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Foreigners in structure of the St. Petersburg business at the beginning of the XX century



k. K. Vishnyakov-Vishnevetsky

FOREIGNERS IN STRUCTURE of the ST. PETERSBURG BUSINESS at the beginning of the XX CENTURY

In article the main directions in development of business operations of foreign citizens in St. Petersburg, a role and the place of their business undertakings in social and economic life of the city at the beginning of the XX century are characterized. The numerical list of foreign businessmen, features of their participation in industrial, trade and banking activity is considered. Data on marital status and age, places of maintenance of the enterprises and accommodation, family and commercial relations are provided. The value of this type of economic activity for development of city economy and increase in its investment attractiveness at the beginning of the XX century is shown.

The changes happening as a part of the St. Petersburg businessmen at a boundary of H1H-HH vekov (including in connection with adoption in 1898 of the law on the state tax of trade), demonstrated updating of this group, to a certain extent its democratization. Modern researches confirm a thesis that the principle of equality Russian and foreign poddannykh1 was the basis for legislative regulation of foreign business in the Russian Empire. At the beginning of the XX century the fast withdrawal pains of former "rules of the game" in the business sphere and "washing out" were observed

class borders when occupation different types of business activity was not class (merchant), but especially private occupation, business of individual abilities, personal experience and communications, initiative. Similar democratization of structure and the nature of operations of capital dealers and industrialists involved profound changes in psychology and ethics of business relations, introducing in them elements of national and religious tolerance, respect for a position of other person, aspiration to understand, find a common language with the partner. It is necessary to agree with a thought of that,

that functioning of the foreign enterprise capital in Russia could be successful only at its integration into surrounding public, economic and legal sredu2. A considerable role in "naturalization" of foreign citizens in St. Petersburg was played, in particular, by charity organizations in which management businessmen took part: in 1814 the Swiss charity in St. Petersburg (the board was on Fontanka River Emb., 52), in 1820 — the French charity opened the activity (Bolshaya Morskaya St., sob. 14), in 1842 — German (Tverskaya St., sob. 11-13), in 1864 — Italian (Gogol St., 17, apartment 15), in 1881 — English (1st Line of Vasilyevsky island, 20), in 1895 — Belgian. Charitable institutions rendered the monetary assistance to compatriots, contained children's shelters and almshouses, hospitals and educational zavedeniya3. Let's note also a role of the special service at consulate of the USA (Nevsky Ave., 21) which was engaged in the information help to compatriots (person interested to open own matter in St. Petersburg) and also the notification of the interested Russian entrepreneurs about activity American firm4. Thus, active business operations of foreigners in St. Petersburg it was supplemented with the broad public and private charity promoting growth of business authority and respect in the environment not only capital commerce and industry circles, but also all urban population.

On the eve of the deep social and economic and political shocks developed in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century, the number of foreign businessmen (materials of a population census of St. Petersburg in 1900 are hereinafter used) made 1390 people (1009 men and 381 women) in the Northern Capital. Most of foreigners acted in

areas, traditional, high-profitable for the St. Petersburg businessmen: trade in food (169 people), traktirny trade (161 people), production of clothes and footwear (153 people), the machine-building industry (96 people), intermediary activity and trade in clothes (on 84 people). Six of these spheres gave 53.7% of all foreign owners of private enterprises occupied in the city. The greatest number of women was presented in traktirny matter and in production of clothes and footwear (202 people, or 53% of their total number) 5.

In the lump of the foreigners occupied at the beginning of the XX century with business operations in St. Petersburg, about a % of persons were among large businessmen (they acquired trade certificates of the highest categories). For 1905 such persons there were 355 people, of them 192 (54.1%) consisted owners of the private trade and industrial enterprises, 146 (41.1%) — were in the head of trading houses (existed in the form of full associations and associations on belief), 17 (4.8%) — were co-owners in any given commercial-le6. The considerable number of foreign citizens in leadership team of trading houses in St. Petersburg Germans attracted attention made 51.4%, British — 15.7%, the French — 9.6% and Swisses — 8.9%. By the available calculations, nearly 30% of all their number in Rossii7 fell to the share of foreigners in the St. Petersburg trading houses. Among the persons who were engaged in individual business activity, still most part was made by Germans (43.7%; mainly citizens of Germany and Prussia), were in the second place the French — 19.3%, followed further Swisses — 9.9%, British — 8.8% and citizens of Austria-Hungary — 6.8%. There were also groups of businessmen from the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Turkey and the USA (till 5-10 people). It is possible to tell that at the general reduction of number of foreign citizens in structure peter-

burgsky industrialists and dealers by the beginning of the XX century their former division in the place and a role in business life of the city remained. In 1905-1913 there were 170 persons which were carrying out individual trade activity according to trade certificates of the first and second categories, and 40 people — owners of certificates on the industrial enterprises of the third or fifth of categories.

From among the foreigners carrying on business in 1905 (data on whom were available by this time), 31.2% acquired the corresponding trade certificates even in the years of Alexander II and Alexander III's reign. During industrial upsurge of the 1890th years business activity joined 38%, and in the first years of the XX century — 24.5%. This fact reflected in general a tendency to "aging" of list of foreign businessmen. From 127 persons about whom there were data 60.6% had age 50 years are more senior. Owners of private enterprises (91 persons) in the most part still professed Lutheranism (47.4%), Catholics made 24.5% of businessmen, adherents of Anglican and reformatory church — on 6.2%, Protestant — 4.2%. Among listed the most serious reduction concerned the number of the foreigners belonging to two last religious communities (approximately five times) in 1895-1905.

Foreigners made also noticeable percent of heads of the joint-stock banks and companies which were placed in St. Petersburg. The greatest group among them was made by Germans, then — the French, British, Belgians, the Austrians and Swisses. On branch accessory in St. Petersburg the enterprises in the sphere of processing of metals, productions of machines and the equipment — 74 (34.9%) and also production of paper and in polygraphy — 43 (20.3%) 8 prevailed. It should be noted that in 1905 the German entrepreneurs had in Russian

capital of 212 large, medium-sized and small enterprises. Their greatest number was placed on Vasilyevsky Island — 40 (18.9%), in St. Petersburg — 36 (16.98%) and Aleksandro-Nevsky — 32 (15.1%) parts. The subsidiaries of the German firms operating in the heavy industry had with them, as a rule, close production ties. Parent firms, strictly controlling listed products of the branches, did not allow production of such goods which could be them

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competition.

The Russian society "General Company of Electricity" playing the leading role in development of the electrotechnical industry of Russia was among the largest companies. This society was subsidiary of the German electrotechnical company General Company of Electricity (AEG) founded by the famous German entrepreneur Emil Ratenau. The Russian company was founded in 1901 in St. Petersburg with fixed capital of 1 million rubles (4 thousand nominal and to bearer actions on 250 rub) for production and operation of the electromechanical equipment. The board, wholesale office and head shop were placed in St. Petersburg, on Kazanskaya Square, 3. Originally joined the board L.I. Goldshtaub, K.A. Lukh, F. Deytch,

A. Pfeffer and S. Roos. In 1905 in connection with purchase of property of the German firm Union (and its Russian subsidiary) the capital of society was increased up to 6 million rubles. The same year the company participated in creation of Society of electric lighting in St. Petersburg, and in 1906, together with the German companies Siemens and Felten and Guillaume, in establishment of society "The Connected Cable Plants" 10. By 1913, at the updated board (E.G. Shaykevich is the chairman, F. Deytch, L.I. Goldshtaub, the Item Jordan,

B. Müller, A.K. von Drejer, N.N. Kok-sharov, G.A. Bloch), fixed capital of the company was increased up to 12 million rubles,

the balance was 30,217,081 rub, profit — 1,751,479 rub, a dividend — 9.4%. Took part in affairs of society St. Petersburg international commercial bank11. On the eve of World War I General Company of Electricity, along with Siemens, took the leading positions in the Russian electrotechnical industry. Among others it should be noted its specialization on construction of tram ways, cable lines, power plants, on deliveries of electric equipment, including for the Russian fleet. In days of celebration of 300 years' reign of a dynasty of Romanov the company became famous for the device of electric illumination (with use of 60 thousand bulbs) on facades of buildings of the Russian Lloyd insurance company on Admiralteyskaya Emb., 8 and Russian for foreign trade of bank on Morskaya St., 32 and also the German Embassy and the House of the sewing machines Zingera on Nevsky Avenue (in the last two cases the production of electrotechnical works cost firm 6 thousand rubles) 12.

Noting the increasing influence of foreign financiers in business life of St. Petersburg, it is necessary to concern the history of activity of such large banker as A.Yu. Rotstein. Adolf Yulyevich Rotstein (1857-1904) was born in family of the Berlin stockbroker. At young age passed bank school in the known banking house Mendelssohn, then Rotshildov had some time in Paris and at the end of the 1870th years arrived with letters of recommendation in Peterburg13. Since 1890 it consisted already the director of the St. Petersburg International commercial bank; in 1895 became one of founders of the Russian-Chinese bank (in 1910 transformed to Russian-Asian bank), remained his director till 1904; was a part of boards of eight Russian companies. Lived on Galernaya St., 5 (since the end of the 19th century — in the new building of the International bank on Nevsky Ave., 58) with the wife Evgenia

(rozhd. Legrents), son Fritz Paul and daughter Elza. The foreign bankers wishing to receive detailed references of Russian predpriyatiyakh14 showed consideration for A.Yu. Rotstein's opinion. The St. Petersburg press, sharp on a feather, recognizing Rotstein's "genius", noted at the same time his inability to master Russian. It is known that "the Economist of Russia" ironically noticed, Rotstein "started the career... the operetta reviewer, from what it is necessary to conclude that any theatrical critic should not lose hopes to be recognized in Russia for the financial figure" 15.

Speaking about the importance of participation of foreigners in financial and credit activity, it should be noted the fact that by the end of the 19th century 80% of fixed capitals all acting in the empire bankov16 fell to the share of nine St. Petersburg banks. The role of the last considerably defined features foreign, first of all the French business in the Russian capital. Let's notice that the aspiration of the French financial circles to an active statement in the Russian industrial market did not remain unnoticed by the capital press. For example, the Business Russia newspaper noted primary attention of the French bankers to the enterprises mining, coal and ironworks about-filya17. In turn "The bank and trade newspaper", based on official French data, noted that from 792 million francs which were invested in the Russian industry 25 million fell on the enterprises Peter-burga18. In 1911 in the Russian capital the Russian-French commercial bank most of which of the capitals fell to the share of the French shareholders opened operations. In 1914 26 shareholders presented at a general meeting in St. Petersburg 24 809 of actions from which 11,000 the Parisian firm "A. Vlasto" presented, 7415 — the St. Petersburg lawyer D.L. of Rubinshteyn19.

At the beginning of the XX century the British continued to play an important role in industrial life of the city, and first of all in those industries which gained broad development in the 19th century. At the same time more accurate branch orientation of the English capital investments in the Russian economy was observed. Also the importance of a joint-stock form of the organization of industrial affairs which succeeded family business increased. For example, the Vestingauz joint-stock company founded in 1898 in St. Petersburg at the initiative of the attorney of the English firm Vestingauz (production of brakes), the Netherlands subject Albert Gerardovich Kapteyn supported the mechanical plant on Prilukskaya St., 2 (the number of workers — 750) and electrotechnical office on Nevsky Ave., 11 (at the beginning of the 20th century — on the Nevsky, 66). In 1903 the fixed capital of the company was 3 million rubles (6 thousand — registered stocks and to bearer — on 500 rub), balance — 5,025,100 rub, profit — 717 thousand rubles, a dividend — 10%. The enterprise made machines, motors, the systems of the electric air alarm system, pneumatic brakes of the Vestingau-za system, etc. Joined the board: the chairman is George Vestingauz (then D. Vestingauz), the vice-chairman — Albert Kapteyn, the managing director — Vasily Samoylovich Smith, directors — Karl Kren, Heinrich Tyler, John Cloud and Ivan Hristoforovich Meyer. The representative of the company in the St. Petersburg society of manufacturers and manufacturers the French citizen V.V. Dufour who was at the same time "entrusted societies on financial questions" consisted in 1906-1914. One more entrusted — Great Britain subject Heinrich Yakovlevich Wood — supervised transport and post and cable affairs of firm. At the beginning of the XX century the representation on the leading posts in the company of citizens of the USA considerably increases. For example, Karl R. Kren held a post of the board member, Dzhems

Stokes and John Cloud — representatives of the company in Western Europe, Franck E. Kenny — the manager of office at the plant. In 1916 the company founded three grants (1 thousand rubles) for gifted students of the Petrograd Institute of Technology of the emperor Nikolay of I20.

Results and at the same time encouraging prospects of development of Russian-English business cooperation received the organizational registration at the beginning of the XX century. In 1908 in Club of commercial society in St. Petersburg the joint meeting of deputies of the State Duma took place (A.I. Guchkov, G.G. Lerkhe, E.E. Tiesenhausen, R.Ya. Erdgardt,

I.N. Efremov and S.P. Belyaev) and prominent capital businessmen (E.L. Nobel, N.A. Belotsvetov, G.G. Vissendorf, B.A. Kamenka, P.L. Bark, etc.) on which the decision on creation of Russian-English chamber of commerce was made. In the speech the chairman of the board of Congresses of representatives of the industry and trade V.I. Timiryazev emphasized "importance both for Russia, and for England streamlinings and development of the trade intercourses between both states and attraction to Russia of the English enterprise and the capitals" 21.

The active interlacing of business interests of representatives of various groups of businessmen, including Russian and English became feature of a post-reform industrial initiative in St. Petersburg. Activity of the English industrialists Beck was an example of it. In 1894 the merchant of the first guild Dzhems Beck founded cotton-spinning factory on Peterburgskaya Emb., 34. In 1898 the enterprise was transformed to "Beck of Dzhems, the Cotton-spinning Manufactory in St.-Petersburg" joint-stock company with the capital of 2 million rubles (2 thousand registered stocks 1 thousand rubles were concentrated in hands of family members Beck). Two years later the factory at 650 workers annually made products on 1.5 million rubles 22. In 1903

year the balance of the company was 5,538,600 rub, net profit — 4.4 thousand rubles, a dividend (for 1902) — 6%. The board included William Beck (managing director), Dzhems and Elizaveta Beck. The factory produced severe spun cottons for weaving and torsion; at the enterprise there were 105.5 thousand spindles. In 1910 the society passed under control of the representative of the known surname of the Moscow manufacturers N.D. Morozov (headed the company of the Bogorodsk and Glukhovsky manufactory). In 1913 from 20 thousand actions (on 100 rub) N.D. Morozov possessed 4 thousand, to William (Vasily) Yakovlevich Beck — 250, to Ernst Yakovlevich Beck — 250, to Georgy Georgiyevich Vinterfeld — 250 (all four were board members). The balance of society was 6,199,461 rub, profit — 599,679 rub, a dividend — 10%. On the eve of World War I the factory at 1 thousand workers produced the severe sewing yarn delivered to the Nevsky filar manufactory Koutsov and the companies of the Bogorodsk and Glukhovsky manufactory of Morozov. Society, by recognition of board members, had close "commercial affairs" with banks "I.V. Juncker", the Moscow merchant bank, London County and Westminster Bank and Wm. Brandts Sons and Company,

London23.

On November 15, 1911, with assistance of the English financial circles in St. Petersburg the Russian-English joint stock bank with fixed capital of 10,000,000 million rubles (from them 5 million rubles were collected in England) was founded. The board of bank (took place in rooms on the Nevsky, 28, shortly before it left the St. Petersburg private bank) included G.O. Benenson, R. Boulton, G. Gidalla, F. Kripps and D. Moncrieff. Among its shareholders such famous English political figures as Balfur and Austin of Chemberlen24 were registered. In 1912 bank, with the assistance of the English companies Messrs. Boulton Bros C ° and Impérial and Foreign Corporation was based by Rus-

Skye credit and financial kompaniya25, being engaged in crediting of the Russian industrial firms (first of all in the metallurgical, machine-building, timber industry and gold-mining industries). Let's note that with assistance of bank in 1912 the businessman John Lenke founded in St. Petersburg joint-stock company of the plants of pneumatic machines with the capital of 1,500,000 rubles. The plant was created on the basis of two enterprises on Vasilyevsky Island: on 17th Line, 24 (it is constructed in 1899) and on 18th Line, 27 (it is constructed in 1910 by the American Association of the plant of pneumatic machines). The company hammers for the cabin, stampings and revetings, drilling and boring machines, air compressors, dust cleaners, vacuum cleaners were issued. The fact that for successful industrial activity of D. Lenke it was awarded the order to St. Stanislav of the second degree deserves attention, and the high quality of products of firm was noted by four gold medals.

we Will address other examples of participation of foreigners in financial and industrial activity. The Belgian consul in St. Petersburg R.A. Charlier held posts of the board member of the St. Petersburg discount and loan bank and the director of Society of copper rolling and pipe plant in St. Petersburg. The Netherlands consul in St. Petersburg G.G. Fang-der-Pals and the Swiss subject Yu.I. Ramseyer consisted on the leading posts in the St. Petersburg discount and loan bank, and the Austrian subject A.I. Murany was the director of the St. Petersburg private bank. Other Austrian citizens — Rudolf and Iosif Ganzeli — participated in 1902 in creation of trading house for the maintenance of factory on production of an oilcloth (on Roshchinskaya St., 3) with the capital of 500 thousand rubles; the same year the enterprise was attached to association of the Russian-Austrian manufactory for production granitolya, a plyuviozina, an oilcloth and waterproof substances. In 1899 in

St. Petersburg the Russian-American society of the metal plants with the capital of 600,000 rub (2400 — nominal and to bearer actions — on 250 rub) on base was formed: 1) the plant with lead - rolling and truboliteyny production on Shlisselburgsky Ave., 23 (founded in 1897 by the engineer V.V. Sheffers); 2) the plant with the babbit-metal-goyt-melting production on Vasilyevsky Island, 17th Line, 6 belonging to the U.S. citizen industrialist William Garro; 3) the mechanical plant on Big Okhta, in Zubovy Lane, 28. The enterprises of the company produced antifriction materials, lead and pig-iron pipes, a wire, seals, a foil, etc. The representation in St. Petersburg was opened by one more Bruxelles company — "Esders and Skheyfkhals" (sale of a ready-to-wear men's and women's clothing). The multi-storey building built by it in 1907 at the corner of Gorokhova, 15 and Moika River Emb., 73 became the city's first experience of construction of the building with a metal framework and huge window openings.

Quite often in St. Petersburg very difficult options of representation of foreign "interests" took place. For example, the German subject Alfred Fedorovich Myuzer who was born in family of the Swiss citizen, the wholesale dealer in a manufactory Heinrich Wilhelm Myuzer consisted at the beginning of the XX century the director of board of the Oranienbaum association of the sawing plants and also held posts of the Italian consul general and companion chairman of the Russian-Italian chamber of commerce; it stayed as the vice-chairman of the German charity in Peterburge26. Other businessman, the hereditary honourable citizen Karl Karlovic Ge-rike who was born in family of the native of Germany Karl Friedrich Gerike supported the alabaster plant in St. Petersburg and also consisted the Brazilian vice consul and the honorary member of the Almshouse and craft formation of troubles -

ny children in St. Petersburg. It was married to the daughter of the French dealer Pierre (Pyotr) of Lucian Dupin. Let's notice that Dyupena used by the beginning of the XX century broad popularity in St. Petersburg. P.L. Dupin possessed perfumery shop on Gogol St., 18. In 1902 he bought for 30 thousand rubles parfyu - the measured and hairdresser's institution "Charles" on Big Sea, 14, earlier belonging to the French subject Charles Altgofer (the last owned shop since 1885). By 1917 his children — the son Alexander (river in 1898) and the daughter

were P.L. Dupin's successors

Polina27.

The economic and socio-political crisis into which the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century plunged, did not cause serious changes in structure of foreign business in St. Petersburg. The available data on 158 foreigners who were engaged on the eve of World War I in large individual business activity in St. Petersburg demonstrated that 60 people (38%) acquired the corresponding certificates during the period, most difficult for business operations — 1901-1910. About the same persons were joined on a business field before 1901, and by 23% — in 19111913 years. The total number of foreign citizens as a part of large St. Petersburg industrialists and dealers made in 1913 (together with co-owners and also members of full associations and associations on belief) 329 chelovek28. The most considerable group was still made by Germans — 156 people (from them 94 were engaged in individual business activity), from whom citizens of Germany and Prussia were distinguished on number (approximately on 60 people). The French (41 people), the third — British (37 people) remained the second most important group. The group of citizens of Austria-Hungary kept a tendency to increase: from 1905 for 1913 their number increased from 23 up to 36 people.

The fifth place citizens of Switzerland (though with some reduction of their number — from 34 to 25) strongly held, the sixth and seventh (about 10 people) — citizens of the Netherlands and Sweden. The most noticeable remained participation of foreigners in trade in wine (24 persons), in trade and intermediary activity (20 people), in classes share operations, in trade in clothes (on 14 people were engaged in it in St. Petersburg) and in the maintenance of technical offices (12 people).

On the available data on the residence, the most part of foreign businessmen (52.8%) lived in a zone of administrative, cultural and shopping center of St. Petersburg outlined by borders of the Admiralty, Vasilyevsky, Kazan and Spassky parts of the city. Here the commercial institutions belonging to them were concentrated. Among foreign subject 10.3% (34 people) women made: from them 12 were citizens of Germany, 9 — France, 7 — Great Britain, 3 — Switzerland, on one were representatives of Prussia, the Netherlands and the USA. Forms of business activity of women were most often connected with trade activity: on 4 women were in the list of owners of perfumery shops and clothing stores, on 3 — "fashionable", haberdashery and confectionery institutions, on 2 — hairdressing salons, pharmacies and shops of musical instruments. Besides, there were owners of chocolate factory, technical office, shop of construction goods, etc.; 5 women supported trading houses.

At the beginning of the XX century the powerful position of foreign citizens (or their descendants) as a part of boards of the St. Petersburg industrial companies was confirmed by data on members of council of the St. Petersburg society of manufacturers and manufacturers. From 72 people (from 1906 for 1914) 47 persons represented the German, French, English and Swedish enterprise circles Peter -

burga29. In the years of pre-war economic recovery the foreigners made 14.6% of all owners of trading houses in St. Petersburg (for Moscow this rate was 9.2%) 30. Their most part (64.9%) supported full associations, a third — general partnership. As a part of the first there were ten persons which had partners of the Russian citizens while in associations on belief there was only one foreigner who was engaged in business operations together with the Russian entrepreneur. In 1913 by the number of associations on belief (seven) in St. Petersburg the firms supporting shops selling clothes were in the lead; among full associations (three) — selling manufactory goods.

On the eve of World War I the foreigners made very noticeable group as a part of owners of trading houses and the joint-stock and share companies in St. Petersburg. For example, by the beginning of 1914 301 shares of commerce and industry association English Shop belonged to Great Britain citizens, 44 — Russian and 24 — French; two directors and two candidates in board were British, one director — russkiy31. For the Treugolnik company the distribution was the following: 68,280 shares belonged to the Russian citizens, 30,768 — German, 23,006 — Netherlands, 22,830 — Swiss, 8000 — French; here two board members were the Russian citizens, one — German and one — shveytsarskim32. At general meeting of shareholders of society "Langezippen" on May 30, 1914 it is recorded: from 1176 actions of the first release (with a nominal value of 1 thousand rubles) 840 belonged to the German citizens, 386 — Russian; in board one director was the German citizen, two — the Russian citizens. In turn at a meeting of shareholders of society of the Russian accumulator plants Tudor on April 30, 1914 from the submitted 3833 stocks 2666 belonged to the German citizens,

1084 — to the "third" persons (unknown citizenship), 73 — the Russian citizen; from seven directors — five were the German citizens. At a meeting of shareholders of the Northern mechanical and boiler plant in Petrograd on May 20, 1914 from 20,000 stocks 19,365 belonged to the German citizens (including 17,930 — to Gustav Tilmans) 33.

Foreign investments played a paramount role in creation of a number of industries which existence was a necessary condition of industrialization of the country: mining and metallurgical, machine-building, electrotechnical, chemical. The share of the foreign capital in investments in the joint-stock enterprises operating in the industrial sphere reached &/g. At the same time the dividends received by foreign shareholders in the most part were not taken out from the country, and

34 t

were reinvested in production. Such orientation of business operations was characteristic, for example, of activity of commerce of the adviser and the citizen of Prussia Richard Lvovich (Lyudvigovicha) Langezipen (1845-?), one of initiators of production in Russia devices for measurement of pressure of liquid and gas (manometers). At the beginning of the XX century it possessed the reinforcing plant on Kamennoostrovsky Ave., 9-11 (at 120 workers). The firm specialized in production of steam-engines and coppers, pumps, driving belts, pipes, various measuring and calculating devices (including diving, locomotive, hydraulic, etc.) 35. On the eve of World War I, numbering workers over 800 people, here annually was issued products on 1.5 million

rub 36.

Among the persons entering into the management of the largest industrial companies and banks in St. Petersburg we will mark out also citizens of France — A. Fretera, the director of the St. Petersburg society of electric constructions and the responsible agent of the Belgian Society of electric lighting in Pe-

a terburga and the director of French Credit bank I. Lost (board member of the St. Petersburg private commercial bank), the Belgian citizen — the director of the Belgian Bank of public deposits L. Meus (board member of the Oranienbaum electric road, Stroitel joint-stock company and St. Petersburg construction society), the German citizens — the director of Deutsche Bank E. Geyneman and the director of the German AEG concern K. Zander (board members of Society of electric lighting of 1886), citizens of Great Britain R. Boulton and lord Ch.O. Balfur (holding, respectively, posts of the board member and member of council of Russian-English bank in St. Petersburg), the Swiss citizens A. Wiland and E.E. Valkh (board members of Society of electric lighting of 1886) 37. In 1913 the great interest of the St. Petersburg press was attracted by news of creation of the Belgian anonymous Society St. Petersburg suburban tramvayev38. The purpose of activity of the company was construction of network of tram ways in the territory of Krestovsky Island, the Old and New village, the Vyborg part and some other the districts of St. Petersburg. However the beginning of war interrupted the begun works.

The mentioned joint-stock company of electric lighting of 1886 was leading company in Russia on electricity generation created at the initiative of the German industrialists. Heads of firm "Siemens and Galsk" which authority was some kind of confirmation of stability and prospects of activity obshchestva39 stood at the origins of its creation. The company founded with the capital in 6,000,000 rub opened power plant in Moscow in 1897 (concession on illumination of Moscow acted for 1945) and in Lodz (for 1949), in 1898 — in St. Petersburg, on Obvodny Canal Emb., 76 (with the relevant right on lighting of the city for 1937). At the beginning of the 1900th years the society owned in St. Petersburg

network of underground cables of the general long 107 versts; at power plant more than 100 workers worked. By 1913 the authorized capital of society grew to 40 million rubles (62,000 — ordinary and 18,000 — preference shares on 500 rub), the balance was 64,416,610 rub, a dividend — 11% for exclusive and 8% for the common stock.

To the beginning of World War I there is a partial restriction of the rights of all foreigners who were in the territory of the empire and also almost full deprivation of the rights of foreigners — citizens of the states which are at war with Russia (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey). Legal status of foreigners including businessmen, was defined by a number of the decrees relating to the extraordinary legislation. In 1915 the citizens of the "hostile" states were deprived of the right of possession and acquisition in the property of real estate in Russia and also were not allowed to occupation of responsible positions in boards and agencies of joint-stock companies and joint-stock companies. The Russian government undertook powers to liquidate the trade and industrial enterprises belonging to citizens enemy stran40. At the same time by the available calculations, from 611 joint-stock companies in which participation of the German and Austrian capital was to a degree revealed only 96 societies were subject to elimination. From among the last 62 societies managed to avoid closing, 19 enterprises changed hands. From the total number of the liquidated companies 23 — industrial and 7 — trade, i.e. finally this quantity appeared neznachitelnym41.

In this sense the position of the authorities in relation to Zinger joint-stock company (subsidiary of the American manufactory company Zinger founded in 1851 in New York) looked rather characteristic. At the beginning of the 1910th years more than 500 thousand sewing were implemented by society in Russia

cars; the number of workers at the plant in Podolsk was more than 5,000. In Russia in possession of firm there were more than 3 thousand shops, including in St. Petersburg to the addresses: Nevsky, 21 and 28, Voznesensky, 21, Gorokhovaya, 44, Liteyny, 46, Bolshoy Ave. of Petrograskaya Storona, 29, Country, 10, 7 Line of Vasilyevsky island, 30, Sadovaya, 89, Ligovskaya, 178, Suvorovsky, 20, Sampsoniyevsky, 16, Bolshoy Ave. of Vasilyevsky island, 91, Zabalkansky, 91, Kamennoostrovsky, 54, Izmaylovsky, 22. Were in board of the joint-stock company: Great Britain subject Douglas Alexander (he possessed 5803 actions from total 30,000), two U.S. citizens — Franklin Park (4303 actions) and Walter Dixon (103 actions), the German subject Albert Flore (103 actions) and Russian given — the German, the hereditary honourable citizen Heinrich Bertling (3 actions). Among the largest shareholders also Great Britain subject V.D. Mattyus (1700 actions), citizens of the USA V.S. Cherch (1500 actions) and F.G. Bourne (1400 actions) 42 appeared.

In spite of the fact that the German citizens had only 1/3 stocks "Zingera", the authorities took drastic measures in relation to this society. On July 6, 1915 upon the demand of department of counterintelligence at the headquarters of the commander of the 6th army the search in capital office of the Zinger company (Nevsky Ave., 28) and in 25 brand stores in St. Petersburg was conducted. The managing director of office Oscar Oskarovich Kelpin (the Latvian) and all managers of shops was arrested; however, nothing "suspicious" to find not udalos43. Actions of counterspies caused negative reaction from eminent politichesy and public figures, including the ambassador of the USA, in a categorical form who demanded "cancellation of the measures taken

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military authority". As a result of it at a meeting of Council of ministers on September 18, 1915 it was recognized "as sufficient to be limited in the relation ozna-

ceremonious firm acceptance of a preventive measure, by appointment in all main offices of the company the governor -

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stvenny inspectors".

What there were indicators of participation of foreign businessmen in business life of St. Petersburg in military years? In 1915 the number of the foreign citizens who were engaged in individual business activity in St. Petersburg by the highest categories was 86 people (in comparison with 1913 having decreased by 57.5%). The number of owners of trading houses was at the same time laid off (by 31.6%) and the former number of co-owners private predpriyatiy46 (remained at total in 177 people). As one would expect, during the period from 1913 to 1915 the number of natives of Germany sharply decreased — from 156 to 40 people (by 74.4%). In particular, for 1915 chose trade certificates only of 28 citizens of Germany (from them torogovy houses were headed by 21 people) and 8 — Prussia. There were also two natives of Saxony and on one of Bavaria and Hamburg. In St. Petersburg there were also 8 businessmen and?

Hansen Klara
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