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Cooperation as a way of the solution of economic problems in the first decade of the power of Bolsheviks and participation in it of female population



UDK - 334

COOPERATION AS the WAY of the SOLUTION of ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN the FIRST DECADE of the POWER of BOLSHEVIKS AND PARTICIPATION IN IT WOMEN'S

POPULATION

I.V. Alferova

In article the process of involvement of female population, first of all workers and peasants, in various cooperative associations which were considered by Bolsheviks as the most important elements of construction of socialism is traced. On the basis of archival sources and also materials of the press the governmental activities directed to activization of women's participation in the cooperative movement for the purpose of the solution of a complex of everyday issues are analyzed. The conclusion is drawn on a prevalence of political and ideological interests over economic feasibility when holding a campaign for involvement of women in cooperation.

It is known that cooperation of the population was for Bolsheviks of one of the most important components of the plan of creation of socialism in Russia. In 1905 I. Lenin claimed that "socialist society is one big potrebitelny society with systematically organized production for consumption" [1]. Of course the relation to the cooperative movement from leaders of RSDRP (b) during time repeatedly changed, first of all, under the influence of a political environment. However, it is obvious that the organization of the population of the country in network of production and consumer cooperatives was considered by Bolsheviks as a necessary condition for socialist transformations. This idea was fundamental and uncontested that V.I. Lenin at the beginning of 1923 finally formulated: "The system of civilized cooperators at public property on means of production, at a class victory of the proletariat over the bourgeoisie - it is socialism system" [1, t. 45, page 373].

In domestic scientific tradition the question of political and economic value of the cooperative movement in the Soviet Russia is still actively discussed. The Soviet researchers generally were engaged in studying the Lenin cooperative plan. At the same time, despite disagreement in views of the separate moments, he absolutely admitted, positively was assessed and considered in the closest connection with the subsequent continuous collectivization [2]. Most of modern researchers try to prove insolvency of Lenin interpretation of cooperation and also Soviet cooperation per se [3].

In this article only one of questions of the multidimensional historian - an economic phenomenon - the Soviet cooperative movement, namely, participation of women of various social groups, first of all workers and peasants, in the course of creation of socialist society in the 1920th by means of their involvement in different cooperative organizations will be considered. It should be noted that this segment of history of domestic economy still remains not rather studied. On the one hand the historiography of a problem contains many works in which participation of female population in implementation of the plan of "cooperation of the whole country" was stated [4], with another - authors of the published works generally were limited to demonstration of quantitative indices of familiarizing of women in cooperative associations of different forms (consumer, trade, agricultural) and considered them as the indisputable evidence of success of process.

In this article the task on the basis of archival sources and publications of periodicals, the majority of which is introduced for scientific use for the first time, is set, to reconstruct a social and economic and political context of actions of the Bolsheviks directed to involvement in the cooperative movement of female population; to show discrepancy of this process, complexity of objective and subjective character which the women consisting in various cooperatives had to overcome; to designate in general achievements and the reasons of failures of process of cooperation. At the same time the main attention will be paid to transformations by means of cooperation of the sphere of life which is traditionally referred to competence of women or to "women's issue" (a complex of the social problems connected with

discrimination of the woman in society and family).

For the first time Bolsheviks began to popularize actively cooperation as one of possible ways of transformation of "the world of women" in the spring of 1917, having begun propaganda on the eve of elections to regional thoughts in Petrograd. So, on the one hand, solving, a program issue of optimization of female house labor, and with another - a permanent problem of hunger, they promised to organize wholesale purchases of consumer goods (within the area) which would be carried out elective, and then at cheaper price sold to the population. Further also creation in areas "mills, bakeries, slaughterhouses, kitchen gardens for vegetables for the purpose of cheapening of food, the structure of public kitchens" was planned [5].

Not Bolsheviks were authors of the idea of cooperation of house work. Different types of consumer cooperation were widespread in many European countries, for example, of Switzerland that was well known to leaders of RSDRP (b), many years lived in emigration. The Russian feministic organizations in anticipation of elections of 1917 in the press also addressed cooperation as to a way of overcoming economic ruin and finally prevention of the social conflicts. So, S. Tyurberg wrote in the Zhenskoye Delo magazine: "Cooperation helps the working people, it improves his life, improves its economic situation and thus bears to it freedom, - and called, - we will be firm, we will be patient, we will not give in to any evil slanders, we will listen to a cooperation voice. Business of freedom" depends on our hardness, on our courage, on our patience [6].

Considered cooperation as a possibility of increase in free time of the housewife and maintaining her health as well the female editions which are out of policy. It was talked, first of all, of creation of cooperative kitchens and dining rooms. "Without thinking far", and "considering property of the Russian character & #34; to catch журавля"", "The magazine for hostesses" recommended to organize cooperative kitchens "at least on 4-5 families": "Let's lease the suitable room for kitchen if at one family it is not convenient for this purpose of kitchen, we will employ the general cooperative cook, and we will calculate the cooks. Further hostesses will distribute among themselves days of watches" [7]. At the same time the organization of joint food for the editorial office of the magazine - only the beginning: "It is possible not to be limited further to one dining room, to organize at it a cooperative day nursery, kindergartens and, even something like club - to subscribe to newspapers, magazines, to put a grand piano, to give musicales, popular lectures, debates" [7, page 9].

Nevertheless Bolsheviks in scales of the hypothetical social design surpassed all specified editions. Activity of regional thoughts (on condition of their victory on elections, certainly) in pre-election sketches of RSDRP (b) very much reminded the device of the communes represented in the mentioned A. Bebel's work. "We will construct big and light schools with free training and free distribution of textbooks and hot food for all children, - L. Stal, the member of the editorial office of the magazine of RSDRP (b) for women "Worker" wrote, - regional thoughts will be engaged in the structure of kindergartens and a day nursery. & lt;...> Regional thoughts will be engaged also in construction of good and cheap apartments with gardens. & lt;.> Regional thoughts have to be engaged also in the organization of city militia. Only our brothers and sisters can protect our freedom is workers and workers" [5].

It is difficult to present as far as these social projects would be implemented within work of regional thoughts and as quickly cooperation would begin to take root into housekeeping. Arrival in October, 1917 of Bolsheviks to the power gave them an opportunity to realize election pledges to the population in the territory of the whole country.

In December, 1917 I. Lenin wrote the draft of the decree about consumer communes stating the following: "All citizens of the state have to belong to local potrebitelny society (rural, volost, settlement or uniting the known part of the city, a part of the street, etc.)" [1, t. 35, page 206] that was explained by need "emergency measures for the help hungry and for ruthless fight against speculators". On the eleventh of April, 1918 the decree in a little softened option was adopted by VTsIK: "consumer communes" were replaced with "the consumer cooperative organizations", and the idea of "association of all population of this area in one cooperative" was for a while postponed [8]. In an extreme situation of threat of the approaching hunger the cooperation was considered first of all as the economic device which main task was "work on supply and on distribution of products". At the same time the begun transformations, in V.I. Lenin's understanding, certainly, corresponded to socialist reorganization of society. The program adopted at the VIII congress (on March 18-23, 1919) already provided "the organization of all population in uniform network of consumer communes,

capable with the greatest speed, regularity, economy and with the smallest labor input to distribute all necessary products, strictly centralizing all distributive device" [9].

As for in general solution of an issue of involvement of women in cooperation, as well as all population in general, in the first postrevolutionary years it was not allocated in the independent direction of social and economic policy. The Bolsheviks who came to the power without denying an initiative of proletarian masses, nevertheless more relied on nation-wide reforming "from above", creating municipal dining rooms, the state orphanages, day nursery and colonies, moving workers in housing of the bourgeoisie and so forth. Consumer cooperatives which were created at house committees were, in fact, the state organizations - distributors of the state grocery ration among residents.

The main objective which was set by representatives of the Soviet power concerning female population, first of all of workers and peasants, during this period - to awaken from social apathy and to direct their efforts to the solution of vital tasks in the ideological key, necessary for the state. So, periodicals urged women "to use the work on common cause", at the same time obviously expecting not so much their ideological consciousness how many on "special" female psychological qualities: "Go to our dining room, give only 8 hours of the work, and you will participate in useful business. You will become in our ranks, ranks, making riches. And at once both our parties, and our unions will be necessary for you, you will become the member of our labor family. And if you are a mother if you most of all in life love the child and you are able to bring up, you will give the warm heart to our general children. You will bring up them in our orphanages" [10].

Special attention to involvement of women in the cooperative movement began to be paid after the X congress of RCP(b) (on March 8-16, 1921), with transition to the New economic policy, according to refusal at the level of supreme authority of the forced transition to socialism.

In every possible way promoted the organization of network of the cooperatives promoting change and improvement of the household sphere, Department of work among women of RCP(b) of the Central Committee *, and after it and zhenotdela on places. For the first time the question of participation of workers and peasants in cooperation was put at the IV All-Russian meeting of managers of a zhenotdelama in November, 1921, and "cooperative forms" were considered by speakers mainly in aspect of "disposal of the female worker and the peasant of an excessive burden of house work" [11]. In the resolution it was noted: "Deepening of cooperative work can give the chance of improvement of a family life of workers and peasants. Dining rooms at factory cooperatives, support of a day nursery, consultations at the expense of cooperatives - all this questions in which the woman has to show an active initiative and take active part" [12].

Subsequently on pages of the press the main tselepolagayushchy idea of participation of women in the cooperative movement was developed and added. Cooperation "in the help of the peasant and the worker" began to be considered in three aspects. First, in rural areas of the peasant through consumer societies household products had to market, and through them to receive agricultural instruments of labor, seeds, good breeds of poultry and so forth. Secondly, in the city by means of cooperation the organization of public catering, orphanages, a day nursery and laundries was planned that exempted the worker "from oppression of a pot and the oven fork", thirdly, cooperation was considered as a way of fight against female unemployment. It was supposed to organize sewing, knitted and other artels at working cooperatives, attracting jobless women, and at the same time, solving a market saturation problem the goods manufactured by them [13].

The meeting of managers of a zhenotdelama at the end of 1922 already directly raised the questions concerning change of life in new economic conditions in the agenda. And an opportunity these changes, according to party installations, was considered depending on joint efforts of the trade-union and cooperative organizations. At a meeting questions of need of establishment of playgrounds and clubs were raised, the possibility of overcoming the negative relation to public catering which developed in the first postrevolutionary years was considered and the further prospects of its development already with the assistance of share association of municipal food were discussed. "Base" for further work on

* The department of work among women of RCP(b) of the Central Committee (zhenotdet) was created in the fall of 1919 for education of female population in communistic spirit and attraction to socialist construction. In August, 1923 it was renamed into Department of work among workers and peasants. Existed until the end of 1929

to transformation of life the meeting decided to consider working housing and communes with a condition if in them "the kitchen out of family limits is taken out, the general dining room, a platitude of stay of children is organized" [13, page 29].

Implementing the program for transformation of life in practice, the Department of work among women of the Central Committee of RCP actively looked for ways of cooperation with Centrosoyuz *, trying to perform in relation to it the coordinating and controlling functions. In turn Centrosoyuz also began work on involvement of women in consumer cooperation. At its third session which took place in July, 1922 the report on this question was given. It is indicative that the offer arrived from the International cooperative association which is in Milan and confirmed a certain impact of world process of women's emancipation on the reforming of the world of women happening in the Soviet Russia.

In the resolution adopted at a session after discussion of the report, Centrosoyuz recognized as necessary to involve workers and peasants in election cooperative campaigns; to attract women in electoral bodies of cooperation (board, audit commissions); to participation and the management in those actions which promote its household liberation (dining rooms, bakeries, laundries, a day nursery and so forth); to carry out at first for employees of Department of workers, and then for the chosen activists short-term courses concerning cooperation [14]. Besides, in regions specially elected representative of Centrosoyuz supervising work with female population had to keep in a continuous communication with local Department of workers, in common discuss "before each economic season shock economic tasks for the purpose of involvement in them of workers and peasants" [14, page 25].

To stir up activity of the principal coordinating organ of cooperation in Russia, the Department of work among women of RCP(b) of the Central Committee in return developed the corresponding instructions and circulars, focusing attention on the areas of work most important in the long term. For example, in the draft of the circular "About Dietary and Hygienic Service of the Working Mother and Child" it was offered to organize service of "needs of mother and child" in all consumer benches for what it was necessary to allocate special revolving fund and to create the special commission. Its tasks, according to the circular, were "assistance to service of mother and child through cooperation as this business new and is connected with promotion of new life, promotion of new service.; the organization of conversations and reports on hygiene, sanitation, social education and a role of cooperation in creation of new life of citizens of a Workers' and Peasants' sgrana" [11, t. 17, op. 10, 99, l. 2].

In the same time the Department of work among women developed the circular "About Cooperative Sections of a Delegate Meeting" *. Propaganda on involvement of women in cooperation was carried on in all delegate meetings for 1922, in 1923 the decision "was made to pass to systematic promotion by the organization of cooperative sections at delegate meetings" [11, 98, l. 13.]. At a meeting of employees of orginstruktorsky section of the Central Committee of Department of work among women the decision was made: "To give a task of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and to Centrosoyuz to draft the provision on trade-union and cooperative sections at delegate meetings" [11, 92, l. 40]. Work of sections included except the lectures devoted to questions of cooperation, visit of institutions and enterprises of the consumer union for the purpose of their study. The termination of a course "for the benefit of cooperative promotion" was offered "to be arranged as it is possible more solemnly", to issue to delegatka certificates, the most capable and showing interest will be taught to be taken [11, d, 99, l. 1].

However, apparently, the activity of Centrosoyuz was far insufficient. At meetings of Department of work among women of RCP(b) of the Central Committee as the spring of 1923 it was noted: "Work on cooperation is not conducted because of misunderstanding of the tasks by Centrosoyuz in the field of involvement of workers and peasants in cooperation" [11, 92, l. 36, 40]. In general, advocacy work which was conducted by zhenotdela for 1922, recruiting women in cooperation, yielded insignificant results. So, in the report to the XII congress of RCP(b) only some increase in number of women in cooperative governing bodies was noted: in 1922 on total

* The central union of consumer societies of the Russian Federation - the supreme coordinating body of consumer cooperation of Russia. In 1918 Centrosoyuz forcibly included all unions of consumer cooperation, in March, 1919 the system of consumer cooperation with the following structure is created: primary consumer society - the district union - gubsoyuz - Centrosoyuz. So there were Soviet Centrosoyuz and the Soviet consumer cooperation - the parastatal formations which kept only some signs of cooperation.

* Meetings from elective workers and peasants in whom for several months of a delegatka got acquainted with the theory and practice of the Soviet work. Existed since 1919 until the beginning of the 1930th

board members 969 3 women, in 1923 of 797 people - 7 women [11 were the share, to 98, l. 14].

In the resolution "About work of RCP among workers and peasants", prepared by the central zhenotdel and accepted by a congress it was noted: "The party has to strengthen as opposed to it work on involvement of workers and peasants in party, Soviet, professional and cooperative construction for what it is necessary to strengthen institute of professional organizers-workers and to create a shot of instructors for this work in bodies of cooperation. It is at the same time necessary to strengthen work of the called organizations in improvement of life of workers, along with improvement of the situation of the worker of classes whole" [15].

Really, after the XII congress of RCP(b), work on involvement of workers and peasants in cooperation "was organizationally issued by allocation in Centrosoyuz of the special instructor for this purpose" [11, 98, l. 15]. In September, 1923 at a meeting of Department of work among workers and peasants the offer of Centrosoyuz on creation of the interdepartmental commission on the organization of life of the worker was considered. As a result at Department the commission for development of plans of participation of a zhenotdel in reorganization of life [11, by 92, l was created. 77]. On places the questioning of female population concerning involvement in cooperation was carried out.

Besides, the Department of work among workers and peasants assisted in obtaining permission for Okhrmatmlad's Department * from Centrosoyuz for unlicensed sale of objects of dietary food and hygiene for mothers and children through cooperative benches and also on "naturalization of grants on protection of a matmlad through cooperation" [11, 92. l. 107]. The section on "public catering and collectivization of life" [11, by 92 was introduced in the charter of Centrosoyuz at insistance of Department. l. 107].

At the beginning of 1923 the practical implementation of the program planned by the All-Russian food meeting at the end of 1921 began. Tsenrosoyuz acted as the initiator, having organized model dining rooms for railroad workers and industrial workers. As a result of joint efforts of Narkomat of means of communication, Tserabinspektion, Transinspection, the Central Committee Poslegolod at VCKI, Narkomproda, Narkomtruda, Narkomzdrava, Narkompochtelya, VSNKh, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, Moscow and Petrograd R.K. Sovetov and Calendar day formed Share association National Food - Narpit. Need of transition to public forms of food that "promotes a raising of efficiency of workers and by that - productive forces of the country" [16] was the main idea stated in the charter of association just. Besides according to the charter the association set tasks of release of the worker from "kitchen cares" and in general creation by means of public catering of "a cozy, healthy situation of friendly communication" that will be "a conductor of the new forms of life meeting a modern economic situation" [16].

During the same period the work aimed at providing the population with housing was strengthened, the emphasis was placed on creation of houses communes. The decree of SNK RSFSR "About measures of improvement of living conditions of the working population and about measures of fight against destruction of dwellings" (on May 23, 1921) the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs was entrusted "to develop an order of opening of houses communes, having paid special attention to use for this purpose of the freed premises and also unfinished by completion new and the destroyed houses which are again brought to an inhabited state" [17]. On the eighth of August, 1921 the decree "About granting to cooperative associations and certain citizens of the right of building of city sites" was adopted [17, No. 60, Article 408].

In the report of work of Department of work among workers and peasants for 1923 in the field of transformation of the household sphere the following concrete achievements as a result were noted: "In a number of provinces funds for the organization of life are created. So, Kostroma gubotdet tekstily created fund - 38000 rubles which went to the organization of housing society. In Moscow the dining rooms in working areas serving 9300 people, two hostels at the enterprises on 240 people and 5 public laundries [11, 98, l opened. 23]. According to incomplete data for the beginning of 1923 in management and supervisory bodies of cooperation there were 436 people from them the 37th peasant; on 73 provinces there were 264 artels in which women worked; on courses concerning cooperation up to 25% of listeners women and so forth made [12, No. 1-2, page 25]. In Petrograd and Pskov in 1923, cooperatives "Mat and Child" which daily provided with food hundreds of babies, pregnant women and mothers [18] were open. These results and in general the done work in the direction of involvement of women in the cooperative movement were considered

* The department of protection of motherhood and infancies (Okhrmatmlad) at Narkomat of the state contempt, is founded 28.12.1917, subsequently is transferred to structure of the National commissariat of health care.

the zhenotdely Central Committee of RCP(b) worthy to sound them in the report at the International cooperative conference [11, 92, l. 107].

At the V All-Russian meeting of a zavzhenotdelama and gubprofinstruktor (February, 1924) the tasks were set: "to carry out the strengthened work on involvement in members of consumer societies of workers and peasants", - it was especially emphasized, - being, through work of departments of workers, under the influence of RCP" [19]. The meeting insisted on carrying out in life of the circular of Centrosoyuz about the organization of the commissions on service of needs of the working mother and child through cooperation and attraction of cooperation to creation of a summer day nursery in the village. Opening of an indicative rural day nursery for the summer period with assignment of a name by it & #34 was for this purpose recommended "; cooperative day nursery 8-марта""; in benches of consumer societies in a visible place over regiments of the corresponding range to attach the small signs "service of the working mother and child" [11, 133, l. 3].

In the field of agricultural cooperation the meeting considered necessary, to conduct a campaign among peasants for instructing them on cattle breeding, egg business and butter manufacture, in view of the increasing value of export of eggs, oil and so forth. At last, in the field of a promkooperation the meeting considered necessary to continue further work on accounting of kustarnitsa and that, the main thing, to capture them political impact. The tasks set by a meeting directly belonging to transformation of life, came down to attraction of zhenotdel and workers to construction of model working dining rooms of Narpit and carrying out political work in them [19].

On pages of the female press the propaganda for construction of new life, its collectivization continued. For this purpose the attention of readers was drawn to various forms of cooperation, especially housing which had to play a leading role construction of houses communes. Creation of communistic hostels remained on the story of day including because they had to help "to get rid of inequality", observed, including, and among communists [20].

However, considering difficulties of direct construction of houses communes, to readers from pages of the press consulted to pay attention to the organization "house institutions: & #34; red уголоков" supplied with newspapers and magazines and to the giving working person to have a rest behind a glass of tea and to esteem" and which could play "a big role in fight against the culture of pothouses"; children's house rooms, "where children could spend time under the leadership of specially invited workers" [20]. In the relation the catering services, were offered to women, from the different families living, for example, in one corridor to prepare in turn. And the author of article printed in "Communist" frankly recognized: "Such attempts can make success only when free female labor & lt is used;...> The family lunch is cheap only because work of the woman in family at all not to be appreciated, and group associations only then can dine cheap when they go on the same way" [20, page 22-23].

It is necessary to notice that in process of a campaign razvertyvayaniye for the organization of new life, on pages of the press more often there were materials containing peculiar instructions for its reforming "from below" within one family, several families, at most several houses in the city. Theorists on nationalization of life on pages of the press, of course, emphasized advantages of "public large model institutions", but at the same time owing to the material reasons were forced to be reconciled with "handicraft institutions on nationalization of life", seeking to enter them "into the organized course" [22].

Despite numerous instructions from a zhenotdel of the Central Committee the involvement of women in cooperation both in rural areas, and took place in the city with great difficulties that was explained by the reasons of various nature, for example, of economic. So, in sectional lacy cooperation in 1925 the sale crisis [11, 140, l was found. 8]. Still organizational confusion was the factor which is slowing down process of cooperation of women: from places complaints to a lack of instructions and instructors on cooperation of women, as arrived from a zhenotdel, and Centrosoyuz [11, 140, l. 8]. On courses concerning cooperation which were organized generally Centrosoyuzy it was almost not allocated places for women. So, on courses on a maslodelaniye and a molokovedeniya - classes, "which especially close stand to the woman", one female place was allocated [22].

It is significant that the reasons of ideological character which are slowing down process

cooperation, also took place. Activists of zhenotdel, as well as in general the country leaders, still with great fear treated various manifestation of a female initiative, suspecting of it a feminism echo. For this reason they did not welcome creation of purely women's cooperatives, and, in general, the cooperatives arising out of patronage from the party organization. So, at a meeting of bureau of the Petrograd provincial committee of RCP(b) of November 9, 1922 according to the offer of Department of work among women the resolution was accepted: "To establish, as a rule, all private organizations and artels in relation to which the lack of production activity will be revealed, to close. Further all permissions and the adoptions of the charter of again formed women's organizations & lt;...> to coordinate with an entrance department of workers of Gubkom" [22, t. 16, op. 13, St. 733, 12899, l. 77]. At a meeting of Department of work among women of the Central Committee with RCP(b) in April, 1925 it was once again emphasized: "During the further work on involvement of women in cooperation to head for the organization of cooperative sections at delegate meetings, without creating the special women's cooperative commissions" [11, 140, l. 11].

The main problem what the women showing activity and who tried to master cooperative business, this formal, and at times negligence to them faced from cooperative institutions and male cooperators. Cases when they female-delegatok in cooperatives "forced to sweep the floor are known, to wash, etc." [22, t. 9, op. 1, St. 213, 2551, l. 3]. Delegatka from Karelia reported the following: "There were I the intern in cooperative and when began to understand affairs and to make remarks, I was laid aside. Employees of cooperative drank, and the attached delegatka hindered" [22, t. 9, op. 1, St. 213, 2551, l. 4]. Approximately in the same situation there was a delegatka of the neighboring county who was attached to audit commission at cooperative: "At first everything went well, instructed, but when examined business and began to point to abuses, I could already not work. To me it was stated if you want to work at cooperative, so lift bags" [22, t. 9, op. 1, St. 213, 2551, l. 4].

In 1925 the Central Committee of RCP(b) was necessary to draw again specially the attention of Departments of work among women and peasants to need of strengthening of work on involvement of workers and especially peasants in cooperation [9, t. 3, page 152]. For simplification of the introduction of women in cooperative associations, they according to the offer of zhenotdel began to offer them various privileges. For example, at the initiative of the Moscow gubzhenotdel the Union of consumer societies of Moscow established for lower-income strata of workers payment by installments of introduction of a share for one year. For peasants-srednyachek the payment by installments for two years was given, the share contribution was resolved by raw materials, the share was paid for the peasant poor woman from fund of cooperative [23].

Joint efforts of the party organizations led to growth of activity of women within the cooperative movement. So, if in 1923 there were 1299 female board members of cooperatives and audit commissions, in 1925 - 4517; probationers in cooperative associations was in 1923 - 215, in 1925 - 1015; pupils in cooperative schools in 1923 - 148, in 1925 - 1621 persons [23].

The problem of involvement of female population in the cooperative movement first of all for the purpose of reforming of life, continued to be in focus of attention of the central authority of the country throughout all second half of the 1920th. This problem became especially current in the light of the course towards industrialization stated on XIV (December, 1925) a congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). Modernization of the industry demanded inflow of new labor on production, at the same time, undoubtedly, female population was considered as the main reserve that with need assumed release of women from house problems.

However the internal political course of the state towards industrialization at the same time created trends which substantially slowed down process of involvement of women in cooperation. The April plenum of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of 1926 indicated sources of industrial modernization, having specially allocated: "This task can be successfully resolved only if implementation in the whole country of the severe mode of thrift, economy and ruthless fight against any excessive non-productive costs" is possible to provide parties, on the one hand, [24]. In official documents, of course, this was not about curtailment of the cooperative movement and reduction of investments to development of the household sphere, however in real practice "regime of economy", resulted in such results.

In new economic conditions trade-union and, especially, cooperative organizations began to reduce actively expenses, connected including with the structure of the household institutions facilitating work of women on housekeeping and education of children. "In Tambov the estimate on the organization of the playground was developed for children of shareholders poor women of CRK. Due to the regime of economy this question is rejected also by lt;...> There Are cases when cooperatives, having signed under carrying out in life & #34; Ugolkov of Mat and дитя" refuse having referred to a regime of economy" [25], - examples of similar practice from the cooperative organizations were listed in the Kommunistka magazine. Cases when the cooperative unions reduced female interns and women's cooperation instructors were specified in the publication also, stopped paying them grants, closed a day nursery and so forth [25].

Nevertheless, S.N. Smidovich, one of heads of Department of work among workers and peasants in article "Reorganization of Life in 10 Years of Proletarian Revolution", noted: "Work on release of the woman from domestic slavery & lt;...> is one of the main objectives in work of the Communist Party and Soviet power in ten years of revolution. Its characteristic feature is involvement of workers of women in fight for the liberation, development of their amateur performance in this area" [26]. We believe that "amateur performance of women", even in the presence at them the serious internal motivation for release from "servitude of a household", was not an absolute guarantee of cardinal changes in the sphere of life yet. Involvement of women in the cooperative movement and transformation of the household sphere by means of cooperation went not those rates on which activists of work among women counted, in general - female population of the country for many reasons. Numerous difficulties of economic character, and even more ideological and common cultural did not allow women to become equal participants of process of cooperation that slowed down in general reforming of the household sphere. At the same time the internal political course, designated in the country in the mid-twenties, demonstrated that in the near future basic change in the relation of this question will not happen.

The article traces the process of engaging the female population, especially workers and peasants, in various cooperative associations, which are considered the Bolsheviks as the most important elements of building socialism. Based on archival sources, as well as print materials reviewed public activities aimed at enhancing women&s participation in the cooperative movement to deal with complex everyday issues. Concluded that the prevalence of political and ideological interests over the economic feasibility for the campaign to engage women in co-operation. The key words: cooperation, women&s issue, department for work among women (Women&s Section), transformation of everyday life.

List of an iteratura

1. V.I. Lenin. Last word "Iskrovskoy" of tactics/Half-N of SOBR. soch. T. 11. Page 369.

2. V.P. Danilov. Creation of material prerequisites of collectivization of agriculture in the USSR M., 1957; Brooms of VA. The most important stage of development of agricultural cooperation in the USSR (1921-1929). M, 1963; G.Ya. Form. Bases of the theory and the history of consumer cooperation With?

Elizabeth Stokes
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