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MOTIVES AND the NATURE of EMIGRATORY PROCESSES IN the NORTHWEST CAUCASUS at the end of 1820 - To the MIDDLE of the 1860th years



UDK 94 (470+571)

MOTIVES AND the NATURE of EMIGRATORY PROCESSES IN the NORTHWEST CAUCASUS at the end of 1820 - the MIDDLE of the 1860th years

© 2009 D.V. Zhilyaev

Armavir state Armavir State Pedagogical

pedagogical university, University,

R. Luxemburg St., 159, Armavir, 352901, R. Luksemburg St., 159, Armavir, 352901,

main@agpi. itech. ru main@agpi. itech. ru

One of the most debatable problems of modern Caucasus studies - resettlement of the people of the Northwest Caucasus abroad at the end of 1820 - the middle of the 1860th is considered. The periodization of process of mountain emigration is offered, political, social and economic and psychological factors of influence are analyzed, definition of its main reason is given, the essence and distinctive features of various periods of emigration reveal.

The article is devoted to one of the most debatable problems in the development of science about Caucasus - it is a problem of migration of the peoples of the Northern Caucasus abroad in the period from the end of1820&s till the middle of1860&s. The author proposes the division into periods of the process of migration of the peoples of the Caucasus and examines the political, social and economic and psychological factors influenced on that process. The author also defines the causes of the migration exposing the main point and the distinguishing features of different periods of migration.

The modern historiography of the mountain resettlement movement reflects all complexity and discrepancy of conglomerate of the phenomena which makes an essence of this historical process. The migrations of the people of the North Caucasus happening over the 19th century comprise not only their leaving abroad, but also internal movements and also resettlement on the territory controlled by the Russian Empire. Besides, migration processes are inseparably linked with changes of a demographic situation, genesis of ethno-confessional image of the region, social and economic and other factors. It is possible to understand in the history of this phenomenon only after the careful analysis of its separate structural elements and their interconnection. Studying process of mountain emigration, it is necessary to realize it as a part of the general resettlement movement, to consider all previous and subsequent events, the external and internal influencing factors and in this context to estimate its relationships of cause and effect.

Resettlement of mountaineers of the Northwest Caucasus abroad happened during all long history of these people. The period of the end of 1820 - the middle of the 1860th is characterized, in our opinion, by those peculiar historical realities which affected essence of the happening migration processes. Its beginning is connected with final inclusion of territories of Kuban and Black Sea Coast in structure of the Russian Empire and the international recognition of the population of the region - citizens of Russia (The Adrianople peace treaty, 1829). From this point going abroad officially are considered as emigrants. The end of the allocated period is connected with completion of the actual accession

Northwest Caucasus. 1830-1864 - time of military operations in a number of the centers of the North Caucasus. It generated a special historical situation during which there is a number of fatal changes in life of the North Caucasian people. The emigratory processes proceeding during this period are naturally connected with distribution of the Russian power in the region, the international situation and internal changes in local societies. Increase in scales of resettlement during the end of the Caucasian war marked aggravation of earlier existing contradictions and emergence new, progressively overcome in borders of Russia.

The chronological interval of time considered by us is divided into three periods:

>- domassovy emigration of the end of the 1820th of-1856 g;

>- rather mass emigration - - is divided 1857-1861 into two stages: 1857-1859 and 1859-1861;

>- mass emigration of 1862 - the middle of the 1860th

All specified periods and stages have the features connected first of all with those factors which in any given interval of time most predetermined character and motives of migration processes of the population of the Northwest Caucasus.

A set of ways of formation of the North Caucasian communities, in particular in the territory of the Ottoman Empire (a plenoprodavstvo, a military nayemnichestvo, a pilgrimage to the holy sites, receiving religious education, trade, an appointment with relatives, etc.), established and strengthened various connection of mountaineers with Turkey that considerably facilitated the "political" emigration proceeding in parallel, including mass resettlement of 1857-1865. Emigration for the "political" reasons - a concept

rather conditional, and process was predetermined by various motives, including psychological, religious, social and economic, etc.

Setting the task of studying "political" emigration, it is necessary to decide on essence of this historical phenomenon first of all. In our opinion, the main reason for "political" migrations of mountaineers of the North Caucasus including mass leaving in 1859-1865, there was rather free choice of protection (citizenship) caused by external and internal factors that promoted not only emigrations, but also immigrations, i.e. to an entry in Russia.

The course of historical events many times put need of the choice of the power before the North Caucasian people that was shown first of all in population shifts. The similar view on mountain emigration already found reflection in a modern historiography [1], however more or less thorough researches on this subject so far, unfortunately, do not exist.

In dissertation work of A.T. Kerashev the problem of transition of mountaineers under the Russian protection is developed. This historical process was defined by genesis of traditional institute of patronage, "roots of which go to a primitive era and are connected with archaic customs of a kunachestvo and hospitality" [2, page 10]. In our opinion, not only resettlement of mountaineers on the plain, under protection of the Russian strengthenings was search result of protection, there was also the return movement within which we will consider emigration and resettlement of mountaineers on uncontrollable the Russian authorities of the territory. Thus, process of migration was defined by process of the choice of protection (citizenship).

Features of social and economic and political system of most mountain societies, specifics of mountain mentality resulted in certain difficulties in mutual understanding between them and the state cartridge. As show the facts, the search of the patron acting through the Russian Empire which was expressed in resettlement on the plain to linear strengthenings most often had tactical character. From here and acceptance of infinite number of constantly violated oaths in which the Russian and mountain sides put absolutely different sense [3]. If for mountaineers the oath is a way to get the strong ally patron, then for the Russian government is first of all the legal document from which the legal status of nationality (citizenship) with all rights and duties follows.

The lack of strong settled life led to continuous relocations of mountain auls that served "as the most serious factor of counteraction to strengthening... Russian administration" [4, page 8]. Such situation did not suit the Russian authorities. The instability in the relations with "peace" mountaineers and at the same time a radical aggressive spirit of "party of war" was done open by the southern boundaries of the Russian state. The aspiration of the tsarist government to liquidate a restless and dangerous enclave independent or

poorly controlled tribes became the main reason for the Caucasian war.

The migration processes determined by protection search depended also on a set of other moments which had various value depending on time and conditions. It is possible to distinguish from them internal (social and economic relationship between various population groups, the political intertribal and intra breeding relations, etc.) and external factors (international situation, the Caucasian war). Only then there are clear motives of the choice of the power and finally population shift.

Addressing chronology of migration processes, it should be noted that presence and domination of the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean khanate in the region long time predetermined the aspiration of some part of the North Caucasian people (generally Turkic-speaking Nogais) to find the patron in their person. It was expressed mainly in revenues to military service in troops of the khan and the sultan.

As for the Russian Empire, its boundaries approach borders of resettlement of the mountain people only in the 18th century, and exactly from now on there is possible a resettlement under protection of strengthenings and the introduction in the Russian citizenship. A.T. Kerashev notes that "in the 18th century - the head of the 60th of the 19th century the institute of protection, having stopped being the internal phenomenon of the Adyghe society, turned into legal and ideological justification of mass transitions of mountaineers of Circassia and Kabarda in borders of Russia" [2, page 11]. In the Northwest Caucasus this time comes after 1783

At a research of migration processes in the North Caucasus during the Caucasian war (1830-1864) it is necessary to remember that accession of this region to Russia went various ways, and war - only one of them. The resettlement policy of the tsarist government never carried the nature of deportations by the national or religious principle. The ideas of peaceful interaction with the mountain people and search of alternative ways of involvement of mountaineers on the party were reflected in a number of government measures. At the same time, the Caucasian war, certainly, defined the rigid nature of migration policy of the Russian Empire that became especially obvious during its final stage in the Northwest Caucasus in 18591864. The Russian migration policy influenced the migration processes determined by the choice of the power. The actions directed to stimulation of an entry of the Caucasian mountaineers in Russia were its main component during the Caucasian war. Pursuing policy of promotion of resettlement to Russia, beginning from 18th century the tsarist government pursued several aims from which are distinguished desire with forces of mountaineers to fill "gaps" in defensive lines, need of economic development of edge, an opportunity to provide control over the mountain people that guaranteed observance of law and order and stabilized an interethnic situation, etc.

Transitions of the North Caucasian people were caused by a number of the reasons, among which and internal

the social and economic relations, both political confrontation, and aspiration to secure itself against attacks of neighbors [5-7]. Interesting data, the Adyghe who were rather leaving to Russia, A.T. Kerashev brings in the work. From 1792 to 1864 he recorded 1266 cases of an entry in Russia in which 8530 people took part. Collective transitions of Adyghe whom A.T. Kerashev counted 125 (only 4520 people) [2] are of the main interest. As a rule, motives of collective transitions to the Russian side are connected with protection search. Examples of an exit of mountaineers of the North Caucasus are enough to draw conclusions that search by mountaineers of protection and citizenship was not the one-stage act, but the historical phenomenon caused, in particular, by activity and a positive role of the Russian Empire in the region. In a modern historiography, studying this direction is actively developed within the theory of the "rossiyskost" offered by school of sciences of V.B. Vinogradov [8].

The economic component of resettlement was formed by need of barter which compensated the products lacking mountaineers (bread, salt and so forth) and manufactory goods and also the shortage of lands and difficult development of economy in the mountain area at continuous threat of attacks. The tsarist government used needs of mountaineers for some types of goods (especially in salt) with the purpose to attract immigrants that yielded the results [5].

The political factor of rapprochement of Russia with the people of the North Caucasus which was expressed including in an entry of the mountain people in Russia consisted as in initial orientation of some part of mountaineers to Russia, and in gradual understanding of opportunities of the empire for protection of safety of mountain tribes and the feudal privileges of a top. The positive role of arrival of the Russian power to the Caucasus, certainly, consisted in power providing an order in the region that was provided "with a guarantee not only safety of the Russian borders, but also the peace neighbourhood of various mountain people" [4, page 17].

The social structure of societies of the North Caucasus caused the aspiration of some part of the population to look for higher status as the citizen of the Russian state. It concerns first of all dependent peasants and also captives-yasyryam. On the other hand, the Russian authorities supported the local feudal nobility loyal to Russia. Mountain feudal lords for strengthening of the sovereign rights used it.

Also development of the idea about resettlement to the Russian Empire as about expression of aspiration of voluntary entry into the structure of the state can be very interesting. Having analyzed historical experience of formation of the state unity of Russia and the North Caucasus, V.A. Matveev drew a conclusion that "voluntary entry of a number of native societies into structure of the empire was not less mass, than the movement of those who resisted to it" [9, page 18]. If to take into account a difficult geopolitical situation in the Caucasus and also limited opportunities of Russia on

to development of the region and ensuring constant military presence, that resettlement in borders of the Russian Empire is represented attempt to achieve protection of the Russian state by direct transition to its territory. Especially obvious this fact becomes in the 18th century

The first period of mountain emigration - the end of the 1820th of-1856 g was not mass and affected generally Nogais, Kabardians and Abkhazians. The migration waves occurring during this period are connected with the foreign policy and internal political events aggravating need of self-determination and choice of the power. Rather numerous emigration of some North Caucasian people happened after the end of Russian-Ottoman war of 1828-1829 and signing of the Adrianople peace treaty. Strengthening of presence of Russia in the region leads to the fact that the part of the nobility dissatisfied with infringement of the sovereign rights and suppression of practice of a plenoprodavstvo headed for resettlement to Turkey, entraining the citizens.

After the end of the Crimean war among a certain part of the people of the North Caucasus there is an aspiration to resettlement abroad again. There is the next wave of emigration. It is difficult not to notice a special role which was played by the Crimean war (1853-1856) in events in the Caucasus. First of all she says in the developed political and international situation: Port once again loses fight for geopolitical influence in the Caucasus, Russia for a while loses the military Black Sea Fleet and directs all the forces to the fastest pacification of the North Caucasus. Strengthening of positions of St. Petersburg in Black Sea Coast in the conditions of officially made peace makes active not military, "informal" methods of fight of the European countries for influence in the region, to be exact, against influence of Russia. Among them the main role is played by diplomatic methods of fight, information war - "public relations" and misinformation in the western press, smuggling of weapon, ammunition and people.

In three years after the end of the Crimean war Shamil is taken prisoner, and through five the Caucasian war lasting not one decade ended. Such sequence of historical events is not casual. In many respects resolute actions of Russia and speeding up of process of accession of the North Caucasian regions is explained by the fact that the destabilizatsionny situation existing in the region, lack of reliable southern borders had extremely negative effect on defense capability of the country. From the moment of the end of the Crimean war and till 1877 Russia lives in constant expectation of new war with Turkey and its European allies. In many respects concentration is explained the Northwest Caucasus of huge military force even by it after the Caucasian war and the mountain people in the main weight was ended either emigrated, or moved on the plane. Besides, the subject of the Russian rights for the Caucasian territories in the West was actively discussed, and the situation around this question was in every possible way heated. Not to allow a new round of opposition, it was necessary to be approved as soon as possible strongly in the Caucasus.

The stage of mountain emigration of 1857-1859 directly is associated with the historical phenomenon of a pilgrimage. The facts of similar travel abroad are not single at all and their study gives interesting material for understanding of the historical processes happening at this time in the region [10]. At a modern historiography of emigration of North Caucasians there is an opinion that the tsarist government covered emigration of mountaineers with a plausible excuse of a religious practice. "Characteristic of the resettlement movement of the first stage (it is meant peresele-niye1859 - D.Zh.) was the fact that it often took place under the slogan & #34; commission of a hajj in Mekku". Immigrants were afraid that they otherwise will not give them the exit visa" [11, page 86].

Some radical historians write about it so: "The fact that resettlement of mountaineers went to Turkey under the flag of sending on & #34 was characteristic; богомолье"... This measure was developed by tsar's authorities with the purpose, first, to hide the valid intentions in front of Europe and to show the non-participation in this business, and, secondly, in the roundabout way to prevent some counteraction from Turkey." [12, page 5; 13]. There is an impression that the pilgrimage ceremony which had huge cultural and moral value for Muslims was only the secret weapon developed in the middle of the 19th century by the Russian government to expel the mountain population from home grounds.

Actually, studying the history of the pilgrim movement existing, as well as emigration, and before the Caucasian war, we see process of "development" of a religious pilgrimage into resettlement for political motives. In official and informal correspondence leaving, now with families and property the mountaineers all are also called as "pilgrims", and this term is used rather by inertia, than from desire to hide really happening processes from the public. On March 12, 1861 the commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army "desired to resolve: from now on to give out to such persons (to the mountaineers asking for Mecca. - DZhZh) not leave annual passes and to fire them directly on resettlement to Turkey" [7, page 61]. From this point mountain emigrants are called not as pilgrims, but immigrants. However, worship of a coffin of the prophet Muhammad continues also during mass emigration in the next years.

It should be noted that the pilgrimage of the North Caucasian people to Mecca long time served as one of formal justifications of voluntary mountain emigration. After sharp increase in 1857 in number of persons interested to go abroad a religious practice of worship of the prophet Magomet's coffin is still the main public cause for departure to Turkey. At the same time the analysis of the Russian policy for pilgrims allows to claim that tsar's authorities whenever possible limited the pilgrim movement, annually establishing quotas for the number of mountaineers who were allowed to go abroad for this purpose. Desire of Russia to protect mountain tribes from the intercourses with Porta who was actively supporting the anti-Russian movement in the North Caucasus was the main reason for similar policy. Since submission to the Russian management of a part of the people of the North Caucasus their departure abroad was controlled by local authorities which were guided by the instructions arriving from above. It is possible to allocate several periods when the pilgrimage was "under a ban": 1822-1834, 1853-1856. However, even in the years of free commission of a hajj (1835-1852, 1857-1859) the Russian government tried to constrain the pilgrim movement various indirect measures (permission of community, need of the guarantee, payment of all duties forward for several years, the limited number of international passports, etc.).

The first stage of mountain rather mass emigration had mainly voluntary religiouspolitical nature. In spite of the fact that resettlement of 1857-1859 was not numerous, mass emigration begins at this particular time.

After the end of the Crimean war, increasing the presence in the North Caucasian region and rates of its development, Russia eventually approached final mastering by it. For the people of the North Caucasus that historical moment when a choice of citizenship had to be made finally and irrevocably came. More or less conscious need, inevitability of this choice and its implementation is the main reason for mass emigration of mountaineers.

That internal political situation during which mass emigration begins at first sight is paradoxical. The first splash in a makhadzhirstvo in the Caucasus (1859-1861) happened not at the time of escalation of power pressure from Russia, and opposite, in the conditions of a relative "peace respite". Traditional communication in a historiography between the beginning of mass emigration and the end of the Caucasian war in the Northeast Caucasus in August, 1859 is obviously not well-founded as it is obvious that moods to resettlement arose in 1857, and at the end of 1858 the first applications on dismissal already came to Mecca with families. All this once again confirms: the reasons of resettlement lie in the developed internal political situation after the end of the Crimean war and by its results. In the basis mass leaving of mountaineers abroad in 1857-1861 is a consequence of voluntarily made choice.

Having attentively studied documentary materials and also works of experts, it is possible to draw a conclusion that emigrants of 1857-1861 are mainly those North Caucasian people which lived in territories controlled by the Russian Empire and on the whole already become a citizen - Nogais, Kabardians, Abazins. In the context of resettlement of mountaineers of the Caucasus it is necessary to consider and in parallel the proceeding emigration of the Tatar population of the Crimean peninsula. The fact that in the majority the so-called peace mountaineers who were not taking active part in the Caucasian war abroad left once again proves that there is no direct dependence between military operations and mountain emigration. Among

the factors affecting character and the direction of migration processes at this time it is necessary to allocate internal factors especially: social and psychological, religious, social and economic and political.

Since 1861 those people of the North Caucasus which actively resisted to the aspiration of the Russian Empire to pacify the region and to finish development of this geopolitical space begin to be involved in emigratory process. From this point mountain emigration changes the character. During 1862-1865 the Russian policy becomes the major factor which influenced process of the choice of citizenship and mass emigration. The resettlement movement in 18631864 reaches the tragic apogee.

The period of mountain emigration of 1862-1865 differs from all previous history of resettlement first of all in the fact that the people of the Northwest Caucasus had to make the choice of the power in the conditions of the operation on "suppression" of the people living in the uncontrollable territory performed by the Russian Empire. For this reason during a specified period rigid, and sometimes and cruel power methods of accession of the Kuban lands and Black Sea Coast predetermined and directly caused main leaving of the most part of mountaineers abroad. At the same time not mass deportation of North Caucasians and, especially, not genocide of local tribes, but the fastest end of the Caucasian war, a pacification of the region and providing the southern border of the country were ultimate goals of policy of the Russian Empire. The mountain people of the Northwest Caucasus though were hostages of a situation, in the majority had an opportunity to make a conscious choice - to move to Turkey or on the Prikubansky plains specified by it the tsarist government.

At the same time, despite obvious features and the mass nature of mountain emigration of 1862-1865, we will emphasize that the nature of migration flows in the environment of the North Caucasian people of Kuban remained the same: the choice of political orientation, as well as earlier, became not only in favor of the Ottoman Empire, but also in favor of Russia. The last was expressed in resettlement on plains, to the places determined by the Russian command. The number of immigrants as it is authentically known, was much less than the number of emigrants that, however does not disprove the above-stated thesis.

Besides, the analysis of sources allows to draw a conclusion on heterogeneity of the resettlement movement of 1862-1864. The feature of emigration of mountaineers during this period was that one their part, tesnimy the Russian troops, stepped aside the Black Sea coast, and another - moved in the beginning on the Priku-bansky plane and, having lived some time there (on average 1-3 years), made the decision to be shipped outward. Presence of the second group of migrants once again testifies to the opportunity given to mountaineers to make a free choice and to define the future.

Assessing results and the consequences of the Caucasian war and mountain emigration, V.A. Matveev notes that resettlement of the people of the North Caucasus "belongs to

to number of the largest geopolitical failures of Russia. The country lost the potential compatriots capable to increase its state force and economic welfare" [9, page 15]. Is indisputable the fact that the Russian authorities were powerless against the broken-out resettlement movement, did not manage to stop mass mountain emigration, did not take for this purpose all due measures. The tsarism was interested in suppression of mountain resistance and the fastest end of the Caucasian war. The mountain resettlement which got approval and material support at the state level was for this purpose used. The aspiration to secure the southern boundaries of the Russian Empire was equitable to the national, vital interests of the country, however achievement of these purposes by similar methods reflected crisis state of the Russian statehood and weakness of a geopolitical position in the region.

Mass leaving of the mountain population to Turkey in 1862-1865 led to serious and in many respects to irreparable consequences. Especially shatteringly emigration affected tribes of Western Caucasus: Adyghe, Abazins, Ubykhs, Nogais and Abkhazians. The loss caused to demographic and cultural development of these people will hardly be able to be sometime filled. At the same time honoring of ancestors, grief on the dead and also many other things that makes genetic memory and the culture of the people, cannot be mixed with destructive desires to rewrite history to please to a momentary environment, to find guilty persons and to take vengeance on mythical enemies.

Literature

1. See, for example: Z.B. Kipkeeva. The Russian factor in migrations and resettlement of zakubansky auls of the 19th century (territory of modern Karachay-Cherkessia) / under the editorship of and with predisl. V.B. Vinogradova. Armavir; Stavropol, 2002. 32 pages; Yu.Yu. Klychnikov. The Russian policy in the North Caucasus (1827-1840). Pyatigorsk, 2002. 494 pages; V.A. Matveev. Russia and North Caucasus: historical features of formation of the state unity (the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century): avtoref. yew.... edging. east. sciences. Rostov N / D, 2005.
2. A.T. Kerashev. The Russian-Adyghe relations in the 18th century - the beginning of the 60th of the 19th century. (Transitions of Adyghe to Russia): avtoref. yew.... edging. east. sciences. M, 1987. 16 pages
3. See: V.B. Vinogradov. Essays of an ethnopolitical situation in the North Caucasus in 1783-1816 Krasnodar; Armavir, 2004. Page 32.
4. Z.B. Kipkeeva. Decree. soch.
5. RGVIA F. 13454. Op. 2. 562. L. 19.
6. In the same place. T. 14257. Op. 3. 404. L. 4.
7. Archive materials about the Caucasian war and eviction of Circassians (Adyghe) to Turkey. Part 2. Nalchik, 2003.
8. See, for example: The Rossiyskost in the history of the North Caucasus: nauch. sb. / under the editorship of V.B. Vinogradov. Armavir, 2002. 96 pages; V.B. Vinogradov. Russian North Caucasus: the facts, events, people / under the editorship of

S.L. Dudareva. Moscow; Armavir, 2006. 160 pages

9. V.A. Matveev. Decree. soch.
10. See, for example: Badayev S.-E. C. The Chechen muhajirun of the second half of the 19th century as a result of autocracy policy in the North Caucasus//the Scientific thought of the Caucasus. 1999. No. 4; Z.H. Ibragimova. Emigration of Chechens to Turkey (60-70 of the 19th century). M, 2000.
11. Documentary history of formation of the multinational state Russian: in 4 books by the Prince 1.

Russia and the North Caucasus in HUT-HGH of centuries / under a general edition of G.L. Bondarevsky and G.N. Kolbaya. M, 1998.

12. Z.H. Ibragimova. Decree. soch.
13. A.D. Panesh. Military operations in Circassia at the last stage of the Caucasian war and eviction of Adyghe//Information and analytical vestn. Issue 6.7. Maykop, 2003.

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