen which were used on an equal basis with memoirs of representatives of other social groups. So, for example, in A.N. Bokhanov's research the priority is given to mass sources, but in the text are cited memoirs of the economist I.H. Ozerov, the doctor T.V. Belozersk and Moscow merchant P.A. Buryshkin [23]. And the memoirs of the last which are repeatedly published as a source meet in many works on the history of business in Russia. As well as at A.N. Bokhanov, this source was quoted only for an illustration. It confirms a conclusion that memoirs works by merchants were attracted in a random way: only widely known published memoirs and diaries from which fragments on certain plots were reproduced were used.

Thus, memoirs works by the St. Petersburg merchants of the end of XVIII - the beginnings of the 20th century are presented in the latest literature on the history of business and merchants differently. The most part of memoirs works of the St. Petersburg merchants was not studied by researchers, such sources as V.A. Popov's "Biography", A.N. Tarasov's diary and others, were not attracted in earlier works, monographs and articles of other subject and also in a foreign historiography. Others - memoirs N.A. Leykina, G.T. Polilova (Severtseva), F.K. San Galli - are present at many works. This distinction can be explained with several reasons. Availability of a source to study matters: published, and especially run several editions, memoirs and diaries were more often used by historians. In certain cases attraction of any given memoirs work as a source was defined by the tradition which developed in a domestic historiography.

The analysis of scope of works showed that most memoirs works by the St. Petersburg merchants were attracted in the latest researches on history of life, culture and mentality of merchants. In them these works acted as if not the main thing, then one of the main sources. It is possible to speak about the developed tradition of their attraction in researches of similar subject. Much less appeals to this source in works on history of merchants of St. Petersburg and Russia. This circumstance can speak existence of other sources which tradition of study has long history (they were introduced for scientific use earlier, are better studied, more available). In that case memoirs and diaries acted as addition to other sources, their selection was thought less over. The trend is remarkable: in literature on stories of merchants of the certain cities (not St. Petersburg) more attention because of existence of a large number of sources and steady tradition of their research (for history of the Moscow merchants), or owing to the attitude towards them as to a monument little-known, reflecting specifics of local history is paid to memoirs literature of his representatives.

So, not all memoirs and diaries of merchants are submitted on pages of modern historical works equally. This results from the fact that many of them are not prepared for introduction to a scientific turn yet. The made observations allow to speak about need of creation of the source study works devoted to the analysis of poorly studied materials on merchants stories in Russia. In particular, considerable attention has to be paid to memoirs and diaries of the St. Petersburg merchants as to the source containing the most valuable, and partly even unique data. Need of carrying out the source study analysis of memoirs works of the St. Petersburg merchants of the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century is obvious

List of references

1. M.A. Smirnova. Memoirs of the St. Petersburg merchants of the second half of the 19th century as historical source//Historiography and source study of national history. - SPb., 2005. - Issue 4. - Page 381391.
2. M.A. Smirnova. Memoirs of the St. Petersburg merchants of the 19th century in a domestic historiography//Trade, merchants and customs affairs in Russia in the 16-19th centuries: sb. materials Second mezhdunar. nauch. konf. - Kursk, 2009. - Page 344-348.
3. A.V. Semyonova. Decembrists and merchants (to a problem "Noble revolutionaries and the Russian bourgeoisie")//the City and citizens in Russia in XVII - the first half of the 19th century - M., 1991. - Page 183-204.
4. A.A. Galagang. History of the Russian business: teort. course of autocopes. izlozh. - M.: MEGU, 1993. - 176 pages
5. N.V. Kozlova. The Russian absolutism and merchants in the 18th century (the 20th - the beginning of the 60th years). - M.: Ar-heogr. center, 1999. - 383 pages
6. M.V. Bryantsev Kultura Russian merchants (education and education). - Bryansk: Italics, 1999. - 201 pages
7. Business and businessmen of Russia from sources before the beginning of the 20th century. - M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. - 352 pages
8. Tikhomirov of Yu.V.F.K. San Galli is a manufacturer and the inventor//Business and businessmen of Russia from sources before the beginning of the 20th century. - M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. - Page 329-341.
9. BaryshnikovM. N. Politika and business in Russia (from the history of interaction at the beginning of the 20th century). - SPb.: Nestor, 1997. - 233 pages
10. M.N. Baryshnikov, K.K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky. A family factor in development of the Russian business in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century//ECO. - 2004.-№ 7. - Page 177-189.
11. Final A.M. Byt of the St. Petersburg merchants//the St. Petersburg merchants in the 19th century. - SPb., 2003. - Page 5-42.
12. K.K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky. Foreigners in structure of the St. Petersburg business in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. - SPb.: Birch bark, 2004. - 383 pages
13. K.K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky. Foreigners in structure of the St. Petersburg business (1860th of-1914 g): yew.... Dr.s east. sciences. - SPb., 2005.-500 pages
14. A.I. Osmanov. The St. Petersburg merchants in the last quarter of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century. - SPb.: RGPU publishing house, 2005. - 363 pages
15. A.I. Osmanov. Economic and social situation of the St. Petersburg merchants in the last quarter of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century: yew.... Dr.s east. sciences. - SPb., 2006. - 509 pages
16. A.I. Osmanov. Merchant business in St. Petersburg at a turn of the 18-19th centuries (organizational and economic registration)//the History of business in Russia: XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. - SPb., 2006. - Issue 2. - Page 373-394.
17. A.A. Zhuravlev. From the history of formation of social structure of the St. Petersburg business during the post-reform period//Business and public life of St. Petersburg: history essays. - SPb., 2003. - Issue 2. - Page 64-70.
18. M.V. Ivanov. The St. Petersburg bibliopoles in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century//In the same place. - Page 160-164.
19. M.N. Baryshnikov. Foreign businessmen in St. Petersburg in the first half of the 19th century//In the same place. - Page 3-12.
20. V.P. Boyko. The Tomsk merchants at the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century: from the history of formation of the Siberian bourgeoisie. - Tomsk: Aquarius, 1996. - 319 pages
21. V.P. Boyko Kupechestvo Western Siberia at the end

XVIII -beginning of the 19th century: essays sots., branch and menthol. stories. - Tomsk: Publishing house Tom. un-that, 2007. - 423 pages

22. T.D. Markina. Moscow merchants: social portrait. - M.: Union, 1999. - 71 pages
23. A.N. Bokhanov. Upper bourgeoisie of Russia. End

XIX century - 1914 - M.: Science, 1992. - 262 pages

Material came to edition of 10.11.2010

Information about the author: Maria Aleksandrovna Smirnova is the senior laboratory assistant of department of a source study of history of Russia of department of history of St.Petersburg State University, the librarian of department of manuscripts of RNB, ph.: (812) 312-28-63; (812) 328-94-47, ext. 6411, e-mail: smirnmasha87@mail.ru

Homer Brian
Other scientific works: