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The Soviet Russia in the 20th: New Economic Policy, power of Bolsheviks and society



SOVETSKAYA RUSSIA In the 20th: New Economic Policy, POWER of BOLSHEVIKS AND SOCIETY

Social and economic development

During Civil war the economic ruin steadily increased. First of all - there was a continuous reduction of number of operating enterprises and falling of labor productivity of the workers who are financially not interested in quantity and quality of products. But it did not cause special disorders of Bolsheviks. For example, in December, 1920 at the VIII All-Russian congress of Councils in speeches of party leaders and the state did not sound special alarm concerning obvious economic inefficiency of military communism. Need to hold the power prior to a victory of proletarian revolutions in the developed countries was still considered as the main task. It was supposed that during the world revolution the uniform communistic state will be formed. The Councils which are already created in Russia will be taken as a basis of political system in it, and the advanced system of the organization of production of the western countries will be added to them.

But these plans were illusory. And the situation in the country all became aggravated, got out of the control of the Bolshevist power and as a result developed into the heaviest social and economic and political crisis of the end of 1920 - the beginning of 1921

First, in the conditions of Civil war and policy of military communism the financial and credit system completely stopped existence, money in the absence of goods on sale depreciated, practically turned into color pieces of paper, the prices reached the astronomical sizes: the goods costing rubles till 1914 cost in the black market hundreds of thousands now).

Secondly, peasants up in arms rose against a surplus-appropriation system and "komissaroderzhaviya". The country revolts which developed into rather organized insurgent movements reached the greatest sharpness to spring of 1921. In Ukraine and in the south of Russia, groups of Insurgent army of N. Makhno battled (up to 3 thousand), the country army of A.S. Antonov worked in the Tambov province (up to 50 thousand), in Western Siberia the country army of V.A. Rodin was at war, it was restless in the Cossack areas of Don and Kuban. In the ranks of insurgents there were Cossacks and peasants who fought all Civil war both in white troops, and in the Red Army. In three months in the territories covered by revolts more than 10 thousand party, Soviet workers, security officers, militiamen died. Social Revolutionaries were heads of insurgents, as a rule. The ideology of insurgents denied dictatorship of generals and Bolsheviks and stood up for "the third way", a way of "a true narodopravstvo". Among insurgents slogans were the most popular: "Down with a surplus-appropriation system!" "For Councils without

communists!", "Long live free trade!". To mass

to the insurgent movement demonstrations and strikes of workers in Petrograd and others industrial the cities were added. Culmination

the anti-Bolshevist movement there was a revolt of sailors of the Baltic Fleet and working repair shops in fortress Kronstadt in March, 1921 threatening to be thrown to Petrograd. The authorities with great difficulty managed to suppress it, having directed against risen parts of the Red Army under M.N. Tukhachevsky's command.

Thirdly, to the end of Civil war in the European part of Russia in the ranks of the Red Army there were 5 million fighters and commanders. But the country had no funds for their contents (food, regimentals, footwear, etc.). Anti-Bolshevist moods, desertion and gangsterism grew in army. Demobilization of army became the only exit. By 1923 remained under a gun of 516 thousand people. Demobilization of army, reduction of the staff and numbers of the enterprises and institutions, inflow of the population from the starving provinces, led to the fact that unemployment became the mass phenomenon in the cities.

Fourthly, over the country the wave of crime and gangsterism slid. "The Petrograd truth" wrote in November, 1922: "Among broad masses the representation is created that after 12 o'clock in the evening it is impossible to go outside - will undress. Robbers become impudent. The other day hung out the announcement: "Till 9 o'clock your fur coat, and after - ours". Robberies, thefts, robberies, murders - characteristic feature of the Russian daily occurrence of the beginning of the 20th

Fifthly, the Bolshevik party appeared on the verge of split: in it bitter struggle began. Externally this fight looked as "a discussion about labor unions", in fact it was the fierce dispute between those who suggested to weaken policy of military communism (at least - to soften for peasants of a condition of a surplus-appropriation system and to partially return to workers the right to participate in management of the enterprises), and those who insisted on further "crackdown" of military communism, seeing in it the shortest and direct road by socialism further to communism to the present (to society without private property, trade, money and operation).

V.I. Lenin who in 1920 absolutely rejected all offers to soften a surplus-appropriation system, having realized scales of crisis and having estimated it as the most acute crisis of the Bolshevist power in all three years of its existence, came to conclusion that it is impossible to pass to socialism through military communism, and the power of Bolsheviks in Russia can be saved only by concessions to the peasantry which after defeat of white armies and elimination of threat of return of landowners does not want to be reconciled with a surplus-appropriation system and lack of freedom of trade any more.

Having overcome resistance and mistrust of many delegates considering refusal of a surplus-appropriation system "retreat", Lenin achieved at the X congress of RCP(b) in March

1921 of making decision on replacement of a surplus-appropriation system grocery (natural, but not monetary) tax. Peasants insisted on it: for centuries they paid the owner of land a part of a harvest, got used to such form of payment for the right to use the earth, considered prodnalog fair and counted, as before, the part of a harvest which remained to sell after payment of a tax in the market at the "free" (market) prices that on the gained money to buy manufactured goods necessary for them (agricultural tools, clothes, footwear, fabrics, kerosene, soap, etc.).

But originally Lenin and other Bolshevist leaders assumed to keep the state monopoly of domestic trade and other fundamentals of military communism. They were afraid to give to peasants freedom of trade in scales of the whole country, including it return to capitalism. Therefore those agricultural products which remained with peasants after payment of a natural tax it was supposed to receive at them in the way direct (that is without money and the market) exchange for manufactured goods through Narkomprod's bodies. And free private trade was assumed to be limited to the local markets [1].

Development of the decision of the X party congress in economic policy became

The All-Russian party conference which was taking place in May

1921 the Conference heard Lenin's report on economic policy and decided:

"1. The radical political problem of the moment consists in full assimilation and exact carrying out the new economic policy by all party and Soviet workers. The party recognizes this policy established for the long, measured period of time and demands from all carrying out it with unconditional care and conscientiousness.

2. Barter is recognized as the main lever of the new economic policy. The correct relationship between the proletariat and the peasantry, creation of quite steady form of the economic union of both of these classes for transition from capitalism by socialism is impossible without establishment of systematic barter or a produktoobmen between the industry and agriculture."

However economic development of the country went on other way which was dictated by a real situation and laws of development of economy, but not illusions and dogmas of Bolsheviks.

In 1921 the terrible drought fell upon 35 provinces of Middle and Lower Volga, the Cis-Urals, Northern Kazakhstan, Western Siberia, that is upon the main zernoproizvodyashchy regions of the country. On 20 million tithes of the burned-out earth 37 million people lived. A drought - the natural phenomenon. Hunger began. But hunger

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>- it already phenomenon social. For years of Civil war almost all grain was forcibly seized from peasants under the guise of "surplus", including seed (that

is postponed for crops the next year), in the village all minimized insurance stocks were eaten, the cattle livestock was reduced to a minimum. As a result country farms met a drought in a root ruined and exsanguinated.

Desperate telegrams flew to Moscow. "One continuous dreadful horror reigns in our county (Buzuluk). Hunger grabbed by a throat. Starving ate all cats, dogs, all drop, began to eat the died people. From a barn where there are before burial corpses of people, these corpses are stolen and eaten at night. Graves are dug out... Beit the alarm, render help, otherwise all county will turn into the desert". Human life became a change in the conditions of the social experiment made by Bolshevist dictatorship (violent planting of the military communism) aggravated with the elements.

Mass anti-Bolshevist moods among the population, impossibility to organize barter with the village because of absence at the disposal of the state of stocks of manufactured goods, lack of funds for recovery of the industry and rise in unemployment were added to hunger. In addition so fanatically expected by Bolsheviks, both leaders, and rank-and-file members of party, "world revolution" "was obviously "late". All this forced Bolsheviks to refuse finally fundamentals of military communism and to take the following step to freedom of the commodity-money relations, to use of traditional capitalist (market) methods of managing.

In the summer - fall of 1921 Lenin's government cancelled the state barter, resolved freedom of trade, started industry denationalization. Small and medium-sized enterprises, first of all the light and food industry, began to return to their former owners to property or to be leased to other businessmen. And the enterprises which remained in the property of the state acquired the right to sell a part of the products in the free market.

The essence of the new economic policy (NEP) consisted in partial return to the commodity-money relations at preservation of "command heights in economy" in hands of the party and state device (state ownership on the earth and its subsoil, the heavy industry, transport and financial credit institutions, the state monopoly of foreign trade).

The main lines of the New Economic Policy were:

In the industry:

>- introduction of elements of self-financing (independence) in state

industries,

encouragement of the private and mixed capital,

>- cancellation of a general labor service, formation of the market of labor,

>- attraction of the foreign capital through concessions,

>- transition from work wages in kind to monetary,

>- introduction of a tariff system of compensation,

>- development of foreign trade at the state monopoly for it as communication with world economy,

>- recovery of the principle of availability at a price in relationship of the state - the private trader, the state - the citizen, the state - cooperation,

>- relative stabilization of monetary circulation,

>- reorganization of the device of public administration towards reduction of administrative expenses.

Documents testify:

From the decree of VTsIK "About replacement of a food and raw allotment with a natural tax" of March 21, 1921

"1. For ensuring the correct and quiet housekeeping on the basis of more free order of the farmer with products of the work and the economic means, for strengthening of country economy and a raising of its performance and also for exact establishment of the state obligations falling on farmers, the allotment as a way of the state preparations of food, raw materials and fodder, is replaced with a natural tax.

3. The tax is levied in the form of percentage or royalty from the products made in economy, proceeding from accounting of a harvest, number of eaters in economy and existence of the cattle in it.
7. Responsibility for performance of a tax is conferred on each certain owner, and bodies of the Soviet power are assigned to impose collectings on everyone who did not execute a tax. The circular duty is cancelled.
8. All stocks of food, raw materials and fodder remaining with farmers after performance of a tax by them are at their full disposal and can be used by them for improvement of strengthening of the economy, for increase in personal consumption and for exchange for products factory and handicraft

industry and agricultural production. Exchange is allowed within economic circulation both through the cooperative organizations, and in the markets and markets."

In agriculture:

>- replacement of a surplus-appropriation system prodnalogy (natural tax),

>- return to free trade in bread and other food,

>- refusal of planting of communes in the village,

>- permission of limited land lease and use of wage labor,

>- development of a system of contracting and rural cooperation.

From the decree of SNK "Order HUNDRED about Carrying Out in Life of the Beginnings of the New Economic Policy" of August 9, 1921

".4. Preventing further falling of the national economy, it is necessary to reconstruct on the following beginnings: a) the state represented by the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy and its local bodies focuses in the direct management the separate industries of production and a certain number large or for some reason or other b) these enterprises are conducted with the state point of view of the enterprises, important and also subsidiary to them, which are mutually supplementing each other on the basis of exact cost accounting. (more than 7,000 industrial enterprises).

5. The enterprises which did not enter into the above-stated groups have to be. are leased to cooperatives, associations and other associations and also individuals. (more than 12,000 industrial enterprises).
6. The enterprises which remained not leased and which maintaining the state and its bodies do not undertake are subject to closing, and workers and employees are distributed between the working enterprises, on the state works and the Soviet farms; left without work arrive on accounting of departments of work and receive the help of the state.
11. In the same purposes, the raising and stability of our ruble, requires carrying out a number of measures to the return inflow of money in cash desks of the state, proceeding from the principle that in the field of the national economy the state at this condition of the state resources and until a raising at least of its primary branches, any economic services for nothing can render nobody. Among the taken measures it is necessary to pay attention to opening of ssudosberegatelny cash desks, permission of credit cooperation, transition to maintaining utility companies on the basis of payment and t. item
14. At implementation of all above-stated economic policy the exact differentiation of functions and competence of various economic Soviet institutions is necessary. The Supreme Soviet of the National Economy is the body (as a commissariat) which is carrying out in a business order approved by Council of Work and Defense (since 1920 the Council of working and country defense so began to be called) plans and the general economic directives in the field of the industry. When carrying out in life of production tasks of Council of Work and Defense all governing bodies of the industry take strict personal liability on court for rational maintaining, on the above-stated economic bases charged to them the enterprises."

So, free trade after three years of fierce Civil war and violent planting of military communism. What is it? Refusal of the Marxist principles or tactical maneuver, temporary concession of the party dictatorial ruling on behalf of the proletariat huge country country?

In a year after cancellation of a surplus-appropriation system Lenin noticed: "The car from hands escapes: as if the person who drives it sits, and the car goes not there, at all not as the one who sits at a wheel of this car imagines".

The New Economic Policy created conditions for recovery of agriculture and the industry. In the fall of 1922 the first signs of improvement of an economic situation appeared: hunger was overcome, in the markets there were products, private shops began to open, private enterprises gave the first products. But at the same time the inevitable growth of a private property in the village and in the city began: prosperous peasants corrected the farms, the industrialists and dealers nicknamed nepmana grew rich.

It extremely disturbed many members of the party of the Bolsheviks considering that denationalization and freedom of trade lead to restoration of capitalism in Russia. This concern was strengthened by new moods in the environment of anti-Bolshevist emigration. Leaders and ideologists of the liberal and socialist parties and groups estimated the New Economic Policy as the first step of Bolsheviks to refusal of the utopias and experiments as the first step in return of Russia to a normal way of historical development. In the press and orally they openly hoped that the New Economic Policy will lead to falling of dictatorship of Bolsheviks sooner or later.

In these conditions the vital value for Bolsheviks was gained by a question: where does conduct the New Economic Policy - forward in socialism or back in capitalism?

In works of 1921 - 1923 Lenin actively developed the theory of the new economic policy, proving that use of the commodity-money relations in the form of state capitalism [2] at dictatorship of the Bolshevist state retaining "command heights in economy" - the only way of country Russia to socialism which basis will be an industry, public property and bezrynochny economy. At the same time it

considered extremely important maintaining monopoly of Bolsheviks for the political power and maintaining unity of party. Only under these conditions, according to him, the Soviet state will be able effectively to influence economic life of the country and to direct its development in a socialist way.

Thus, the New Economic Policy in the mature form bore in itself two deep and serious contradictions.

The first: between a market method of construction of socialism and its purpose - creation of bezrynochny socialist economy.

The second: between monopoly of Bolsheviks for the political power and

variety of political and economic interests of various social groups (working class, peasantry, nepmansky bourgeoisie, bureaucracy, intellectuals).

The solution of these contradictions opened two ways of further historical development before the country.

The first: Bolsheviks develop the New Economic Policy, carrying out more radical

an economic reform and opening a bigger scope for the market relations and chastnopredprinimatelsky activity (including refusal of the state monopoly for foreign trade), risking to lose the power.

The second: Bolsheviks liquidate the New Economic Policy and pass to bezrynochny economy (without private property, freedom of trade and business), strengthening the monopoly for the power.

On what way the country will go, depended on many economic, social, political and ideological factors.

The individual country economy, enterprise of peasants, their interest in results of the work became the New Economic Policy main motor and revival of the Russian economy on the basis of the New Economic Policy. Being exclusive producer of food and raw materials, the peasant disposed of the grown-up products at own discretion now. Timely payment of a prodnalog who since 1924 could be already paid not by agricultural products, but money was its duty before the state. The peasant himself decided how many to seed how many to leave in a barn, and how many to sell. He lived by the principle: first of all to provide itself. In the country yard in the handicraft way produced clothes, footwear, house utensils. If the peasant went to a rural bench, then bought there goods which could not make: salt, matches, soap, kerosene, calico.

The material prosperity of peasants was a miscellaneous. However the wellbeing of the village grew, it revived after revolutionary and military shocks. Share

serednyatsky farms increased (to 60% of country people). Prosperous peasants, fists, (up to 15% of country people) were a peculiar guarantor against hunger for poor people: in case of need under crushing terms of a loan was at whom to lend products till a new harvest.

The restored country economy was also the key to wellbeing of the city as the country market was the main source of products for citizens.

The products arrived from peasants who or sold it to suppliers (private, state and cooperative), or traded. The role of the private supplier in deep areas was especially big. In the second half of the 20th the private trader bought about a quarter of bread in the making provinces and to a third of raw materials. The private trader (nepman) participated in production of goods and he played especially important role to trade. Receiving profit was the main incentive and the purpose of business activity of a nepman, it provided speed of movement, efficiency, high safety of goods.

For ensuring profitability of production at the state enterprises their transfer on cost accounting and their association in trusts was made [3]. In trusts the enterprises of one industry, the largest, united with the best technical equipment and conveniently located for association. Each trust was headed by board. The enterprises entering into trust had no right of the legal entity, had no balance and the reporting, could not speak at the market independently. All these rights were granted only to managements of trusts. Process of a trestirovaniye came to the end in 1922. To the middle of 1923 in the country there were 478 trusts, from them central, being under authority of VSNKh, - 133 and local

Along with trusts syndicates appeared. They did not deal with production issues. Their functions included production supply with raw materials, sale of finished goods. With formation of the USSR all industry was subdivided on value into three categories: all-union which was managed by VSNKh of the USSR, republican and local.

Restoration of the commodity-money relations demanded the fastest stabilization of public finances. In October, 1921 the National bank of RSFSR was created. It was urged to promote the credits and other banking operations, development of the industry, agriculture and goods turnover. Along with the State Bank there were branch banks created on the joint-stock beginnings. By the end of the 20th besides the State Bank 6 commercial, 2 cooperative and 45 municipal banks worked; the crucial role in them was played by the state.

In 1922 - 1924 Narkomat of finance headed by G.Ya. Sokolnikov

[4], the first Soviet monetary reform was undertaken. First denomination [5] of the huge money supply which is in use over the country was in two steps carried out. In 1922 for 100 thousand any bank notes 1 Soviet ruble was given. The next year already for 1 million bank notes 1 Soviet ruble was given. Thus, in the country the circulation of other bank notes was forbidden. On March 7, 1924 the gold chervonets was introduced into circulation. The chervonets equated to 10 pre-revolutionary gold rubles was provided with gold and other easily realized values. Instead of the depreciated Soviet notes, copper and silver coins, treasury notes were released. The monetary reform stabilized a financial and credit system, allowed to overcome budget deficit. However, the chervonets not for long remained convertible currency. In 1926 demand of the private market for gold and foreign currency so exceeded the offer that the State Bank stopped exchange.

At the same time at the beginning of the 20th the system of direct and indirect taxes was introduced: income, agricultural, trade, excises on consumer goods. Payment of journey on transport, postage and stamp duties, payment of utilities, etc. was restored. All these taxes and payments provided receipt of money in the government budget.

A specific place in the Russian economy was held by the private industry and trade. In domestic retail trade about 75% of goods turnover belonged to private trade enterprises, wholesale controlled the state. Importance of the market and a nepman for supply of the population looks indisputable against the background of poor development of the state industry and trade. The shoe, knitted, sewing branches of light industry which are traditionally developed in agrarian Russia were represented by the small enterprises with a big share of manual work. Even the most technically equipped textile industry produced in the mid-twenties on the person in a year only 12 m of cotton fabrics at population in 154.2 million people. The release of other products was smaller. Per capita in a year 80 cm of woolen fabrics, a half-boot, one sock or one stocking were produced.

Since 1923 in the country the economic recovery began

>. To the middle of the 20th the agriculture, the light and food industry reached generally pre-war level. By 1925 the pre-war industrial output was restored. A fast economic recovery was partly caused by sharp reduction of military expenses.

In days of the New Economic Policy the country endured two economic crises: in 1923/24 and in 1927/28. Their prime cause was that the underdeveloped industry and backward agriculture did not create for each other enough capacious sales markets. The industry did not satisfy requirement rural

farms in agricultural tools and manufactured goods of national consumption, and agriculture could not supply completely the industry with raw materials, and urban population - food.

Crisis of 1923/24 became history as "sale crisis". The reason of crisis was that the management of self-supporting trusts and syndicates, wishing to get the maximum profit, extremely "inflated" the prices of the made manufactured goods. At the same time the state purchase prices of agricultural goods remained low. The difference between the high prices of manufactured goods and low on agricultural goods received the name "scissors of the prices". They reached the maximum size in October, 1923. The low purchasing power of peasants led to overstocking of warehouses and shops industrial output: regiments burst with goods, but the prices were so high that peasants refused to buy goods, including the prices extortionate. Reduction of sales volumes caused reduction of profit of the plants and factories that led to delays in payment of salary to workers. It, in turn, caused protests of workers: meetings and demonstrations began.

Administrative intervention of the state in pricing process allowed to recover from crisis. In 1924 the selling prices of products of the state enterprises were by order lowered by 30%. On the other hand, there took place the increase in purchase prices of agricultural products accompanied with the forced government procurement of grain for export.

As a result "crisis of sale" was quickly liquidated. However it was succeeded by "commodity hunger": if before there were many goods, but peasants could not buy them because of the high prices, then now peasants had money, but there were not enough goods on sale.

One of party leaders N.I. Bukharin who was actively developing the Lenin ideas of the New Economic Policy considered that further development of the market relations - the best means of overcoming crises and, at the same time, a way of the USSR to socialism. It, in his opinion, had to create conditions for free development of individual country farms in the direction of rich farms, and further the rich peasantry through free commodity-money circulation will be able quite to cooperate with the state industry: to buy the goods made by it and by that to give necessary funds for carrying out industrialization. Bukharin, unlike many Bolsheviks, did not consider rich peasants (fists) by threat of the Soviet power and believed that through cooperation which development went the state they will approach a socialist (collective) form of managing.

Tops of Bolshevik party - I.V. Stalin, L.B. Kamenev and G.E. Zinovyev - supported Bukharin. In April, 1925 the Central Committee of party made the decision to lower the amount of an agricultural tax and to take it from peasants only money that had to stimulate development of domestic trade. Besides,

it was authorized to peasants to use wage labor of agricultural workers and to leave community for creation of independent farms.

Though in 1926 the gross industrial output in general exceeded pre-war level, the first results of a new agrarian course were negative for the power of Bolsheviks. Having paid a monetary tax, peasants postponed the most part of grain in a stock and did not carry on the market, waiting when shops are filled with manufactured goods.

Nevertheless, recovery of industrial production created conditions for improvement of financial position of workers. All workers and employees had the right for annual next vacation not less than two weeks. The real wage, and with it and demand for consumer goods raised.

The interests of national consumption dictated expansion of both private and state production of consumer goods, and trade. But they did not coincide with plans of the Bolshevist management which at the end

1925 made the decision on the accelerated development of heavy and defense industry.

Increase of economic lag of the USSR from the developed capitalist countries became one of the factors, a decisive image which influenced adoption of such decision. The equipment at the enterprises which was not updated many years grew old. Performance decreased. The western countries surely passed to new technologies, the upgraded equipment, increased quality of products, comprehensively developed science. The world entered a new stage scientific and technical progress: mass application was found

radio engineering devices, automation and piping of production. In the USSR the first wheel and caterpillar tractors at the Putilovsky, Kharkiv and Kolomna plants were made only 1924. The next year about 500 tractors were released, and the production boundary of 1000 cars was overcome only in 1928

Transition to policy of the forced industrialization was carried out by forces of the state within the planned centralized economy. In the choice of forms and methods of industrialization the crucial role was played by ideology - Marxist rejection of the market and a private property. The political management sought to carry out industrialization as soon as possible (10 - 15 years), expecting fast war. In December, 1925 the XIV congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) proclaimed the main task of economic policy development of the heavy industry at preservation of market relations between the city and the village. Development of the first five-year plan began.

The forced export of grain and other types of agricultural raw materials which was the main source of currency for purchase of machines and the equipment abroad for under construction industrial

was a decisive condition of its performance

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enterprises. On the other hand, the number of urban population along with construction of the new industrial enterprises increased, and the state had to guarantee its provisioning. Industrialization, therefore, needed huge amount of grain. Grain-collections, however, went not so quickly as that was wished by the country leaders. In 1927, plans of grain-collections were not implemented; the state received less 128 million poods in comparison with 1926.

"Crisis of grain-collections" of 1927/28 was in many respects caused by the fact that Great Britain in the spring of 1927 broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR. Exorcized newspapers about fast war. War is always a lack of food and increase in prices not it. In the cities the panic purchase of goods and food broke out; shelves of shops became empty. Therefore peasants, having paid a tax, decided to hold grain again and not to carry it on the markets. Interruptions in supply of bread to the state shops led to price increase in the market. Rise in price of grain which went also on a forage an animal (fodder), caused rise in prices of products of livestock production. Chain reaction of price increase began. There was a real threat of hunger in the cities and failure of supply of the Red Army.

In December, 1927 the XV congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) for recovery from the crisis made the decision on further development of the industry in the city and transition to active creation of collective farms in the village. But at the same time decisions of a congress assumed the balanced development of industrial and agrarian sectors of the national economy, and, above all - use of market mechanisms of regulation of economy. In fact the economic program adopted by the XV congress was continuation and development of bases of the New Economic Policy.

However at the beginning of 1928 Stalin who concentrated in the hands the power in party started cardinal turn in economic policy. During the trip across Siberia in January, 1928, meeting partiynokhozyaystvenny heads, he explained procuring crisis with kulachestvo resistance. Having called crisis "a grain strike", he estimated it as conscious sabotage from the fists counting on substantial increase of the prices. From local heads he demanded to take "emergency measures" against fists, of which confiscation of bread was main. In particular, he offered, actually - demanded, to apply the 107th article of the Criminal code of RSFSR punishing imprisonment for speculation to saboteurs of grain-collections. Judges and prosecutors not ready to similar actions, Stalin called "misters" who should have been "cleaned" and replaced.

This cardinal turn begun by Stalin in economic policy completely contradicted both to Lenin's views of the New Economic Policy, and decisions of the XV party congress. Elimination of the New Economic Policy and creation in the USSR of bezrynochny economy was its ultimate goal.

According to economic changes in the country in the 20th changed

social structure of society. As of 1924, the social structure was very characteristic of the state of agrarian-industrial type: workers made 10.4% of the population, peasants and handicraftsmen - 76.7% serving - 4.4%, industrialists and dealers (nepmana) - 8.5%. Percentage city and villagers was 18: 82.

Unemployment was one of the acute social issues.

In 1921 - 1922 the demobilization of army, staff reduction and numbers of the working enterprises and institutions, inflow of the population from the starving provinces caused growth of the population in the cities and emergence of unemployment. For the 20th along with rapid growth of number of workers externally paradoxical growth of number of the unemployed was observed. Generally it was explained by what the state tax pressure and search of the better lot "pushed out" to the cities of many peasants on search of temporary and constant earnings.

According to the State Planning Committee, the number of the workers occupied in the industry in 1921 - 1922 made less than 1 million 250 thousand people, then stable growth began: in 1923 and 1924 it made 1 million 900 thousand and 2 million 300 thousand people. Unemployment increased from 160 thousand people at the end of 1921 to 641 thousand at the end of 1922, and by the end of 1923 1 million 240 thousand unemployed were registered that

made 18% of total number occupied in the national economy. Only 29 jobs on average were the share of each 100 people who were looking for work; the average period of unemployment was about three months.

The sharpness of a housing problem remained.

Thus, the main results of the New Economic Policy in a social economichesk

Schenck Richard
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