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Analytical editions of the CIA as instrument of information support of the American foreign policy process: main stages of evolution



UDK 327.84 Sergey Valeryevich Starkin

candidate of political sciences, associate professor of the international relations of the Nizhny Novgorod research university of N.I. Lobachevsky starkinserge@mail.ru

ANALYTICAL EDITIONS of the CIA AS INSTRUMENT of INFORMATION SUPPORT of the AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY PROCESS: MAIN STAGES of EVOLUTION

Starkin Sergey Valerievich

PhD of Political Sciences, associate professor of the chair of international relations, Nizhny Novgorod Research University starkinserge@mail.ru

CIA ANALYTICAL PUBLICATIONS AS THE TOOL FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY PROCESS: MAIN STAGES OF EVOLUTION

Summary:

Various aspects of formation of periodic publications of intelligence services of the USA, their role and the place in informing presidents and other representatives of the American establishment and also top trends of development are considered now.

U.S. intelligence community, prospecting analysis, information

analytical activity.

The summary:

There are considered various aspects of development of USA Intelligence Community periodical publication, their role and functions in providing information to the Presidents and other members of the American establishment, and also the major current trends.

USA Intelligence Community, intelligence analysis, analytical practices.

Information and analytical ensuring foreign policy process is one of the most important functions of intelligence services of many states. The U.S. intelligence community on the general background is allocated with giving to analytical work of a special role. Heads of U.S. intelligence believe that regular informing the highest figures making political decisions in some cases appears their fundamental obligation. In this regard, speaking about development information and analytical tasks of prospecting bodies of the USA, it is necessary expedient to stop briefly at the main stages of development of such specific printing editions which publications of the CIA for the president and his closest advisers are.

Alain Dulles, the famous head of the Central intelligence of the USA, remembers in the book that the need for the mechanism which would coordinate work on drawing up prospecting estimates that the president, the state secretary and the Minister of Defence could receive the uniform and reasonable analysis of the facts, the arising situations infringing on national interests was one of the main reasons for creation of the CIA. "War proved us need to so organize collecting prospecting information that we had it on those problems on which it is necessary, and in due time and that it was given a clear and clear shape. If it is not clear and unclear, it is useless" [1, page 155].

However in this context it is necessary to consider that the information collected by investigation or made by the analyst will not bring big benefit if does not fall into hands of "consumers", in this case - the persons making decisions. Updating of intelligence activities of this type assumes that informing needs to be carried out in due time, in an accurate and clear form that prospecting data easily could be connected with that political problem with which development politikoformiruyushchy circles deal at present.

In this regard the figures developing policy and obtaining similar prospecting information in the form of periodically issued prospecting bulletins (or in the form of the separate report if importance of information demands special approach) are warned that they did not make decisions on the basis of "crude" prospecting material.

In these bulletins, daily and weekly, the important events which took place around the world for last days and even hours are summarized. They contain the estimates given from -

the governor of information, or the office of the director of the national intelligence after consultation with representatives of prospecting departments.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was not the first organization which provided the president with the daily reports containing prospecting information after World War II: the key reference point lies in this sphere on the account of the Central Prospecting Group (CPG). In several days after creation of CRG, in January, 1946, the President Mr. Truman asked to collect daily for it all important prospecting information for further use [2, river 81].

The Department of the central messages consisting of civil servants and also officers of army and fleet [3, river 88] became division of CRG on preparation of these materials. The first release of "the daily report" (Daily Summary) was issued on February 15, 1946, in two weeks after presidential inquiry and not without resistance from State Department which then began to prepare own digests and to send them to the president [4, river 82]. It should be noted that this practice continues and until now. Management of investigation and researches of State Department prepares the daily generalized reports for the Secretary of State and also the elected reader's audience in the White House and other ministries and departments of executive power.

At the same time Truman sharply rejected objections of the Secretary of State J. Birnes that comment on intelligence reports CRG and summarize information materials of other departments. Truman said that it is those materials which he needed and which investigation prepares for him [5, river 82].

Disputes over the matter came to the end with the oral agreement between the Secretary of State Birnes and the director of investigation that reconnaissance reports will contain only statements of the facts and will not give advice concerning implementation of foreign policy [6, river 202]. But in Daley Sammari there were also no other important categories of prospecting information, such as reports of a radioprospecting (COMINT), reviews of scientific and technical investigation, message of an agency and reports of the high-ranking military. Despite this, reconnaissance reports satisfied the president and were some of the first documents with which he began the working day [7, river 102]. Weekly reports which release was begun in June, 1946 were also sent to Truman [8, river 34-35, 41].

When in 1947 the CIA replaced CRG, Daley Sammari's publications were continued. No changes in a format, access to information and the sphere of a covering of interests were made. Two years later, Dulles's report which appeared on January 1, 1949 criticized the current intelligence reports of the CIA for absence in them real reconnaissance information which were no more than rewritten bulletins of State Department. The so-called report of Dulles - Correa - Dzhekson was made by the group of prospecting researches which is officially created by Council for the national intelligence on January 8, 1948. As this group assessment of the changes which happened in work of U.S. intelligence after the end of war entered, however many government departments refused to cooperate with it. In this regard, work of group was limited to a research of the internal processes happening in the CIA. Alain Dulles, future director of the central investigation and the brother of the Secretary of State John F. Dulles, was a chairman. Mathias Correa is the prosecutor of New York, at the Minister of Defence D. Forrestale headed the Navy of the USA, and was involved in process of inspection of the offers concerning the organization of the central investigation after war. William Dzhekson was a member of the group according to the order of the minister D. Forrestal and in 1950 was appointed the deputy director of the CIA [9, river 206].

The third director of investigation admiral R.H. Hillenkoeter insisted on need of a format of daily and weekly reconnaissance reports as publications of a specific type for the president, specifying that only the CIA possesses necessary tools and adequate methods for this work.

In November, 1950 R. Smith was appointed the head of the created analytical division of the CIA on which responsibility for the publication of daily reports was conferred. Smith reduced the number of staff of the division, tried to cancel the edition of weeklies and to concentrate on daily reports [10, river 344]. There was, however, an internal concern that reconnaissance reports did not satisfy the president, first of all because of lack in them of the radio reports joining in the separate publication - the Situational report (Situation Summary) published for the report directly to the director of the central investigation [11, river 204].

In this regard the decision on Daley Sammari's replacement with the new publication (this time the weekly) and on February 28, 1951 the first release Current prospecting was made

the bulletin it was sent to the president. Truman's approval of the current format of the edition is known from his letter to the director of the central investigation, the general Walter Bedell Smith: "Dear Bedell! I read the Prospecting bulletin and is very delighted read" [12, river 205].

Responsibility for release of the Bulletin was conferred on the Management of the current investigation of the CIA (MORNINGS) which united the Management of Special Operations (MSO) function and the departments responsible for getting of prospecting information on communication channels [13, river 205].

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With addition to all this of divisions of COMINT organized more structured process. Publishing functions were provided to the Printing commission (Publication Board) consisting of heads of divisions of USO. The bulletin continued to use the format of conclusions and comments which got to it from the previous edition: comments intended rather for USO, than for the CIA, but in printing copies nothing indicated it [14, river 204].

The CIA founded the weekly publication appearing in parallel with the Bulletin again. Similar to the Bulletin it was the publication of the data arriving from all sources. The auxiliary confidential report — Daily Digest — finished this line of editions.

Eisenhower's administration also used analytical work of special services as information channel for the president. The general Andrew Gudpaster and the colonel John Eisenhower prepared the information package including information segments from all intelligence services which are the hotel Bulletin points. Then, in March, 1953, in the bowels of the CIA the discussion about need of the creation of the new daily which is based on all sources and intending only for the president erupted. However when the president stated the preference in obtaining reports on all departments for a possibility of their comparison and comparison, this idea was postponed [15, river 41].

Two years later the General inspector of the CIA offered that the current prospecting publications MORNINGS were coordinated with other intelligence services and more closely were guided by the interests of the president.

In March, 1957. The committee of advisers to the president on foreign intelligence after the inspectorate studying the reasons of insufficient information maintenance of events before Suez crisis made the proposal on creation of more coordinated edition on the current investigation. In six months the plan for replacement of the Bulletin with such coordinate edition was implemented. The new edition received the name "Bulletin of the Central Investigation"; preparation of contents was carried out under observation of the expert group consisting of representatives of all agencies. The expert group met daily, except for Saturday as on Sunday the releases were not. All prospecting structures agreed that the director of the CIA will reserve the right of the final decision concerning the contents, and Management will continue to act as the publisher. The director of the CIA Alain Dulles said to members of council of national security that the updated collection is created for providing the persons making decisions, timely and exact information. Differences of opinion of the agencies were noted in interlinear notes [16, river 204]. This change attracted great interest to the edition. The first release of the Bulletin was issued on January 14, 1958. Subsequently the Bulletin extended every morning in number of about 100 copies.

For daily publications of the CIA on the current investigation the events connected with a failure of invasion of the Cuban emigrants prepared by the CIA in the Gulf Kochinos in April, 1961 the President Kennedy are considered as a turning point stopped reading the Bulletin. His military adviser major general Chester V. Clifton and the director of Management of the central investigation Huntington Sheldon developed the plan for providing the president with information by means of creation of the new edition intended especially for interests and Kennedy's needs. The edition had to be delivered to a limited circle of people (the president and one or two of its the next the adviser) and to include the most sensitive information which on safety issues and conspiracy was not joining in the Bulletin. This collection was called "The presidential prospecting list" (PICKL) [17, river 66-69]. Kennedy approved the new daily log, and six months later after its first release (on June 17, 1961) it authorized to carry out its mailing also to the Minister of Defence and the Secretary of State [18, river 67]. With the advent of PICKL renamed into the Presidential daily report (ESP) in 1964, the Bulletin stopped being the presidential book, but its edition proceeded for informing the highest state figures of the country (at this time it totaled about 200 readers) [19, river 149]. Besides, the Bulletin was distributed to some ambassadors of the USA in the foreign states.

The specified division of publications remains and now. The presidential daily report had the least interesting story: each president had various

requirements to the collection and differently used information which is contained in it, however the satisfaction of needs and the interests of the specific U.S. President was the key concept of the collection always. In the ideology ESP returned to restricted reader's audience, as in the first days of existence of the Bulletin of the central investigation again.

Information support of the representatives of the highest political establishment who do not have access to ESP was perfect another. The bulletin existed seven more years after RYUK took the place in the Oval office. During this time, Management of the current investigation fought for definition of a role of the Bulletin and its concept. The scheme of changes was as a result developed. The question of inclusion of the sensitive classified information which is especially received by means of an agency and the latest technical means in the publication for constantly extending reader's audience was the basic problem facing even publishers of RYuK/ESP and also a question — how in one collection to place information for experts and other readers.

The decision which is finally accepted in 1968 at approval of other prospecting departments was in replacing the Bulletin with three alternative editions: "black", "red" and "white" books, each of which had the security classification and the reader's format. The "black" book which is containing information which is not included in the Bulletin, having about two dozen subscribers was the most closed. The "red" book corresponding to the Bulletin on coverage and a field of activity had about 140 recipients. And, at last, the schematical "white" book served the government officials who do not have access to especially classified information. Their number fluctuated around 1,000 people.

However this classification began to glitch already several years later and was connected with discontent with representatives of other intelligence services with quality and the invoice of the materials published by the CIA in the Bulletin. In 1974 the new edition - the National Prospecting Daily Log (NPDL) replaced the "black" book upon the demand of the director of the central investigation William Colby. Besides, he suggested to use a newspaper format for NRE that had to facilitate to readers fast search of the materials interesting them in comparison with the bukletny Bulletin format. The number of readers also increased from three dozens subscribers of the "black" book to 90 addressees. Besides, the version was developed for foreign devices which of paper version some materials were seized. Intention about that the daily log was interesting to both experts and other readers was realized. The version of the "red" book of the Bulletin was renamed into the National Prospecting Bulletin (NPB). Also the officials who were earlier receiving the "black" book, but did not get admission for reading new NRE were among his readers [20, river 206]. The first release appeared in June and reached approximately 300 consumers, mainly in the Ministry of Defence. 1976 was the most fruitful for the CIA - the relation of the congress and numerous publications reflected the changed attitude and emergence of interest of congressmen in activity of Management in the press. In April six committees of the congress began to receive NRE. Management used an opportunity to suspend the publication Bulletin and daily reports began to be sent to the congress. The format was also returned to the booklet.

Now ESP and NRE [21, rubles 206] remain mainly daily reports of the CIA though in the early nineties the economic daily log in addition appeared. No cardinal changes in a format for these years were made though the sensitivity of information messages was various, despite preservation of the highest level of privacy.

Heads of the U.S. intelligence community recognize that new technologies and need of optimum satisfaction of information needs of customers demand revision of the main concepts of the published information publications in the 21st century that becomes an imperative of work of all expert and analytical complex of U.S. intelligence [22].

References:

1. A. Dulles. Investigation art. M, 1992.
2. Darling Arthur B. The Central Intelligence Agency: As Instrument of Government, to 1950. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid.
6. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.

References (transliterated):

1. Dalles A. Iskusstvo razvedki. M., 1992.
2. Darling Arthur B. The Central Intelligence Agency: As Instrument of Government, to 1950. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid.
6. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
7. Ibid.

S. Smith R. Jack. The Unknown CIA. Washington: Per-gamon-Brassey&s International Defense Publishers, Inc., 19S9.

9. Ibid.
10. Darling Arthur B. The Central Intelligence Agency: As Instrument of Government, to 1950. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
11. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Helgerson John L. Getting to Know the President: CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates 1952-1992. Central Intelligence Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1995.
16. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
17. Helgerson John L. Getting to Know the President: CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates 1952-1992. Central Intelligence Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1995.
1S. Ibid.
19. Smith R. Jack. The Unknown CIA. Washington: Per-gamon-Brassey&s International Defense Publishers, Inc., 19S9.
20. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
21. Ibid.
22. Official site of the CIA of the USA. URL: //https://www.cia.gov/offices-of-cia/intelligence-analysis/products.html
7. Ibid.
8. Smith R. Jack. The Unknown CIA. Washington: Per-gamon-Brassey&s International Defense Publishers, Inc., 19S9.
9. Ibid.
10. Darling Arthur B. The Central Intelligence Agency: As Instrument of Government, to 1950. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
11. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Helgerson John L. Getting to Know the President: CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates 1952-1992. Central Intelligence Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1995.
16. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
17. Helgerson John L. Getting to Know the President: CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates 1952-1992. Central Intelligence Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1995.
1S. Ibid.
19. Smith R. Jack. The Unknown CIA. Washington: Per-gamon-Brassey&s International Defense Publishers, Inc., 19S9.
20. Smith Michael D. CIA Publications: Serving the President with Daily Intelligence//International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 1999. Vol. 12, No. 2.
21. Ibid.
22. Official site of CSI USA. URL: //https://www.cia.gov/offices-of-cia/intelligence-analysis/products.html
Walter Williams
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