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Where our sources? (To a question of abnormal area on the shelf of the Barents Sea in the last Ice Age)



gda our sources? (To a question of abnormal area on the shelf of the Barents Sea in the last Ice Age)

E.V. Maximov

Admirers of creativity of Ilya Glazunov remember that in his picture "Eternal Russia" in the left top corner ice slopes are drawn. In an explanation to a picture it is told: Haraiti — the sacred mountain ancient ariyev. On the meaning of a picture exactly there were also our sources. However presently very few people know what relation to us both ancient arias and Mount Haraiti have. Therefore before addressing the question interesting us, it is necessary to give the certificate of arias.

In Brockhaus and Efron's Encyclopaedic dictionary [1890. T. 3] it is told that Aryans — the standard name for the linguistic group of the people inhabiting, with very considerable exceptions, almost all Western Asia and Europe and partially moved on other continents. The close and going from an extreme antiquity relationship of separate branches and members of this big tribe affects already in similarity of physical type and in many traits of character which are especially brightly acting in intellectual, moral and religious creativity of the separate people, as well as in their stories. Comparative learning Sanskrit language with other European languages — Latin, Greek, Slavic and Celtic — suggested scientists an idea that the most part of the European languages came from one, common, primitive Aryan language. This language is called sometimes Indo-German or Indo-European [In the same place].

Presently to Aryan, or Indo-European, to languages carry the Indian, Iranian, Romance, Slavic, German and some other languages. Among the people of antiquity Indo-European languages were spoken by Scythians and Celts. The German racists disguised the truth. They considered Aryans themselves. In fact Slavs of the rights to be called Aryans have less at all, than at Germans.

The community of language means that in an extreme antiquity all Aryan people made one people and lived in one territory. Further for the obscure reasons they left the homeland, dispersed in different directions and considerably lost the initial unity. More than 100 years the dispute on where there was this initial homeland is conducted. Call both Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, and Scandinavia and other places. It would seem, all possible options in this dispute are already exhausted also a problem so forever and will remain unresolved. Below we will try to show that situation at all not such hopeless and is absolutely unexpected aspects of the problem interesting us.

In 1974 G.M. Bongard-Levin and E.A. Grantovsky's book "From Scythia to India" in which in an available form riddles ancient ariyev are considered was published. As the academician A.P. Okladnikov writes in an epilog to it: "To this subject we are returned by G.M. Bongard-Levin and E.A. Grantovsky's book, interesting, skillfully written, small, but capacious on contents — the authors well-known the large works on the early history of India and the Indo-Iranian people, on the ancient history of Iran" [Bongard-Levin, Grantovsky, 1974. Page 121].

It is widely known that in ancient Indo-Iranian tradition ("Mahabharata", Ramayana, "Veda",

Avesta, etc.) there is a so-called Arctic cycle in which the phenomena characteristic of the Arctic regions and absolutely unusual to regions of the Southern and Southwest Asia are described. It is extremely interesting that antique authors, to some extent familiar with the Scythian world, also mention the Arctic phenomena, similar to those which are known in the Indo-Iranian tradition.

The Arctic cycle is rather extensive. In it it is mentioned also the fixed Pole star located in the center of the universe and the long night lasting six months and about the day which is also lasting the whole half-year and "the captivated waters", and many other. This Arctic cycle of ancient compositions suggested the Indian scientist B. Tilak an idea that the homeland of ancient Indians was located on Far North. The book published by it in 1903 and was called — "The Arctic homeland in the Veda". According to him, "during the preglacial and interglacial periods the climate of the Arctic districts was warm and available to a plant and animal life, for the person and development of its civilization" (tsit. on: [Bongard-Levin, Grantovsky, 1974. Page 8].

Modern both geographical and historical sciences consider such opinion absurd. In the Arctic it is cold now (i.e. in modern interglacial time), and during lednikoviya it was even colder. The opinion is not without reason widespread that during glacial eras there was a circumpolar freezing of all Arctic. Besides, as D. and K. Imbri write, "glacial covers receded and disappeared, they left memory of people. We do not know, exists, whether this strange thing — memory of generations, but if exists, then it is obviously imperfect as the world of the Stone Age was soon forgotten" [by D. Imbri, K. Imbri, 1988. Page 15]. Whether so it actually, we will see below, and now we will address the analysis of sources.

In the Arctic cycle of drevneariysky tradition there is several closely connected among themselves, but to a certain extent the independent directions. These are, first, the polar phenomena; secondly, great

northern mountains; thirdly, northern ocean and, fourthly, mysterious warm country in the north. Let's consider these directions in more detail, being guided by G.M. Bongarda-Levin and E.A. Grantovsky's book of [1974].

Polar phenomena. "Ancient storytellers sang about the country where the sun rises only once in a year where six months day and six months night" [Page 5], "... in the north "Seven Risha", the goddess Arund-hati and Svasti constantly move around the Pole star strengthened in the sky (Dhruva)" [Page 5].

"’’Seven Risha"" — seven big stars of the constellation of Big Dipper (Risha — wise men, Saint men, divine inhabitants of heaven); Arundhati — the constellation of Cassiopeia; Swati — a bright star in the Bootes constellation. It is possible to see them highly over the horizon only in northern latitudes. In areas to the north of 5556 °C. highways within one night these constellations do not come in the winter for the horizon and spin which center can approximately be considered the Pole star" [Page 5].

"Biruni cites the following words of Brakhmagupta (beginning of the 7th century) about area at the North Pole: "Day of the angels living there as if lasted six months"" [Page 9]. "Gods day and night have a year divided on two: day — the period of the movement of the sun to the North, night — the period of the movement to the South" ("Manu's Laws", 2nd century BC — 1st century AD), ".po to half-year rises the golden-haired sun" and "the stopped waters accept images of beautiful jewelry" [Page 11]. In the astronomical treatise "Suryasiddhanta" it is said that after sunrise it is visible on the Mount Meru whole half a year. Bkhaskara-acharya claimed that "on the Measure half a year constant day, half a year constant night" [S. ZZ].

"Herodotus writes that according to messages of Scythians and the tribes living behind them, far people live in the north, "who sleep for six months"" [Page 24]. "In antique literature. it was told about the country located north of Scythia behind the areas shrouded in a dense gloom subject to action of terrible cold and a chilling trend of a north, the country where day proceeds half a year, in the mornings inhabitants sow, at noon reap, and collect fruits of trees in the evening" by [Page 25].

Pompony Mela wrote: "There the sun ascends and comes not daily as at us, but, having ascended for the first time during the vernal equinox, comes only into time of autumn. Thus, six months proceed day and as much months continuous night" [Page 25]. Pliny writes about the same:

"Here half a year is light. once in a year, during a summer solstice, there is at them the sun and once during a winter solstice [Page 25] comes". They are echoed by Solinus: "Believe that there are world axes and extreme ways of constellations, six-month light and the sun setting only for one day; though some think that there the sun ascends and comes not daily as at us, but on the vernal equinox ascends, and comes into autumn; thus, within six months the infinite day, and in other six constant night" proceeds [Page 75].

In the given fragments, undoubtedly, it is about Far North, it is possible even about the North Pole. Of course, whether on them it is impossible to judge definitely that there lived there in the ancient time Indo-Europeans or received data from any other people familiar with the natural phenomena inherent in Far North.

Great northern mountains. Let's address G.M. Bongard-Levin and E.A. Grantovsky's book again. "Earlier texts (purana mean. — E.M.) located Ridge Meru in all North of the earth from the West on the East, in a far zone of cold. In this country where tops to Mer shine, the frozen waters "accept beautiful images"" [S. of ZZ]. "Ancient storytellers called to Mer "immeasurably high, unprecedented anywhere in the worlds". It rests the tops against the sky" [Page Z5], ".matematik and the astronomer Brakhmagupta reported opinion on what to Mer "is under a pole, and stars rotate at its bottom so rising and calling depends on it, thanks to the power it can hide and open to the earth sun and the moon"" [Page Z6].

"To the sky Chara towers; around its tops make the movement sun, moon and stars" [Page 46, the reference to Avesta]. "In Zoroastrian tradition the story about how during creation of the world great Chara arose and rose remained — it grew throughout BQQ of years." [Page 47]. "Ancient Iranians considered that these mountains (i.e. Mount Hara. — E.M.) were in the north and were stretched on all earth from the East on the West" to [Page 55], "once Iranians had an idea of inaccessibility of great northern mountains and of a snow barrier on approaches to them" [Page 55], ".ot the highest Mountains Hara there are snow clouds bearing the evil and death to people and all live. In the same country as narrates other text Avesta, the winter, there ten winter months and only two summer, but also "cold for water, cold for the earth, cold for plants"" dominates [Page 55].

And now the data which arrived from Scythia. "Further to the North (beyond Scythia. — E.M.) lay "the earth stony and uneven"" [Page 26, the reference to Herodotus]. "The rivers flowing in gold courses which is guarded by signature stamps contacted in such stories the highest mountains — Ripeyskimi as they were called by many antique authors. On these mountains in a cave there was a dwelling of a severe North, and further away, behind mountains, placed the sea, or the ocean, and "the people which were famous for fabulous miracles called by Greeks of a giperboreyama"" [Page 27]. "Above Scythians there live issedona, even above they are arimaspa, for arimaspam there (are) Ripeysky mountains from which blows Borya and never snow descends" [Page 29, the reference to Damast's compositions of "About the People"]; ". The territory of Scythia is limited from the South to Pontus Evksinsky, and from the North — Ripeysky mountains" [Page 29, the reference to the historian Pompey Troga]. "Under the North above extreme borders of Scythia are Ripa" [Page 29, the reference to Aristotle's composition of "Meteorologik"]. "Areas at Ripeysky mountains, Pliny writes, "are destitute by the nature and are shrouded in a haze, serve only formation of ice and a cold dwelling of the North". This country of Pliny and some other authors call Peronosna as in it "snow, similar to feathers constantly falls""

[Page 30]. "In that country it is far beyond Scythia at Ripeysky mountains, according to the description of antique authors, the gloom and darkness reigns. "The nature the only earth shipped in eternal darkness and absolutely frozen with the receptacles of Akvilon — Solinus wrote — which does not know a change of seasons and receives nothing else from the sky, except constant winter"" [Page 30]. "Also the resistant tradition about that is found, however,

that Ripa lasted on all space north of the Scythian world. According to a number of antique authors the Ripeysky mountains occupied all North of Europe. So, for example, they were represented on one of the first maps of the earth made in the 6th century BC by Gekatey Miletsky. Aristotle, without trusting stories about fabulous "size" Rip, nevertheless did not doubt their existence and believed that from them very many flow, and besides the hugest, from other rivers after Istra. Istr is Danube, under other rivers of Europe the great rivers of Scythia — Dnieper, Don, etc. mean here. Similar representations of Aristotle reflect resistant ancient tradition about communication of these rivers with mountains in the far North" [Page 31]. "Gold peaks of Ripeysky mountains are so big that reach the sky, is behind them and the sun" appears from behind them [Page 31], ".oblast at slopes of these mountains are covered with snow, severe chilling cold here, here the person cannot get." [Page 32]. "Pompony Mela reports that on approaches to Ripeysky mountains "constantly falling snow do these areas to such an extent impassable that further it is impossible even to see how do not strain sight"" [Page 43]. "Herodotus, referring to stories by Scythians and argippeev, reports that north of the last there are "high inaccessible mountains through which nobody passes"; Herodotus places them in the width direction" [Page 57-58]. "In antique messages about zaskifsky areas, it is told about Boreas which blows from Ripeysky mountains, bringing chilling cold." [Page 59], ".skifa considered that the rivers of their country originate from Ripeysky mountains" [Page 116].

Further G.M. Bongard-Levin and E.A. Grantovsky draw parallels between Scythian (antique), Old Indian and drevneiransky traditions. "Both Ripeysky mountains, and to Mer were located on the far North, they were stretched on the northern outskirts of the world. Both those, and others reach heaven: around their tops stars rotate. Like tops to Mer Ripeysky mountains shine gold. From Ripeysky mountains, as well as about the Measure, the rivers in gold courses flow; from these mountains also the great terrestrial rivers" originate [Page 36]. "From Chara, as well as about the Measure (and from Ripeysky mountains), the terrestrial rivers originate" [Page 48]. Ridges Hara and Meru, representations of Iranians and Indians, were stretched on all earth from the West on the East (the same was told also about great mountains north of Scythia) to [Page 48]. "And later, during a postscythian era, there was a popular belief that the great rivers flowing through steppes of Southeast Europe bear the waters from big mountains. Still the Western European geographers and cartographers believed in the Middle Ages that in a northern part of Eastern Europe there is a ridge stretched in the width direction from where the big rivers flowing into the Black and Caspian seas" [Page 117] originate. ". On its card (Ptolomey. — E.M.) north of the territory of Sarmatian tribes in the width direction are placed big mountain chains, and on them — Borisfen's (Dnieper) sources, Tanais (Don), Ra (Volga), etc. Unlike the predecessors Ptolomey already knew about the main inflow of Volga Kam and place of their merge, but it conducted sources of both rivers with big northern mountains. The name of modern Volga at Ptolomey — "Ra", connected as it is established by scientists, with drevneiransky Raha is even more remarkable. According to avestiysky tradition, the semi-mythical river of Raha flows from great Mountains Hara. Therefore, the provided Ptolomey's data were based on the data obtained from iranoyazychny tribes of Southeast Europe" by [Page 117].

Let readers will forgive the author for so unlimited citing the book of G.M. Bohn - gard - Levin and E.A. Grantovsky. It is not just a whim. We need to show that it is not about accidental bastings or assumptions of ancient sources, and about "a constant and obligatory basis of an all-Aryan "northern cycle" — the great mountains stretched from the East on the West and located north of territories of Aryan tribes" [Page 116] and also that "to a .vsa the great terrestrial rivers flow from sacred northern" [Page 116].

So, it is about the highest (to the sky) the mountains, inaccessible for the person, stretched in the width direction in the north of Europe. From them the great rivers — Volga, Kama, Dnieper, Don, etc. flow. Snow never descends from mountains. The frozen mountains are shrouded in a haze, serve only formation of ice and do not know a change of seasons. On approaches to mountains the snow constantly falls. On these mountains there is a dwelling of a north (Boreas) bringing chilling cold.

Everything told is obviously fantastic. There are no such mountains in the north of Europe.

Northern ocean. At Pomponiya Mela it is said that on other side of Ripeysky mountains "the coast turned to the northern ocean" by [Page 29] lies. "On that side of Ripeysky mountains, according to antique authors, there was great Northern, or "Scythian", an ocean washing northern coast of Europe. Sometimes it was called ice, frozen" [Page 31], ".po that side of Ripeysky mountains at their feet — open spaces of the great ocean" [Page 32].

"North of Mer the Northern ocean stretches, often it is called White or Dairy" [Page 36]. "The Indian epic legends tell about four oceans — East, Southern, Western and Northern. From them the first three were really known to ancient Indians. They understood Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea as them. Ideas of the fourth — the far Northern ocean were foggy" [Page 38]. In "Mahabharata" one of heroes of Duryodhan reports that ". people. do not go. to the Northern ocean because to nobody it is inaccessible except birds" to [Page 38]. In "Mahabharata" it is said that "in the north of the Dairy sea there is a big island, known as Shvetadvipa (White island). It is located north of Mer on thirty two thousand yodzhan." [Page 39]. In the middle of the drevneiransky sea Vsurukasha — the island where there live sacred animals and surprising plants [Page 53] grow.

According to avestiysky tradition ".u the bottom High Chara lies huge water space — "sea" of "eray" by the name of Vourukasha, i.e. "having wide gulfs". It. "mighty, fine outlines, deep, with far stretching waters", its coast worry, and rise Vourukasha from the waters of a mighty stream of Ardvi falling from great gold tops of Chara" [Page 53] which are promptly rushing in it.

Summing up the result, it is possible to say that drevneariysky (Indian, Iranian, Scythian) the tradition places far in the north for Ripeyskimi-Meru-Hara mountains extensive water space — Great, Northern, Scythian (sometimes White or Dairy) the ocean or the sea absolutely definitely.

Mysterious warm country in the north. The country which stores in itself a riddle of "polar" representations is in the north, between tops of Ripeysky mountains and the Northern ocean. It appears, she had warm climate, was free from cold winds and gave rise to plentiful fruits. In groves of this country where the sun ascends and once a year comes, the happy people lived. Gold peaks of Ripeysky mountains are so high that reach the sky, is behind them and the sun appears from behind them, they concern stars and stars rotate around them [Page 31].

In "Mahabharata" the following is reported about the same country: "Here gods, asura, kinnara, gandharva, snakes", various divine beings, heavenly nymphs. "Numerous round dances apsar were flown here, all were twisted by the good breeze bearing any aromas, pleasant clean", "packs of marvelous birds the White mountain shone. There all assemblies of gods and all divine solve how sounds of music of clouds, as future ocean, sounded" [Page 35].

In the 4th century AD the astronomer and the geographer Varakhamikhira wrote that "Mount Meru is built of gold plates. Between them the trees in plentiful color covered with fragrant inflorescences rose". In gold courses the rivers flow there, and lakes with a gold mine shine as the moon. From these reservoirs sacred streams, the cleanest and transparent because their waters rush over the pure gold originate. Here the best of the rivers "heavenly Ganges" — "Mandara's daughter", a source of all waters of the earth. From here gods sent great streams to the world of people [Page 36].

"Highly over the evil the country of "eternal happiness" towers. Here not cold and not hot. Covered with groves and the woods, the earth makes plentiful fruits, herds of antelopes and flock of birds everywhere, everything smells sweet as aromas of flowers" [Page 39]. "A northern slope to Mer, the coast of the Dairy sea — such is "address" of this country in "Mahabharata" and some other works of Old Indian literature" [Page 39].

"To the north of Ripeysky mountains", "behind these mountains to other sea" (i.e. to the North Sea), "on that side of the North, on the coast turned to the ocean", "on the edge of the earth" placed "the happy people" — giperboreev Aristy, Damast, Gellanik, Herodotus, Pompony Mela, Pliny, etc. [Page 40]. "The country of "blissful" lies far in the north, but has fertile climate, is free from harmful cold and hot winds. Prigrevayemy the summer sun, the earth gives plentiful fruits. Its inhabitants live in forests and groves" [Page 40].

In the Zoroastrian "Book about creation" it is told (Bundakhishn) about hundred thousand gold channels on which waters come to the lake at Chara's [Page 48] top. The legendary tsar of ancient Iranians ruling at the beginning of history, Yima asked gods about that was not in his kingdom of "neither cold, nor heat", "neither hot wind, nor cold", "neither cold, nor thirst" of [Page 54]. Before Yim's death created the fine monastery "fenced" from the rest of the world. There was it near High Chara and the sea Vourukasha [Page 5455]. There "are a lot of dogs and birds and the fine burning fires", pure waters flow there and golden meadows grow. There ".zhivotny, the biggest and the finest, plants, the highest and fragrant" [Page 55]. In that country where Yima created monastery of the blessed people, "the severe winter icy cold" dominates. "This country — heart of winter" [Page 55]. But in the same severe country — sacred monastery where fine waters constantly flow, evergreen meadows blossom and high plants smell sweet. And, at last, in "blissful" monastery the people only once in a year see the "setting" and "ascending" sun [Page 55].

We considered four main motives of drevneariysky tradition. Two of them — the polar phenomena and the northern ocean — sound is quite realistic. Two others — great northern mountains and blissful monastery — are at first sight represented fantastic. At the same time the polar motive of drevneariysky tradition is so obvious that just it is impossible to wave away from it. Obviously, ancestors ariyev somehow obtained information on polar areas of Earth. So, A. Gorbovsky wrote: "Therefore, the reason of the onset of cold weather can be connected with approach of a point through which there passes the pole, to the place of initial dwelling ariyev" [1966. Page 80]. It is very risky point of view. It assumes that rather recently — in background — the provision of geographical poles of Earth could change significantly. The modern science has no such data. It is necessary to return to V. Tilak's hypothesis that the homeland of ancient Indians was on Far North.

We will try to untangle this ball and we will address at first great northern mountains. What in fact it is about? What for strange imagination about the highest, inaccessible for the person, iced over mountains with gold peaks, width extended in the north of Europe and giving rise to the main rivers of East European Plain? The small chest opens simply. Even the school student knows that the northern part of the European plain in the Quaternary Period repeatedly was exposed to invasion of glaciers. The glacial cover represents a huge loaf with abrupt slopes and a spolozhenny middle part. In fig. 1 borders of distribution of four glacial covers of East European Plain are shown. For the person of times of a paleolith the edge of a glacial cover had to be presented in the form of the highest mountains resting against the sky (more precisely merging with the sky). Let's remind in this regard that glacial covers very quickly gain height, reaching at distance 100-200 km of power in 1000-2000 m. In the central part the cover could reach power in 3000 m. The edge of an integumentary glacier could be rather dismembered and seem therefore absolutely inaccessible. Who was on glaciers, knows that under beams of the sun the peaks which are wrapped up with snow and firny cast gold. From a glacial cover the largest rivers of Eastern Europe really originated.

In fig. 1 (insert) the simplified vykopirovka of a part of the card to Ptolomey's "Geography" published in Rome in 1490 is placed. It was already said that the big mountain chains stretched in the width direction are shown on its map north of the territory of Sarmatian tribes. These Mountains Ptolomey are called by Giperboreyskimi. We tried to combine approximate position of these mountains with borders of four glacial covers] (see fig. 1). As we see, the picture turned out rather certain. Of course, it would be naive to try to identify Giperboreysky (Meru-Hara-Ripeyskiye) of the mountain with concrete border any of four lednikoviya. But rather distinctly appears basic

coincidence of location of these mountains to a regional area of quarternary freezing of Eastern Europe. Of course, in drevneariysky tradition, most likely, the edge of the last Valdai glacial cover was meant (at least because chronologically it was the youngest).

Fig. 1. Combination of legendary giperboreysky (Meru-Hara-Ripeyskikh) mountains with regional areas of four European integumentary glaciers (Oka-el-Ster, Dnieper-Saale, Moscow-Warta, Valdai-Vistula). Approximate pro-deleting of Giperboreysky of

On insert: a part of the card to Ptolomey's "Geography" published in Rome in 1490 (schematically)

Now the general panorama created by drevneariysky tradition gets accurate contours. In the north of Europe, inaccessible ice slopes were stretched (i.e. an ice cover), behind them there is an ocean (i.e. the Ledovity ocean), the nature gains the Arctic lines there. Therefore it is difficult to agree with D. and K. Imbri that "the world of the Stone Age was soon forgotten" [1988]. Memory of a paleolith was rather steady, especially if to remember that the Valdai glacier reached the maximum development 19000 years ago.

Remained not explained the last motive of tradition — about the blissful country yet. It is represented to the most fantastic. It is really difficult to assume that north of the European ice board in severe conditions of completely frozen Arctic there was a warm country covered with magnificent vegetation. Even assumption of this sort seems the purest absurdity. To try to deal with this question, it is necessary to make short digression to the field of paleogeography of the Quaternary Period.

All know well that during the Quaternary Period Earth repeatedly was exposed to expansion of glaciers. Certainly four glacial eras — Oka, Dnieper, Moscow and Valdai divided by interglacial eras are proved. We live during the modern interglacial era which came after the end of the Valdai freezing. Valdai freezing continued approximately 16000-17000. A little before 24000 years ago began, and final disappearance of a glacier is referred to 7000-8000 years ago. Reduction of a glacier had reciprocating stadial character. In total there are not less than 7 stages of reduction of a glacier during which there was a formation of final moraines, i.e. the swell-like heights filled by a glacier at the edge. The last stage received the name of the Finnish. Final moraines of this stage are extended along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland. They were postponed 10000-11000 years ago. It was the last considerable approach of a glacier after which the glacial cover began to break up promptly.

Paleogeography of the Quaternary Period is devoted tens of thousands of works. But in 100-150 years of existence of this science it was not succeeded to receive clear answers to radical questions of the Quaternary Period: first, what its causality and, secondly, what its duration. It is enough to tell that some define the last in several hundreds of thousands of years, and others in several million years. The reasons which caused quarternary freezing in life are seen both on the earth and in space. One of the points of view — that which is divided by the author — connects causality of the glacial phenomena on Earth with the rhythms which are shown first of all in pulsation changes of volume of our planet. At expansion the climate of Earth becomes colder also to the land, at compression — warmer and is more damp. The main rhythm regulating alternation of glacial and interglacial eras in the Quaternary Period is the 40700-year rhythm [Maximov, 1972]. In fig. 2 the simplified model of this rhythm is shown. Temperature change on Earth is defined by pulsations of the Sun and, as a result, change of its luminosity, pulsations of Earth define the moisture content course.

Pulsations of Earth are followed by one more extremely interesting effect. Compression of Earth causes acceleration of its rotation around an axis, expansion, on the contrary, is followed by rotation delay. Let's remind the reader that because of daily rotation Earth of the splusnut at poles and is more convex along the equator. The measure of a splusnotost of the planet is defined by the speed of rotation of Earth round its pivot-center. Let's remind also that because of daily rotation of Earth any body which is horizontally moving in the northern hemisphere deviates the right, and in southern — to the left. The measure of this deviation is also defined by the speed of rotation of Earth, it can be presented in the form of the following scheme.

Expansion of Earth

Compression of Earth

Reduction of speed of rotation

Increase in speed of rotation

Reduction of a splusnutost of a figure of Earth

Increase in a splusnutost of a figure of Earth

Shift of water and air masses in the direction of high latitudes

Shift of water and air masses in the direction of low latitudes

A deviation of air flows and sea currents in the northern hemisphere to the left, and in southern to the right (concerning their modern direction)

A deviation of air flows and sea currents in the northern hemisphere to the right, and in southern to the left (concerning their modern direction)

In midlatitudes an enormous role is played by so-called western transfer of air masses. It is formed as follows. The air currents going from subtropical maxima to a belt of the lowered pressure of midlatitudes deviate in the northern hemisphere to the right, and in southern to the left that in the general cases results in prevalence of the western component. The western transfer plays a special role for Europe where he acts as a stream of the warm and damp oceanic air going from the West to the East i.e. from the Atlantic Ocean towards Europe. In winter time due to big difference of atmospheric pressure it is expressed stronger, than in summertime.

We will look at fig. 2 again. In 1 and 2 quarters of a 40700-year rhythm on Earth cold conditions prevail. Means, at this time the western transfer is expressed much stronger, than now. Besides, and this most important, in 1 and 2 quarters Earth experiences expansion, the speed of its rotation will decrease, the rejecting effect will also decrease and the western transfer will receive a considerable northern component, i.e. will be directed not from the West to the East, and from the southwest on the northeast. As a result the stream of damp and warm air will direct not so much towards Scandinavia and the regions of the Arctic adjoining to it. In other words, we come to a paradoxical conclusion: in a cold half of a 40700-year rhythm the European Arctic districts had not to be cooled, and be warmed. In any case, the Arctic districts during glacial eras should not have been colder, than presently. This situation is confirmed by the latest researches. Now it is possible to take for granted that for the last 40000 years (i.e. and during the last glacial era) organic life on islands, coasts, at the bottom of the Arctic seas did not stop [Danilov, 1983]. Thus, the hypothesis of circumpolar freezing of the Arctic about which it was told at the beginning of work was obviously insolvent. However everything told cannot serve as the proof of existence of the warm country (i.e. "the blissful homeland ariyev") in the Arctic districts.

it is damp

Fig. 2. Model of a 40700-year rhythm:

1 — a hodteploobespechennost (air temperatures); 2 — the moisture content course (quantities of the dropping-out precipitation); 3 — lifetime of the Valdai integumentary glacier

Emergence of such country (if, of course, it in general existed), obviously, is connected with some absolutely exceptional circumstances. And here such circumstances as if were. Once again we will look at fig. 2. In it it is well visible that during an expanded condition of Earth there was a glacial cover. Means, on the way of the western transfer which turned in the northeast party the 2-3 km glacial board appeared. (fig. 3). Warm and damp sea air, climbing a slope of a glacial board, it was cooled and allocated an enormous amount of precipitation. Having passed through a cover, it had to get to the Barentsevomorsky sector of the Arctic. As S.V. Kalesnik writes: "If air mass rose by the known height, became saturated, rose by some additional height after saturation, and then fell back to the Earth's surface, then, it is obvious that its temperature will be that what it had at the beginning of rise" [Kalesnik, 1955. Page 73]. Let's explain this situation some approximate calculation. Let's accept that in an annual cycle the western transfer at the Earth's surface approached an integumentary glacier with an average temperature & #43;3 to °C. Let air saturation by water vapor happened at the height of 500 m. It is known that so far saturation of air is not reached, its cooling is equal 1 ° on 100 m. Means, at the height of 500 m temperature of the western transfer will fall with & #43;3 up to -2 °C. After achievement of saturation the gradient of cooling will decrease up to the size of 0.5 ° by 100 m. Then with a height of cover of 2000-3000 m the cooling of air at rise from 500 m and to top of a cover had to be 7.5-12.5 °C, i.e. air temperature totally had to go down to-9.5...-14.5 °C. It is known also that heating of the falling air is 1 ° on 100 m. Going down from heights of 2000-3000 m to sea level, it has to heat up on 20-30 °. In this case on the coast of the Barentsevy sea the average annual air temperatures could be & #43;10.5...+15.5 °C. Such annual temperature is observed on 40-45 °C presently. highway, i.e. for example in the southern regions of Europe.

Fig. 3. Position of the "blissful" homeland ariyev:

1 — the Valdai glacial cover; 2 — the modern direction of the western transfer; 3 — the approximate direction of the western transfer during glacial eras; 4 — the warm country.

The given calculation, of course, has very approximate character. Perhaps, sizes were a bit differents. But another is important is that in lifetime of Ice Age in the subarctic regions of Europe really there could be warm or moderately warm country.

The reader can naturally have a question: Whether "It is possible?" With all definiteness it is necessary to tell that it is impossible to take existence of such country for granted. At our disposal, besides purely theoretical constructions, there is only one fact which is speaking well for reality of this country. In order that to understand it, again it is necessary to address purely scientific material. It is known that pollen and disputes of plants can remain the long time estimated by hundreds, thousands and even millions of years in the earth. The method of studying friable deposits is based on this their property so-called sporous and pollen or paleontologic. Its essence is that in the samples which are selected from soil the content of pollen and a dispute of any given plants is defined by a laboratory way. Let's imagine that somewhere in the conditions of the Northwest of RSFSR from some hole or exposure samples were layer-by-layer selected. Top of them reflects modern conditions — in it a lot of pollen of a fir-tree, pine, birch and other plants habitual to us. In the samples which are selected at some depth in a significant amount pollen of broad-leaved breeds — an oak, a maple, an elm, a linden, etc. is found. It means that when layers from which samples were selected were postponed, it was significantly warmer, than now, and not the modern coniferous and small-leaved taiga woods, and more thermophilic coniferous and broad-leaved woods grew. Knowing ecological living conditions of any given breeds of trees, it is possible to judge with some approach that by how many degrees then it was warmer, than now.

In sporous and pollen laboratory of St. Petersburg State University the samples which are selected from ground precipitation of the southern part of the Barents Sea — from the Murmansk shallow water at the western coast of the Kola peninsula near the peninsula of Kanin were analyzed and in?

Peter Robert
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