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Category: History

Carpathian region "all-Slavic nest"

nikolay RUSSEV


In the prolog to the Velikopolsky chronicle finished till 1273 it is claimed that "Pannoniya is mother and the progenitress of all Slavic people". On the genealogical legend retold by the author, "from these pannonets three brothers, sons of Pang, the lord of pannonets from whom the firstborn had a name Lech, the second — Rus, the third — the Czech were born. These three, umnozhas in a sort, owned three kingdoms: lekhit, the Russians and Czechs called also by bohemians and now own and will own in the future as long it will be necessary for divine will". Having come to the place "with very fertile soil, abounding with fish and wild animals", Lech founded the capital - Gniezno. At the same time he allegedly said: "Let's twist a nest" (The great chronicle of 1987:

Centuries later, obviously, not carelessly and on this folklore story, V.O. Klyuchevsky made the significant conclusion: "The Carpathians were an all-Slavic nest from which subsequently Slavs dispersed in different directions". Veliky the scientist considered that the Russian history began in the 6th century "on northeast slopes and the foothills of the Carpathians", east Slavs who became the intermediate, though long parking in their movement to Dnieper which amplified in the second quarter of the 7th century in connection with the Avarian invasion. The historiographer noted that "The story of temporary years" brings residents of Vyatka "from Poles" though they lived on Oka (Klyuchevsky 1987: 122-125).

A peculiar phenomenon of the Carpathian history, undoubtedly, deserves consideration not so much in the light of again saved up actual material how many in a type of gradually changing approaches to understanding of a role of natural features of the region. The rivers, meadows, fields, forests, but anyway interfaced to conditions of vertical zonation of mountains were indispensable structures of daily occurrence of the Slavic population and here. Mountain landscape created an existence situation, fatal during a Middle Ages era, for local community.

Throughout many centuries the course of history was developed so that the region over and over again was peripheral in relation to such cultural and socio-political communities as:

1) Eurasian steppe (nomadic);
2) srednedunaysky, or Central European;
3) nizhnedunaysky, or balkano-Danube;
4) civilization oykumenicheskaya (The southern Balkans and Asia Minor);
5) northeast forest-steppe and forest.

Interaction of the unlike worlds became the permanent factor which caused numerous change of dominants of kulturnoistorichesky orientation of the region and also cherespolosny development of processes of integration and disintegration (see Gukin Manzura, Rabinovich, Tkaciuk 1995: 9-18).

In the Middle Ages, at least, three of five called worlds (2, 3, 5) at any given stage gained pronounced Slavic shape. Slavs, having become one of the most powerful forces of Europe, made habitable extensive spaces from the coast of the Baltic Sea to Peloponnese in the south, from the basin of Elba in the West to Zavolzhye in the east in the north. The Slavic beginning became a component of many general processes of the European history (Fedorov 1960; Rafalovich 1972; Typ-kova-Zaimova 1991: 38; Sets of 1995: 3-6). At the same time, in Slavic societies there were profound internal changes - they went on the way of creation of own states, formed separate languages and options of material culture. Three branches of Slavic peoples - east, western and southern stood apart.

Certainly, its attractiveness for many people has a talk with a little similar ways of adaptation to the habitat high degree of a natural variety of the Carpathian area. Not accidentally near the Carpathian ridge of manned space often was not enough. For this reason the edge repeatedly became the arena of bloody collisions. However, winners never managed to develop the won lands entirely. In the social relation the Prikarpatye remained so many-sided, as well as its nature.

If to speak about "the state side" of regional interaction, it is impossible to pass by a contribution of Russia, Byzantium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, the Golden Horde, Lithuania, Moldova... The role in local history of Slavs, volokh, Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians, a tyurok, Czechs, Armenians, Germans, Jews, etc. is considerable. The religious diversity of the people seeking to locate in these lands is high. Besides Christians of several faiths, sources are called among inhabitants of edge of Muslims, Judaists, pagans.

Modern researchers confirm a thought that Prikarpatye is the most ancient area of ethnogenesis of the Slavic people. In particular, it is well shown on the example of Croats, ple-

which mine education was formed in the region already since the end of the 4th century. Over time Great Croatia considerably expanded the possession in the North and the northwest. Till 80th of the 9th century east authors placed "the country of rus" in the north of Eastern Europe, and the earth of the Central Dnieper Bank and Prikarpatye called "the country of Slavs". There were two main Slavic towns. One of them is compared with Kiev, and another - with the center the Croat in whom their "tsar" (Novoseltsev stayed 1965: 372-408; for more details see Majors of 2006).

Then the concept "Russian land" began to correspond to rather small territory between Kiev, Chernihiv and Pereyaslavl which turned into the fiefdom of the Kiev princes (Tolochko 1975: 5), and all remained East Slavic area was beyond its limits. It was known to Konstantin Bagryanorodny (944-959) writing that allies of ross - "their paktiota, ".i other Slavi-niya" (Konstantin Bagryanorodny participated 1991 in annual campaigns of ross to Constantinople: 45). Less than in three decades after "The story of temporary years" noted emergence of the country which "began to be nicknamed the Russian land", in 885 g the prince Oleg was at war with tribes catch also tiverets who lived in Podnestrovye, reaching the Black Sea and Danube, and in upper courses of the Prut and Dniester their lands were closed with possession of Croats. In 907 g the tiverets and Croats took part in a campaign of the Kiev prince to Constantinople in which "there is a lot of... the evils were made by Russians to Greeks" (PVL 1950: 14-16; PSRL 1962: stb. 10, 12, 16, 17, 21). By the end of government of Igor (912-945) and tiverets, also catch the authorities of Kiev obeyed and were a part of the population of the Old Russian state (PC 2002: 58, etc.). However the peripheral provision of the western and southwest Russian possession to some extent caused impossibility of achievement of their complete submission.

After falling under blows of Hungarians of Great Moravia (906 g) the western part of Croatia was included into the Czech state, and then she was captured occupying not for long, in 1003-1004, the Prague throne by the Polish prince Boleslav Brave (992-1025). East part of the region at the Top Dniester was won by Vladimir Svyatoslavich, and the South Carpathian lands Croats were subordinated by Stephen I Sacred (997-1038). In 1001-1003 the first Hungarian king attached the Potissky lowland where the boundary district - the Russian Brand which was operated by the successor of a throne was created. Prince Imre died in 1031, but Mark, perhaps, existed and later. At the same time in Transcarpathia the border zone of Kievan Rus', Poland and Hungary was made by woody mountain area which up to the 13th century was called as "the neutral earth" (Pop 2006: 34; cf. Grushevsky 1992: 488).

Circumstances of that era are described also by the composition of the Arab geographer al-Idrisi (1154). He reports that "The country ar-Rusiya" in the West borders on Poland, and in the south - on the Danube Bulgaria ("the earth burdzhan"), the Black Sea and Kumaniya, i.e. Polovtsian possession. According to the description, "it is the big country, but [its] cities are small, and the cultivated lands alternate with raw. Distances between the cities big, and areas are isolated [one from another]. There continuous wars and intestine wars [are waged]". One of areas known to the author - "Galitsky Earth". He calls the cities of this of "the most remote Russia" which are identified with Cherven, Peremyshl, Zvenigorod and Galich. Two names - "Saklakhi" and Barmunim placed between the Carpathians and Dniester with different degree of probability contact predecessors of the cities of medieval Moldova - Suceava and Pyatra-Nyamts (Konovalova 1999: 124, 133-143; Konovalova, Perkhavko 2000: 163170).

To the middle of the 12th century of the Kiev governors knew in the West as "kings". However the message about Russian "reguluses" for the first time occurs in one of the German chronicles under 1165. As some researchers allow, it is about princes from West Russian lands (Shusharin 1965: 424-430).

Isolation of the Galitsky earth contacts princes-derelicts brothers Rurik, Volodar and Rostislavichami Vasylko who appeared in Prikarpatye in 1084. After Rurik's death (1094) of possession were divided - to Volodar got Peremyshl and Zvenigorod, and Vasylko - Terebovl and Galich. In opposition at the western borders of Russia also strangers - Poles, Hungarians, Cumans were involved. The Hungarian king László I (1077-1095) committed the first assault in 1092. In 1099 Rostislavichi by means of Cumans broke the army of the king Kolomang brought by their opponent Yaroslav (10951116). To get support of Byzantium, in 1104 Volodar gave the daughter in marriage to the emperor Alexey Komnin (1081-1118) who was also at enmity with Hungary (PSRL 1962: stb. 230-231, 245-248, 256; Willows 1971: 142; Krip'yakevich 1984: 68-70). Vladimirko Volodarevich (11241152) made in 1141 Galich the capital. He quickly got wide international relations thanks to salt export. Known fact: when in 1096 the merchants had no opportunity to deliver to Kiev salt from Prikarpatye, its acute shortage was tested by all Russia (Isayevich 1973: 94).

Then concerning Galicia aggressive intentions of Hungary were found. Invasions of Hungarians are noted in 1139, 1144, 1148, on two times in 1150 and 1151, 1152. Only Béla III (1172-1196) sent

army to Russia four times: in 1188, 1189, 1190, 1202 (Krip'yakevich 1984: 72-76; WILLOWS of 1971: 142). In 1188 it was to Galich allegedly for the help to the dissolute, a little resembling the father Vladimir Yaroslavich and "do not put in it Volodimer, but date all dress to galichana and put in it the son Andrey" (PSRL 1962: stb. 661), and awarded itself with the title "king of Galich" (WILLOWS of 1971: 143). In the most difficult situation Roman Mstislavich who won galitsky possession only at the end of life conquered the extensive principality there are 1199-1205 (Krip'yakevich 1984: 83-87). After Roman's death the cruel fight for hectare-litsky inheritance continued a third more of century. On a throne 11 princes were replaced. Practically interventions from the outside did not stop. The Russian princes repeatedly brought Cumans here - in 1202, 1208, 1213, 1217, 1219, 1226, 1228, 1235. Aggressive invasions from Hungary into galitsky lands took place in 1205, 1206, 1208, 1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1216, 1220. Also Poland did not stand aside. In 1214 the Hungarian and Polish ruling circles concluded the agreement on the partition of the country. In 1215 a part of local nobility even recognized the Hungarian prince Kalman as "the king of Galich". In constantly changing heavy situation the legitimate heir Danila Romanovich (1202-1264) since early childhood and to mature age several times happened to occupy a throne - in 1205-1206, 1211-1212, 1230-1232, with 1233-1234. Finally it could be approved in Galicia on the eve of invasion of Mongols, only since 1238. (Willows of 1971: 143; Pletneva 1975: 296-297. Fig. 7; Voytovich 1996: 61).

The close personal relations of an upper crust abroad which anyway were under construction by means of marriages - one more distinctive feature of the galitsko-Volynsk history. To local knyazhicha and seigniorial sons much more often than in other parts of Russia, looked for wives from tsivilizatsionno alien limits. The genealogy of Roman Mstislavi-cha (1152-2005) and his descendants dazzles with names of representatives of ruling families of the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Byzantium, Lithuania, the Polovtsian field. In turn princesses of this sort quite often became spouses of governors of the same countries (see Voytovich 1996: tab. 17). Such strong and long family contacts finding an obvious list towards the West led to emergence in Russia at first of a royal title, and then the Catholic governor. And if the Hungarian prince did not manage to gain a foothold in Galich, then in 1324 the Polish protege Boleslav-Yury who subsequently appeared the firm supporter of Orthodoxy could make it easily (Krip'yakevich 1984: 111-113).

The description filled with terms of relationship and details of bloody fight by the Velikopolsky chronicle of one political career of Roman Mstislavich who "in the childhood vos-is indicative

it pityvatsya" at the grandfather Kazimir, and the governor of Galicia became thanks to the help of the cousin. According to a source, he begged Leshka, "that that attached him to itself(himself) eternal service and appointed [let] not the prince the galitsky, but the procurator".

However, having received the power, Roman carried out cruel repressions of "the most notable galitsky dignitaries". Having described in the most black paints of act of "tyrant", the author made the categorical conclusion that the prince was "for the citizens more terrible enemy, than for enemies" (The great chronicle of 1987: texts/p1.html). The Byzantine historian Nikita Honiat confirms that for establishing order the prince had "to empurple a sword in blood of the tribespeople" (GIBI 1983: 65-66).

Of course, the greasing of ethnic and religious identity shown in HP-HGU of centuries both at offsprings of the Volynsk branch of Ryurik dynasty, and at the local nobility in general - process gradual and contradictory. In critical situations the duality of consciousness inevitably put specific people before need of the choice which was quite often disorienting the whole population groups. Not leaving Galitsky Russia and neighboring regions of a disorder most harmful affected villagers. Only the forest and mountains where people left could give rescue from troubles. Out of the territories developed by the states which, it seems, coincided with limits of zones of bloody collisions the life was safer. It isolated and preserved social foundations of the whole massifs of the population leaving from under the power of the administrative and political centers.

One such community is known as "galitsky vygonets" about whom is written much, but there is no sufficient clarity still (cf. Pashuto 1950: 144; PC 2002: 203-209). Unlike other vygontsy groups arrived to arrangement of Russian-Polovtsian army on the eve of fight on Kalka in the spring of 1223 on one thousand boats, than confused many princes, including Danila Romanovich. Told about strange army that it is made "by ordinary people, more than Cumans". As the unusual Dniester flotilla is called "olyadiya rus-ky", on them, most likely, there were Russian-language commands. It is curious that representatives of Russia, including the galichena and in-lyntsy, arrived "kizhdo with the of a knyazma", and Yurgy Domamerich and Derzhikray Volodislavich who were at "vygonets" those were not (PSRL 1962: stb. 742). The band not subject to their prince which left the area of galitsky possession, but obviously in the mass of the Russian soldiers looked exotically.

It is possible that in "galitsky vygonets" it is necessary to see the group of the population of Prikarpatye which developed on the basis of slavyano-Romance synthesis. Occupation mainly distant-pasture sheep breeding (see. On -

left 1980: 44-62), on which hint as if contains in the name "vygonets", allocated them from the mass of inhabitants of the Carpathian region. It is considered that settling of radical lands of future Moldova resulted from advance of volokh and Russinians mainly because of mountains and in a smaller measure from Galitsky lands (Field 1979: 32, 109-112; 1985: 16-17, 64, 86, etc.). As believe, volokh acted as "competitors of Russinians" and in many places absorbed them (see Grushevsky 1994: 226). However this process was gradual, directly connected with opportunities of expansion of a living space and change of type of economy. In Moldova such conditions were therefore here cases of collision of volokh and Russinians (Sulyak are almost unknown 2004: 72-74). According to the Moldavian chronicle, at a meeting near future Suceava the bee-keeper Russinian Etsko says to Dragosh and his satellites from the Maramures that east of the Carpathians "the area desert... stretches down, to Danube, and up to Dniester where borders on Lyashskaya's Earth" (Grigor Ureke 1971: 65). Uninhabited territories, extensive and favorable for dwelling, became an important prerequisite of peaceful co-existence of voloshsky and Carpatho-Russian communities which long interaction with the participation of some other ethnic groups as a result created Moldavians.

Obviously, put not only that throughout centuries in Prikarpatye many people coexisted, streams of migrations were crossed and the interests of hostile political forces faced. The ability of edge to synthesize new social phenomena from a local ethnocultural mosaic is represented more important. In particular, it is from here original groups of the population which consisted of two and more components, but according to command of time showed that from them which more others provided them resilience. Tiverets were those, catch, berladnik, brodni-k, galitsky vygonets at whom the Slavic peoples were only one of shapes of ethnic essence.

Already quoted Polish chronicler of the 13th century assures that the Slavic people living near the Carpathians "understand each other", and Hungarians "and are Slavs" (The great chronicle of 1987: http:// It is possible to present it, only if to mean that at a stage of "finding of the homeland" by Hungarians the bilingualism became for a part of local Slavs - "pannonets" - way of a gradual vzhivaniye in new social reality.

Really, according to "The story of temporary years", in 898 g, having come because of the Carpathians to Pannoniya, Hungarians "a nasledisha the earth that, and gray-haired sha from a slovena, having subdued I under sya". Thereby arose and "sla-

the vyansky bridge" on the East explaining and the Hungarian claims for domination in the Galitsky earth. Let's add to it that in five centuries from Alma to Fedor Koriatovich is contained by four considerable waves of Carpatho-Russian resettlement which arrived to possession of Hungary from the East. Reflection of this peculiar dialogue were new names of the Carpathians. Russians began to use the concept "Ugrian Mountains", Hungarians had a phrase "Rutensky Mountains" (PVL 1950: 21; Grushevsky 1994: 221-224; Shusharin 1965: 433).

The border zone inevitably generated persons of a particular stamp. "the free kind good fellow" Danube Ivanovich whose place of "departure" call Volhynia (Propp, Putilov 1958 can be considered as the typical representative of the free population of the southwest outskirts of Ancient Russia: LVI). Unlike "an epic Trinity" - Alyosha Popovic, Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromts, this "a figure of the Russian epos, bright and difficult for understanding" (Machinsky 1981: 149) national memory does not connect with faithful service to the Kiev prince in any way. The athlete says about himself:

"I went-walked yes from a horde in a horde,

From a horde in a horde yes from the earth to the earth,

I came, Danube, to the king to Lithuania".

For years of foreign service he did not make outstanding career, did not grow rich, but managed to meet with the royal daughter secretly. During one of feasts at court where the beloved asked Dunayushka not to go, the become tipsy hero precipitately bragged to the governor: "I sleep with the dear from Nastasyyushkaya from korolevichny". From right death its buyna the head was saved by Nastasia who also expensively paid for the act:

"Released Danube on the will,

Itself went yes to purely field" (Bylinas-1 of 1958: 286-288).

According to other epic song Danube which was in the Kiev dungeon of Vladimir undertook to get "in horobry Lithuania" the bride for the prince. Opraksa-korolevichna - younger sister of his unfortunate loved Nastassja became her. Having performed a task, on the way back Danube personally made sure that his lost sweetheart "polyakut everything". The hero won "the clean floor" remaining till the last moment not recognized Bogatyrshu-Nastasia. Their wedding in Kiev turned back the death of the pregnant woman young and Danube (Bylinas-1 of 1958: 283284, 298-304).

It is represented that with Danube and Nastasia it is necessary to connect the special way of life providing independence of athletes. Each of them lives in a tent among the open country and "polyakut" - battles against different opponents (cf. with later concept "kazakovat"). So the people who left from under the power alien to them put themselves

kind of beyond the law and therefore risked much, being in essence derelicts (Kolesov 1986: 62-63, 117, 174). Certainly, to opposition "the - the stranger" the duality was also peculiar to their situation. Not accidentally in epic Danube saw the Russian, not excepting the native of "brodnik" or the Bulgarian athlete from the Danube coast (Rybakov 1963: Page 62-68).

The origin and some other bylinas which are written down far from places of epic events, for example, in the Russian North and also a masterpiece of Old Russian literature "Tale of Igor's Campaign" contacts Galitsko-Volynsky Russia (Isayevich 1973: 99, 101). On the other hand, in the 19th century on Galichina, folk songs in which the soldiers going on boats "to silent Danube" become famous are recorded. Having heard about the "kind sir" living somewhere in the direction to the Tsar city, they are employed "valiant" for a generous payment

>- on 100 red, to a horse, a sabelka, a caftan, a cap and "fair maiden" in a year (Solovyov 1988: 257-258, 322-323). Here also the annalistic message that on the same direction of Vasylko "wanted reyat Bulgarians dunayskyya is remembered and put I in yourself" (PSRL 1962: stb. 240). These intentions of the prince fix the usual ideas and practice of medieval governors. On the one hand, not inhabited territories of Prikarpatye did not interest land owners, and the severe need in dependent rural to Luda at a boundary H_-H ІІ existed centuries. However the community members who were not wishing to leave ancient freedoms in the conditions of instability of existence had opportunity to go to hard-to-reach mountain spots or even out of borders of the region.

It is supposed that the survivability of an image of Danube in mythology and ceremonies of pagan origin is collective reaction of the Russian people to Christianization (Machinsky 1981: 170-171). After Vladimir's baptism the old heroes and gods receded on Ukraine where they continued to be esteemed for a long time. In this plan the southwest of Russia where at the river Zbruch the huge all-breeding sanctuary with the well-known idol continued to act on the mountain Bogit to the 11th century is not an exception. (Fishermen of 1988: 236-251; 755). Modern researches of archeologists confirm religious syncretism of the population of East Prikarpatye, not one century after adoption of Christianity of the paganism keeping elements in various spheres of the life. If pagan temples and sanctuaries functioned at Slavs of Bukovina, at least, in H_-H ІІІ centuries, then many pre-Christian ceremonies lived up to modern times (Pivovarov 2006: 215-242; Fuss 2009-2: 379-404).

In the Galitsko-Volynsky earth conscious cases of negligence to Christians - are documentary recorded

to a stvo from the highest nobility. So, at the end of 1152 the prince Vladimirko not only violated the God oath, but also committed blasphemy, sneering at the most important symbol of Christians. In many respects pagan customs of Galich are opened also by a story with the illegal spouse of his son, most likely, coming from a Polovtsian sort. Yaroslav Vladimirovich (1153-1187) openly lived with it, and from it wanted to make the son the successor. Galichane stopped this crime: relatives of Nastaska killed, "to a nakladjsha ogn a sozhgosh yu", sent the son to an imprisonment, "and the prince driving to a cross, a yak to it imet the princess v the truth". Internal political crisis during which local society broke up, most likely, on religious sign was so overcome. The chronicle notes that "iz Галича v Lyakhi" the lawful wife of the prince Olga with the son "and mnoz boyars of a bysh with it tamo" ran (PSRL 1962: stb. 461-463, 564; cf. Grushevsky 1992: 432, 442-447; Krip'yakevich 1984: 76-79; Yakovenko 2006: 99). Against the background of the amplifying Catholic approach (Svshchers-ky of 1983) and return of paganism "in princely and seigniorial circles" it is represented clear why "Tale of Igor's Campaign", not free from pre-Christian reminiscences (Rybakov 1988: 774-775) eulogizes "galitsky Yaroslav Osmomysl" in accurately expressed style of an era of ideological domination Peruna (see Word 1985: 30). Existence in public consciousness of a set of spiritual ancestors was one of the absence reasons at the population of Southwest Russia of "strong" belief.

About features of such religiousness already during the Lithuanian-Polish period the certificate of 1573 remained: "Since 980 all Russians adopted Christianity, though on the Greek ceremony most of which of them ispovedyvat and until now as they try to hide it. However they were turned into Catholic belief since Kazimir Veliky who the first founded episcopal department in Lviv in 1361". Besides, "residents of Russia were strongly betrayed to magic, sorcery and other awful sorcery at all times",

>- the author adds. He tells as in 1431 the Russians besieged by Vladislav Yagaylo in Lutsk sacrificed the young Pole. At the same time "all chief leaders drank up to a throat of hot blood" the unfortunate prisoner. Then they continued a ceremony - fumigated fortress, having put "interiors and heart of" the victim "in the big brazier filled burning ugolyam". According to the originator of notes, Russians "were convinced that they by means of these volshebstvo will be exempted from a siege" (Blaise de Vigener 1890: 65-66).

Boundary position of the region offered the population the whole range of religious doctrines, and in some cases did any given form at -

communication to them an existence condition. It was promoted by the neighbourhood with Catholics and pagans - Cumans, Lithuanians, Mongols. The acquaintance with young years with Catholic dogma Danila Galitsky not only submissively accepted a crown from dad's envoy, but also was earlier forced to test "the Tatar honor" and to participate in a religious ceremony alien to it in a rate of the Mongolian khan (Kri-p'yakevich 1984: 97-104, etc.). His Catholic great-grandson Boleslav, to occupy a galitsky throne, passed into Orthodoxy under a name of Yury, and he was married to the pagan Ofka who became after the baptism Evfimiya (Voytovich 1996: tab. 17). The mass polonization of Galichina and Podolia which gained momentum in the 15th century captured land owners and citizens, in much smaller degree having concerned commoners (Grekov 1946: 258, 387; Yakovenko 2006: 115). Orthodoxy with fair impurity of pagan beliefs remained, first of all, in the villages of Prikarpatye.

However, not all Russian people could live in native places from generation to generation. According to Jan Dlugosh, the residents of Galitsky Russia and Podolia expelled by Poles, "oppressed by poverty and poverty, movable by despair, ran away to Tatars" (Grekov 1946: 257; Field 1979: 38). In the undeveloped forest-steppe in the state relation the Russinians and ordynets who are thrown out by adversities fell into an equal state. Their quite long interaction in the conditions of survival led to addition at borders of the steppe of the Cossacks. On one more to "the neutral earth" between Lithuania and the Horde - to the south of Cherkass and Kanev - Cossacks are several times mentioned already in the last third of the 15th century. Christian Cossacks - so-called "to the kiyena and cherkasets" attract attention. The general orientation of history of Eastern Europe of that time caused Slavic peoples and Orthodoxy of this population in the future. Gradually Tatar Cossacks merged with a mass of Cossack Russinians. It is visible, for example, on the Cossack names and nicknames of Turkic origin (see Yakovenko 2006: 178-179).

Nevertheless, the Horde component of the Cossacks was evident even to people of the West. So, Englishman Dzhils Fletcher at the end of the 16th century carried the "Circassians" living with southwest borders of Russia "from Lithuania" to number of Tatars. At the same time he emphasized that they "are much more educated than other Tatars, themselves are very beautiful and noble in the address, following in it to customs Polish. Some of them obeyed to kings Polish and profess Christian belief" (Fletcher 1991: 97).

One of the reasons of rather painless assimilation of ordynets was opened, apparently, by researches of the huge burial ground Mamay-

The groundhog who is dug out on the left coast of the Kakhovsky reservoir (Zaporozhye region of Ukraine). Things from the burials made not earlier than the last third of the 14th century, especially jewelry, are typical for material culture of the Golden Horde. At the same time hundreds of people are buried as Christians - in the extended situation by the head on the West. This sign of a funeral ceremony is combined with finds in graves of crosses worn on the neck and fragments of pottery with crosses, protsarapanny on them. The Kraniologichesky analysis showed heterogeneity of the population at its proximity to east Slavs and alano-Bulgarian. These people who had absolutely insignificant Mongoloid lines are compared with annalistic "brodnik" (see Yellnikoff 2001; 2006), as we know, having old communications with the Carpathian lands. If these definitions are right, then close contacts of "the former Tatars" (expression from the Italian source of the end of the 14th century) with Russinians programmed ethnic and religious shape of their general descendants in advance - Cossacks.

However the movement of the population connected Prikarpatye not only with the steppe. In the southwest and the northeast of Russian lands the phenomenon of the cities namesakes is known: Vladimir, Zvenigorod, Galich, Yaroslavl, Pereyaslavl, Peremyshl, etc. They appeared in the course of disintegration of Kievan Rus' and, obviously, were in genetic linkages with each other. However, the nature of these relations is definitely not established. The similarity of monuments of wooden and stone architecture of two regions is amazing - some examples of galitsky origin were copied in Vladimiro-Suzdalsky Russia in details. It is indicative that cultural influences from the southwest took place not only during a domongolsky era, but also later, in the 14th century (see Isayevich 1973: 102-105; Sulyak 2004: 50-51). It is necessary to remember that after invasion of troops of the khan to Bat the population of the Galitsky earth did not decrease, and considerably increased at the expense of refugees from the Russian principalities ruined by Mongols. It was confirmed also by archaeological researches in the territory of Bukovina (Grekov 1946: 255; Field 1979: 28-29). Then the former immigrants or, perhaps, their descendants, having mixed up with locals, again fanlikely dispersed across Russia and other Slavic lands.

The considered subject is crossed with the problem of heritage of Kievan Rus' causing still heated debates. In historical science there were two points of view which can conditionally be considered "Russian" and "Ukrainian". It agrees the first, arisen in the second half of XV - the beginning of the 16th century, the Kiev statehood absolutely naturally "flowed" in Vladimir - on - Klyazma, and from there to Moscow. The Ukrainian understanding of a question issued

is final only in the first half of the 20th century, offered other line of inheritance of the Kiev traditions - at first the Galitsko-Volynsky earth acted as their successor, and then through Lithuania they were restored to Kiev again (Yakovenko 2006: 109-110). However, the idea about lawful transition of a role of "the second Kiev" to Galich and Holm was quite consciously put into practice already by Danila Romanovich's ideologists (Isayevich 1973: 99-100).

But actually even the fluent review of sources shows that the role of Prikarpatye in the history of Slavs (and not only east) was much more considerable. It is obvious to me: Galichina as the brightest and full embodiment of cumulative features of the region played an independent role in the fate of repeatedly bigger historic area stretching to East and also Southeast and Central Europe.

It is absolutely logical to allocate the Carpathian region such difficultly with compatible lines as isolation and passability, susceptibility to influences at resistance and congenital conservatism (see Pronin 2005: 56). Figuratively speaking "the all-Slavic nest" survived throughout many centuries only because from here with enviable regularity the baby birds who became on a wing took off and here birds from already forgotten broods could come back. The dynamic ability of the population of the region to keep and lose, accept and give, to update and be updated, in my opinion, generated a rusinstvo phenomenon. It is thought, it is senseless to deny its existence; it should be studied and, of course, to protect.


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