The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Medical faculty of the Yaroslavl university: cancelled fate (1919-1924)

23 V.N. Golovina. Decree. soch. Page 25.

24 In the same place. Page 321, 350.
25 In the same place. Page 94.
26 In the same place. Page 60-61.
27 In the same place. Page 361.
28 GATO. T. 1233. Op. 1. 2. L. 32.
29 In the same place. L. 32ob.
30 In the same place. L. 37-37ob.
31 In the same place. L. 37.
32 In the same place.
33 In the same place. L. 32ob.
34 In the same place. L. 37.
35 In the same place. L. 38.
36 In the same place. L. 37ob.
37 In the same place. L. 74-75.
38 In the same place. L. 37ob.
39 In the same place. L. 123-123ob.
40 In the same place. L. 146ob.-147.
41 In the same place. L. 149ob.
42 GATO. T. 1016. Op. 1. 45. L. 79.
43 In the same place. L. 90.
44 In the same place. L. 91-91ob.
45 In the same place. L. 54ob.

N.T. Eregina


In the first years of the Soviet power the number of higher educational institutions quickly grew. Only in 1918 in Russia 16 state universities appeared. One of them became Yaroslavl, transformed from Demidovsky legal lyceum. Its opening and activity in the city which did not recover from an anti-Bolshevist revolt of 1918 yet were accompanied by numerous difficulties. Nevertheless, after faculty of social and historical sciences (with economic, historical, legal and cooperative offices) one more was open - medical.

Work on its formation since December, 1918 there began the commission created according to the decision of council of the university. In the National commissariat of education of RSFSR into which maintaining after October, 1917 all turned

higher education institutions, the rector of the university prof. V.N. Shiryaev sent the detailed and volume list of the necessary equipment. The developed plan of creation of faculty made by the prof. I.O. Zubov assumed opening of 25 departments, museums, laboratories and 17 clinics which are placed in certain rooms.

Initially the housing department of the Yaroslavl council of working, soldier's and country deputies allocated to the university buildings quite good for those times - the former Theological seminary and former Ionofanovs-kogo of school (nowadays in them the Pedagogical university of K.D. Ushinsky is placed). It would seem, everything developed in the best way. However on January 16, 1919, in the middle of repair work, Yaroslavl GubChK disposed to provide university buildings for temporary placement of special summary regiment VChK1. All attempts of board of YarGU (the rector, the vice rector and deans of faculties entered it) to oppose this order, all addresses in a gubispolok, medical and sanitary department, registration control commission and even Narkompros were unsuccessful. The most part of audiences was zanyata2.

Preparatory work on opening of medical faculty stopped. "Within a month too, - it was said in the report of the university for 1918-1919, - the building of the University was some landmark point through which there passed various military units. The initial stage of formation of the Red Army why neither the due order, nor discipline among these parts was was an ego still. There was also no due respect for that higher educational institution to which walls these parts got accidentally as for them it was not prepared in due time more suitable place. During a number of weeks the University was disclosed by sounds of pipes, drums, shots and reminded itself rather military camp, than the peace center of education and culture" 3.

On February 15, 1919, after release of buildings, the commission created by the rector examined rooms. The statement which is drawn up by it is full of records about the scandalous insanitary situation broken and let on a furniture fire chamber (cases, tables, chairs). In rooms and on ladders mountains of garbage and sewage appeared. In the yard - the crowded refuse and garbage holes. All electric bulbs - are turned out and completely disappeared. A floor in the rooms occupied for a billeting, landings and bathrooms were trashed with a stake and urine. These terrifying insanitary conditions and also the stench extending on the building forced to suspend classes on historical office, as well as further works on the equipment medical fakulteta4.

they Renewed only in two months.

For full work of faculty first of all shots of teachers were required. For replacement of professorial and teaching positions at new departments the board of YarGU addressed on este-

stvenny and medical faculties of various universities. Persons interested to arrive to the city where after suppression of a revolt destroyed was a most part of housing stock, were not much. To some extent the situation was saved by a possibility of opening of departments in process of transition of students to the following courses.

All cargo of preparatory work - drawing up the estimate, curriculum, selection of teachers, the equipment of departments and laboratories - fell on the prof. I.O. Zubov working in Demidovsky lyceum before revolution. The doctor of medicine since 1903, the person of the broadest erudition till 1917 giving courses of criminal sociology and policy it was known for the works in the field of forensic medicine, psychiatry, neurology, medicine history. Since December, 1918 the prof. I.O. Zubov temporarily fulfilled the dean's duties, and in June, 1919 council of the university was unanimously elected the dean of medical faculty.

The first parcels with books, the laboratory equipment, tools, medical furniture began to arrive in Yaroslavl. Narkompros's board in 1919 allocated 3,245,778 rub for acquisition of all of the most necessary 5. However the holiday of the allocated credits was late therefore many made orders had to be cancelled. Because of full malfunction of plumbing and sanitary there were difficulties with repair of the allocated buildings. On September 1, 1919 at a meeting of council of the university the decision "was made to reconcile with need of the simplest equipment of audiences and offices for the fastest beginning of studies", planned for 1 noyabrya6.

The announced start date of classes came, however many professors and teachers still refused to go to Yaroslavl due to the lack of housing and the prospects of its receiving. Everything that the board of the university could provide - small rooms on the top floors of academic buildings. Besides in anticipation of winter a gubispolok, because of fuel crisis, refused to the university supply with firewood. Instead allocated a forest allotment - for development with forces of employees and students.

In completion of all troubles on October 24, 1919, in coordination with a gubis-half-lump, the chairman of Temporary board on accommodation of wounded made the order to board of the university "at 24 o'clock to free all rooms" in connection with their transfer under infirmaries of the military vedomstva7. All university was forced was placed in the building former Antipovs-koy of a gymnasium (nowadays - the anatomic building of the Yaroslavl medical academy). Those years it was not adapted for classes at all: basements are flooded, the sewerage did not work, furnaces smoked, but did not heat. Besides, students lost the hostel and the dining room, and employees and teachers were forced "to be condensed to the last degree and to live in the conditions excluding a possibility of any scientific activity". Provided to medical faculty audience of the Museum natural

historical society, suiting for lectures, but in any way not for practical zanyatiy8.

And still, despite all troubles and obstacles, on November 25, 1919 at medical faculty, classes began. With welcoming speech the rector prof. V.N. Shiryaev addressed teachers and students. The dean of faculty prof. O.I. Zubov read the lecture "Medicine as Science as Creativity and as Business of Mercy". He could not but mention a recent revolt: "Civil war concerned our native Yaroslavl. Guns roared, giving his body many and heavy wounds. The city burned, and together with it and its best ornament - the centenary respectable aged man - lyceum with the most valuable book treasury - library. The lyceum burned down as the building, but did not die as establishment, the higher school did not die for Yaroslavl".

Special words were turned to teachers and students of medical faculty: "It is not enough to open faculty, it is necessary to put it so... that a wide beam light of science and that it let out people of the valid knowledge, hardworking, well-mannered and imbued with the moral beginnings which have to shine as in the sphere of duties of the citizen, and the professional's duties proceeded from it... Business of medical assistance does not keep within a framework of correct, even conscientious execution of the duties, but quite often demands bigger: it demands to bring on advantage of the sufferer not only a cold brain with its knowledge, but also the soul executed patience and love" 9.

The resolutions Narkomprosa canceling entrance tests allowed to accept almost unlimited number of students. Classes at medical faculty were started by 505 people. But literally in several their weeks was come to interrupt because of hard frosts. Extremely poor reserves of firewood did not allow to heat audiences. Lessons were recommenced only on February 1, 1920. Now they had to be conducted in accelerated tempo. The curriculum of faculty was for many listeners beyond the power. By the end of the first academic year on a course there were only 210 people. But attendance became almost stoprotsentnoy10. Big elimination of students those years was characteristic of all higher education institutions: because of difficulties of combination of study with work, household burdens, and is more often because of revaluation by young people of the opportunities and abilities.

And a practical training was postponed by Narkompros's order of a lecture to evening: in day "children of the proletariat are busy on production". Fuel crisis forced to revise this decision as day classes allowed to save electricity and kerosene. About any equipment of audiences before eviction of infirmaries there could not be a speech. When in February, 1920 the board of the university managed to return the buildings, problems became even more. That the little that managed to be made earlier on arrangement of faculty, was destroyed. In the yard there were crowded fetid holes from infirmary bathrooms. Among pain -

ny there was a lot of typhus therefore there was a real threat of emergence of the center epidemii11. Only in the summer of 1920 in the returned buildings the educational process was resumed.

In such conditions to hold faculty members there was no opportunity. On the eve of 1921/22 uch. there went to Tashkent managers of the leading departments 1 - go a course - anatomy and histology - professors I.P. Rozhdestvensky and E.M. Shlyakhtin: there shots for the opening medical faculty of the Turkestan university were selected. Because of refusal of professors elected on a competition to arrive to Yaroslavl, remained not replaced six departments of the 3rd and 4th kursov12. The absence of managers slowed down selection of teachers, educational support personnel, drawing up plans of teaching, not to mention high-quality educational process. Often deans of faculty changed. In five their years was replaced four: professors O.I. Zubov, P.P. Dyakonov, A.O. Blazheevich, A.B. Tikhonovich. Administrative work those years was so burdensome that was considered as "victim" to which not everyone agreed.

In conditions when many departments were left without managers, some professors were forced to give lecture courses on several disciplines. So, the prof. V.G. Bozhovsky gave lectures on faculty therapy, hospital therapy, pathological anatomy. The prof. M.I. Gra-menitsky - on pharmacology and physiology. The prof. P.P. Dyakonov - on descriptive human anatomy, topographical anatomy and operational surgery. The prof. A.K. Federolf - on microbiology and the general and experimental hygiene. Prof. V.P. Zhukovsky - by children's diseases and the general pathology. The prof. O.I. Zubov - on history of medicine and nervous diseases. At a board meeting of the university the decision to allow to lecturing younger prepodavateley13 was made on November 21, 1922.

Provincial higher education institutions of many cities of the Central Russia for reading courses of lectures invited professors from Moscow. In the conditions of Civil war and ruin of the beginning of the 1920th each such trip turned into the real test. In November, 1922 the group of the invited professors of the Yaroslavl university sent to board, the letter full of despair and offense on transferable ordeals beginning habitually polite address: "We will dare to pay attention to big inconveniences present...". The university reservation of the reserved seat lying place remained the right only on paper: it was not possible to realize it in practice. Passengers of the crowded cars on a request to make the made reservation, as a rule, answered with obscene abuse, a laughter, oskorbleniyami14. It is quite natural that after several such trips, standing in the crowded car without an opportunity to have a rest after arrival, professors refused the offered combining jobs. Especially as in June, 1922. The Yaroslavl university informed on the termination of payment of journey of professors and teachers "in view of

an extreme lack of means and a delay of receiving them on the near future" 15.

The shortcoming of teachers was compensated by the invitation of well in time undergraduates to give classes. On one place of the assistant accepted two students. They were called by the "vridassa" (which are temporarily taking up the assistant's position). Besides, the situation was saved by existence in the city of large medical institutions and the experienced practicing doctors. The medical faculty was terribly interested in cooperation with them as it had no own clinics. At faculty the famous Yaroslavl doctors G.G. Falk, A.A worked part-time. Malinin, A.A. Voices, V.A. Noskov, N.V. Solovyov, N.S. Solovyov, G.I. Kurochkin, G.V. Nesytov, S.I. Stoletov and others.

Involvement of large experts of practical health care to teaching was actively promoted by Vasily Vasilyevich Potemkin (1892-1947). The graduate of medical faculty of the Yuryevsky university, in 1919 it headed the Yaroslavl provincial public health department, and in 1922 was appointed the rector of the university. The talented organizer, he in 1924 was transferred to work to Moscow. Worked as the doctor in Sanitary management of the Kremlin at the Administration of Council of People's Commissars, then the director of Biochemical institute, the dean of chemical faculty of MSU, the vice rector for scientific work of MSU the Last years of life managed a lecture hall of MSU

Low wages of educational support personnel complicated selection of necessary employees. Involvement of students to work as laboratory assistants and laboratory assistants (the junior employees who are engaged in preparation of demonstration medicines and cleaning of rooms) became a common practice. Quite often teachers and even managers of departments of a vynuyaedena were to fulfill duties of laboratory assistants. So, the head of the department of pharmacy and pharmacognosy prof. E.K. Mezing within several months personally removed laboratories, without having an opportunity to find the suitable employee because of scanty zarplaty16.

In October, 1920 in Moscow and Petrograd, an atakzha in 12 Russian cities, including in Yaroslavl, the Commissions on improvement of life of scientists (CUBA) 17 were founded. The main thing, than Yaroslavl CUBA could help scientists, - providing with grocery rations. But also they in this hungry time often did not save. In reports of the commission for 1922-1923 it was repeatedly noted that "norms of meat, fishes and grain systematically decreased. At norm of 20 pounds, in November and October about 3 pounds, in January-2.5 were given". Soktyabr 1922 the academic ration lost some sugar, even earlier - tobacco, matches, salt, soap. Generally it contained the cheapest products - rye flour, grain barley. Meat was quite often replaced with corned beef or a herring and a dried vobla. Quite often the deteriorated products were given: due to the lack of glaciers, meat arrived

"already begun to spoil", herrings "rusty, with worms", eggs "unsuitable to the use" 18. In the conditions of food crisis of a gubp-rodkoma as tried, could not provide delivery of good-quality products.

The medical faculty of the Yaroslavl university constantly felt a lack of rooms for classes. The prof. A.V. Tikhonovich appointed the dean of faculty in June, 1922 drew the attention of board of the university to inadmissibility of reception to the 1st course more than 150 people. Those years it was the general trouble. In the Higher medical school opened in Moscow in 1919 in addition to medical faculties of the 1st and 2nd universities about 1,500 students registered, and the 1st Moscow communistic hospital transferred to higher education institution as clinical base allowed to accept no more than 25019. Capacity of laboratories, degree of their equipment and the number of teachers could not provide with the equipment the influx of pupils characteristic of those years.

Till 1917 children of workers at medical faculties were absent, peasants made 2-4%. Revolution opened doors of the universities for workers and peasants. Repeatedly the number of students increased. Including at medical faculties though here "the course on a proletarization" obviously slipped. In 1921 only 12% of students of medical faculty of YarGU were workers and children of workers, 32% - from peasants (this category often covered not peasants at all); 47% - from "intelligent proletarians". The class association of the remained 9% was designated as "not found out" 20. The ego change of social composition inevitably involved decrease in behavioural culture of students.

In the audiences of the Yaroslavl House of health education which are temporarily allocated for lecturing to medical students, a floor remained covered with stubs, a peel from sunflower seeds, bits of apples. The administration of the house demanded from board of the university of respect for purity in rooms, threatening to refuse otherwise to them predostavlenii21. New, "Workers' and Peasants'", customs gradually became stronger in the university environment. As the Kazan historians precisely noticed, "especially short-lived was a culture of pre-revolutionary students. The youth intellectual, with his melancholy about the fate of the country and invariable sense of guilt before the people, in the 1920th completely left a scene. Its place at the university was taken by cheerful heterosexual, uneven-age crowd which face sons and daughters defined "predominant force of history" 22.

C1922/23 uch. orders of VTsIK and SNK of RSFSR in higher educational institutions introduced a tuition fee. This measure pursued two aims. The first - to improve social composition of students (improvement was meant as increase in a proletarian layer) at the expense of additional material barriers to not proletarian population groups. The second - to improve a catastrophic financial position of the higher school

by means of assignment of a part of funds for needs of the universities. The financial position of the student was not taken into consideration. Criterion of purpose of a payment was the social origin.

The students getting a grant and studying in the directions of the party, Komsomol, trade-union organizations, the children of active participants of Civil war and persons having merits before revolyutsiyey23 were exempted from a tuition fee. At many debt on payment collected that worsened financial position of departments. The management of educational institutions demanded from faculties to toughen control of introduction of a payment. The board of the Yaroslavl university established the rule allowing reception of offsets only at the students who had in matrikula (certificates on transfer in students - an analog of the modern student ID card) stamps calculating finansovosh department: "from a payment it is exempted" or "the payment is brought for any given term". However many professors considered not ethic and not permissible to demand the certificate of payment before offset. Then the board entered drawing up the lists which paid for training, certified of student's department universiteta24 into practice.

Introduction of availability at a price improved financial position of faculty a little. As before, the lack of money for the organization of full educational activity was felt. The situation especially became complicated in 1922 when the Yaroslavl university among other eight higher education institutions was removed from the state supply and is transferred to financing from local byudzheta25. Again, as in 1918, the salary began to be paid irregularly, interruptions in financing of clinics began. However in the "professorial strike" (February, 1922) which took place in a number of higher education institutions of Moscow, Petrograd and actively supported by medical faculty of the Kazan university, teachers of the Yaroslavl university of participation did not accept. Probably, memories of the terror reigning in the city after suppression of a revolt of 1918 were too fresh

The instruction of Head department of professional education (Glavprofobr) of Narkompros "to find own sources of income on improvement of scientific and educational business" forced to look for ways of survival. In December, 1922 the prof. A.B. Tikhonovich developed offers on work of the clinic of faculty surgery organized by it. Operations were provided free, but patients had to pay for use of surgical tools, medicines and dressings on the norms established special komissiyey26.


voluntary monetary transfers supported faculty A little. Transfer by the citizen of Ras-нер "for needs of medical faculty" 1 billion rubles in 1923 became the largest donation. All other donations, as a rule, did not exceed several hundred rubles. So, in March, 1923. The Yaroslavl provincial hospital of N.V. Solovyov a feather -

gave 620 rub collected by doctors in favor of the poorest medical students. The citizen Schneerson transferred 500 rub, board of Red Recop factory - 5 thousands.27.

By the end of 1923 the situation of medical faculty became especially difficult. At a board meeting of the university on October 22, 1923 with alarm it was noted that the release of students of the 5th course appeared on the verge of failure. Due to the lack of suitable rooms and managers could not begin work of 8 clinical departments of a final year. The theoretical departments working with younger courses experienced serious difficulties with teachers and were practically not equipped new oborudovaniyem28. These new and aggravated old problems in activity of medical faculty coincided with Narkompros's decision to reconsider network of the highest medical educational institutions.

In the large provincial centers of the republic some surplus of doctors was formed by this time. Civil war was ended, demobilization of doctors from the Red Army began. A part of doctors was released in connection with reduction of scales of epidemics. Besides, because of transfer of medical institutions on the local budget their financing worsened. Some hospitals, out-patient clinics and medical sites began to be closed. As a result among doctors the unemployment appeared. In January, 1924 nabirzhakhtrudarsfsr 2,443 unemployed vracha29 registered. On hand Narkomzdrava of April 14, 1924 it was noted RSFSR: "At labor exchanges there are a lot of unemployed among whom biggest percent is made by the doctors of release of 1923 who do not have a practical experience. Forthcoming 1924 the release from medical higher education institutions about 5,500 doctors who will also appear among the unemployed" 30 is expected.

The mass forced releases of doctors were not required any more. On the agenda there was a question of the correct distribution of medical shots and quality of their preparation. Both of these positions remained vulnerable. Rapid growth of the higher medical school in the first postrevolutionary years was in many respects artificial and not provided real opportunities. At the II congress of military commissars of the republic in March, 1922 the people's commissar of Health care N.A. Semashko noted: "Position of the higher school too desperate. We too widely swung, disregarding real resources" 31.

The question of possible closing of medical faculties in Smolensk, Krasnodar, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg began to rise since the end of 1921. At a meeting of board of Glavprofobr the question "About Reduction of Network of Educational Institutions" was heard on December 9, 1921. After discussion the decision to close medical faculties in Astrakhan and Samara was made. The question of Yaroslavl and Nizhny Novgorod remained otkrytym32. A subcommittee of Council of People's Commissars on revision of network of educational institutions at a meeting on April 27, 1923, having listened to the report of the rector Yaroslavl

go V.V. Potemkin's university, made the decision: "To consider inexpedient closing of the Yaroslavl university after huge amounts of money" 33 were spent for its equipment.

On February 19, 1924 at a meeting of board Narkomzdrava a question of network of medical schools reported to RSFSR the deputy people's commissar of health care Z.P. Solovyov. The situation with the maintenance of medical faculties became so serious that in plans for closing there were State Institute of Medical Knowledge (SIMK), the Kuban and Omsk medical institutes, medical faculties of the Petrograd, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Astrakhan, Ekaterinburg, Perm, Irkutsk, Crimean and Smolensk universities. The real prospect to appear behind the doors of higher education institutions hung over 9,873 stu-dentami-medikami34.

The last word remained behind Narkompros's board. At its meeting the final discussion of a question of the future of medical faculties of the Astrakhan, Crimean, Nizhny Novgorod, Smolensk, Yaroslavl, Ural medical faculties, Omsk, Kuban and the Leningrad medical institutes took place on April 29, 1924. To it the detailed analysis of educational activity of these higher education institutions, their material resources, the list of students preceded, to security teaching kadrami35. The decision to close medical faculties of the Crimean, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Ural and Yaroslavl universities was prinyato36.

By this time 15 professors, 46 teachers, 26 research associates worked at faculty. About 1 thousand students studied (the 1st course - the 296, 2 course - the 228, 3 course - 186; the 4th course - the 171, 5 course - 89). At the end of a spring semester according to the decree of SNK RSFSR of May 16, 1924. "About reduction of cash number of pupils in higher educational institutions of RSFSR" in all higher education institutions there took place check of the academic progress of students. The commission which got acquainted with personal records of students worked at medical faculty of the Yaroslavl university, with everyone conducted an interview. Because of "political illiteracy" and the academic poor progress 19.3% of students were deducted. the 5th course was kept in full sostave37.

Two years of uncertainty, rumors and expectation of the future interfered with the normal educational process, constantly bringing in it excessive nervousness. Despite extremely intense situation and numerous difficulties connected with fast closing of the university it was succeeded to implement completely the curriculum and to hold state exams. In 1924 the medical students took 14 final examinations: on the general surgery, pathological anatomy, hygiene with epidemiology and an epizooty, social hygiene, forensic medicine, therapeutic clinic, surgical clinic, obstetrics, gynecology, eye diseases,

to skin and venereal diseases, nervous diseases, psychiatry, children's diseases. 88 students were allowed to take examinations. All of them were entitled on September 15 the doctor. The faculty was graduated by 17% from that came to the 1st course in 1919 693 students of 1-4 courses were transferred to other medical schools.

Five years of activity of the medical faculty of the Yaroslavl university which was constantly overcoming various difficulties and proving the right for existence did not pass completely. Most of his graduates came to work to medical institutions of the Yaroslavl province. Some teachers and students in 20 years became the staff of the Yaroslavl medical institute opened in days of the Great Patriotic War. The second life of the higher medical school in Yaroslavl began their efforts.

1 State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region (SAYR). F. R-51. Op. 1. 26.
2 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 2306. Op. 18. 150. L. 8.
3 Collection of the Yaroslavl state university. Issue 1. 1918-1919 Yaroslavl, 1920. Page 342.
4 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 26. L. 3-6, 7-9, 18.
5 GAYaO. T. R-51. Op. 1. D. 22. L. 118.
6 GAYaO. T. R-51. Op. 1. D. 19. L. 18.
7 GAYaO. T. R-51. Op. 1. D. 22. L. 125.
8 GAYaO. T. R-51. Op. 1. D. 23. L. 11 about.
9 O.I. Zubov. Meditsina as science as creativity and as business of mercy//Collection of the Yaroslavl state university. Issue 2. Yaroslavl, 1923. Page 56-57.
10 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 23. L. 6.
11 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 2306. Op. 18. 150. L. 76-77.
12 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 99. L. 7.
13 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 156. L. 75 about.
14 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 147. L. 41-42.
15 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 155. L. 40.
16 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 147. L. 26.
17 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 51. L. 34.
18 GAYaO. F. R-3398. Op. 1. 4. L. 1, 4.
19 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 2306. Op. 18. 225. L. 24 about.
20 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 23. L. 45.
21 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 154. L. 49.
22 E.A. Vishlenkova, S.Yu. Malysheva, A.A. Salnikova. Tag ishuyegvyashv: Two centuries of university culture in Kazan. Kazan, 2005. Page 373.
23 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 179. L. 11.
24 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 156. L. 115, 159.
25 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. A-1565. Op. 7. 78. L. 153.
26 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 147. L. 38.
27 GAYaO. F. R-51. Op. 1. 156. L. 47, 51.
28 In the same place. L. 165.
29 Bulletin of the National Commissariat of health care RSFSR. 1924. No. 2-3. Page 2.
30 Bulletin of the National Commissariat of health care of NKZ RSFSR. 1924. No. 8-9. Page 4.
31 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. A-1565. It. 7. 72. L. 16.
32 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. A-1565. It. 7. 78. L. 305.
33 GAYaO. F. R-51. It. 1. 180. L. 3.
34 GARF. T. A-482. It. 14. 101. L. 17.
35 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. A-1565. It. 7. 157. L. 418.
36 Meeting of legalizations and orders of the working and country government. 1924. No. 68. Article 680.
37 Scientific library of the Yaroslavl state medical academy. Tikhonovich A.B. To history of the higher medical education. Yaroslavl, 1956. Manuscript. Page 45-46.

M.V. Holina


Till 1917 the cities of the Yenisei province (nowadays Krasnoyarsk Krai) Achinsk, Yeniseisk, Kansk, Krasnoyarsk, Minusinsk were a lot of konfessionalna: Old Believers, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, Muslims lived in them. Most of inhabitants (more than 90%) were Orthodox Christians. In 1916 310 Orthodox Christians prikhodov1 acted in the Yenisei province.

Right after seizure of power the Bolsheviks started withdrawal pains of religious life and its traditions. So, district sections of civil registrations explained to the population: "Only the civil (Soviet) marriage registered in department of the civil registrations (CR) generates the rights and duties of spouses. The marriage made on religious practices and with assistance of ecclesiastics does not generate any rights and duties for the persons which entered it if it is not registered by an established order" 2.

In 1920 on the Yenisei province the first wave of official withdrawal of church values swept. Created in March, 1920. The Yenisei provincial commission on affairs of the museums and protection of monuments of art and old times worked in all district cities. The task of withdrawal of any objects from any "room of a cult" was set for experts. Being afraid of "utayka", it did not begin to wait for providing inventories from "attendants of a cult". The main newspaper of the province - "The Krasnoyarsk worker" - in the heading "State and Church" reported that "believing

Tikkanen Saara
Other scientific works: