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Military daily occurrence: food supply of the Red Army and German Wehrmacht during World War II: comparative analysis



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MILITARY DAILY OCCURRENCE: FOOD SUPPLY of the RED ARMY AND GERMAN WEHRMACHT during WORLD WAR II: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Long since it is known that "the army moves on a belly" therefore the most exact measure of quality of life of soldiers is that, how well they are fed. Despite importance of this question, unfortunately, in the historical and anthropological analysis of the Great Patriotic War, it is almost missed. And if within the research of the Soviet armed forces recently nevertheless there were detailed works of the Russian historian Yu.A. Gorkov about activity of the State committee of Defense in the years of war, and the American military historian D. Glan-ts, narrating about that, "As the Red Army turned into Army of the Victory", then serious researches about food of Wehrmacht, except for soldier's letters from East front, in a domestic historiography not sushchestvuyet1.

When in the German and recently declassified Russian archives we found the documents devoted to food of Wehrmacht at orders of the German Supreme command of ground forces the idea of comparative analysis of food supply of the Red Army and German Wehrmacht in days of the Great Patriotic War was born.

In the 30th years the calculations of the German experts showed that of an ermaniye will not be able to sustain long war without additional import of food. Already then the dependence on foreign market was up to 20%; on sterns and grain it was more considerable, on fats exceeded 40%. The plan of food supply of wartime provided that consumption of meat by the population will be 68%, and fats - 57% of consumption peace vremeni2.

In the Soviet Union during Stalin modernization it was succeeded to satisfy partially at the expense of the village needs of the population of the cities and armed forces for food. However everyday life of soldiers of the Red Army in the 30th years was rather Spartan. When war began, the daily food ration of the Red Army man was defined by the order of NPO of May 24, 1941 according to various military duties which are carried out by it. Food consisted of bread, potato, cabbage and barley, meat and fish and also a small amount of seasonings - such as salt, pepper, mustard, bay leaf and others spetsii3.

1 Yu.A. Gorkov. The state Committee of Defense decides (1941-1945). Figures, documents. M, 2002; D. Glants. Risen from the ashes. As the Red Army of 1941 turned into Army of the Victory. M, 2009.
2 B. Müller-Gillebrand. Overland army of Germany. 1939-1945 of M., 2002. Page 165-166.
3 Russian archive: Great Patriotic War: Orders of the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR on June 22, 1941 - 1942 (2-2). M, 1997. Page 393.

Yamal oil and gas

institute, branch

Tyumen

oil and gas

university

G.I. KOLGA

The comparative analysis of food supply in the years of war shows that supply of the Red Army was generally carried out in many respects due to redistribution of food from the civil sector in military, and the German Wehrmacht - due to robbery of occupied territories. The daily diet in both armies was differentiated depending on proximity to the front and degree of risk, and in RKKA the diet remained constant, in Wehrmacht - decreased.

From the beginning of war by the Soviet Union the huge territory of the best fertile lands was lost, as predetermined the shortage of food in the first two years of war. On the contrary, the German Wehrmacht had new opportunities due to robbery of the occupied territory what numerous documents confirm. According to the secretary of state of Imperial Ministry of Food and agriculture G.-Y. Rick, from the occupied areas the following quantity of the main products of agriculture was taken out until the end of 1943/44: grain - 7.5 million t., fats - 128 thousand tons., meat - 1.7 million t. At the same time, a significant amount of food which Germany received from occupied territories left on supply of the German troops deployed there. In five years of war this part made 5.9 million t. grains, 370 thousand tons. fats and 1.7 million t. meat. The most part of food received from the occupied areas means, it was consumed by the troops.4 which were there

How food products between civil and military sectors were distributed, shows tab. 1.

Table 1

Weekly diets of products of the average consumer in Germany and in vermakhte5

Years of war City inhabitants Wehrmacht (East front)

bread meat fats bread meat fats

1939 2,400 500 270 4550 840 315
1942 2,000 3 00 206 - - 1943 2,325 250 218 4900 1050 350
1944 2,225 250 218 - - 1945 1,778 222 109 - - The analysis of tab. 1 shows that during war the weekly diets of the main food (bread, meat, fats) increased in Wehrmacht while in the Reich these indicators fell from year to year. It means that in the conditions of a lack of food there was a process of redistribution of food in favor of Wehrmacht. This fact also emphasizes messages of the German statistical collection about total amounts of consumption of food products in Nazi Germany and Wehrmacht. According to its data, from 1939 to 1943 the total costs of grain were cut down by city consumers for 21.5%, "self-provided" - for 14.8%, and consumption of Wehrmacht increased more than twice (230.5%). At the general reduction of meat products for 24.3%, consumption of meat products by army increased by 36.2%. At the same time the food share in army transportations increased from 19.1% in 1938 to 22.6% in 1940 and 20.8% in 1942 6

In recent years wars consumption of grain grain grew. From 1943 to 1944 it increased at all categories - especially at army (104.9%) and the civilian population (123.2%). Consumption of livestock products in 1944 in general was reduced: on supply of city consumers - for 10.5% which are "self-provided" - for 7.7%, Wehrmacht - for 9.4%. In general consumption of meat products in Germany during war dropped by 31.5%. And, this reduction happened at the expense of the civilian population: city dwellers - for 45.8%, "self-provided" - for 35.2%. Consumption of meat products by Wehrmacht increased by 123.4%7.

4 Rick G.-Y. Food problem and agriculture during the war / / Results of World War II. Conclusions of defeated. SPb. - M, 1998. Page 455-457.
5 Made on: Zentrales Staatsarchiv, Potsdam, RmfEuL, Nr.2366, Bl. 92; RGVA, t. 1280, op. 2, 3, l. 3; Rick G.-Y. Food problem and agriculture during the war / / Results of World War II. Conclusions of defeated. SPb., M., 1998. Page 452.
6 Statistisches Handbuch vor Deutschland (1928-1944). Munchen, 1949. 492 S.
7 Statistische Schnellberichte; Planungsamt, Dezember 1944.

So the Nazi regime managed to mobilize due to reduction of norms of food of the population the considerable contingents of food for army. Data of supply of separate groups of armies demonstrate to it. For example, to Norway from August to November, 1942 it was planned to send 8,133 t. meat, 1,428 t. cheese, 15,000 t. fishes, 1,784 t. fruit jelly, 1,500 t. fruit, 16.9 thousand tons. vegetables and 150 thousand tons. kartofelya8.

We will analyze daily food allowances of the Soviet and German soldiers and officers during war. Standards of a daily allowance of staff of the Red Army were introduced by the Resolution state treasury bills No. 662ss of September 12, 1941 9 and the order of the People's commissar of defense against September 22, 1941 differentially for each category of the military personnel. The first category (norm No. 1) - Red Army men and the commanding structure of military units of field army. On norm No. 1 - the daily diet made on the main products: 800-900 g of rye bread, 150 g of meat, 140 g of different grain, 100 g of fish, 30 g of animal fats, 35 g of sugar, 500 g of potatoes, 320 g of vegetables, 30 g of salt. Caloric content of a ration was 3,547 calories in the winter and 3,357 calories in the summer. (norm No. 2) - Red Army men and the commanding structure of the back of field army. Military units and connections of the 2nd echelon of armies were provided on norm No. 1, and rear parts - on norm No. 2. On norm No. 2 the daily ration included: 700-800 g of bread, 120 g of different grain, 120 g of meat, 80 g of fish, 25 g of animal fats, 25 g of sugar, 500 g of potatoes, 320 g of vegetables, 30 g of salt. Caloric content of a ration was in the winter - 3,028 calories, in the summer - 2,848 kaloriy10. Officers and generals of field army who were content on norms No. 1 and 2 received an additional ration (oil cow - 40 g, cookies - 20 g, canned food fish - 50 g). (norm No. 3) - Red Army men front spare

the parts which were not a part of field army were provided with food as follows: rye bread - 650-750 g, grain different - 100 g, meat - 75 g, fish - 120 g, fats animal - 20 g, sugar - 25 g, potatoes - 600 g, vegetables - 320 g, salt

>- 30 g. A set of products on caloric content made 2,880 / 2,690 calories in the winter and in the summer according to. (norm No. 4) - the military personnel of the guard parts and rear institutions which were not a part of field army. The daily ration approximately met standard No. 3, but on caloric content was slightly lower - 2,718 / 2,528 calories.

The first category (norm No. 5) - combat crews of crews of planes of field army. The diet for this category of the military personnel was the highest in the Red Army and made: 400 g of rye bread and 400 g of white bread, 90 g of grain, on 50 g of rice and pasta, 350 g of meat, 40 g of a bird, 90 g of fish, 90 g of oil of cow, 80 g of sugar, 200 g of milk and 20 g of the milk condensed, 20 g of cottage cheese, 10 g of sour cream, 20 g of cheese, 0.5 pieces of eggs, 500 g of potatoes, 385 g of vegetables, 30 g of salt. Caloric content was 4,712 calories.11 For wounded the hospital ration was defined (norm No. 10) with a caloric content of 3,243 calories, and the sanatorium ration on norm No. 11 made 3,892 calories.

The norm No. 12 defined structure ,

which included: crackers rye - 500 g, the concentrated porridge from millet of-200 g, cream soup (canned food) pea - 75 g, sausage half-smoked - 100 g, or bacon - 70 g, or a vobla sukhokopchyony, brynza - 150 g, or fish dry fillet - 100 g, or canned meat, 1/3 banks - 113 g, or a herring - 200 g, sugar - 35 g, salt - 10 g. The power value of a dry ration was 2,890 calories.

It is remarkable that the order provided norms of food for prisoners of war - officers and patients. Captured German officers received food on sle8 K.A. Sehuller Logistik im Ruslandfeldzug: Die Rolle der Eisenbahn bei Planung, Vorbereitung und Durchfuhrung des deutschen Angriffs auf die Sowjetunion bis zum Krieg vor Moskau im Winter. Frankfurt, car., 1987. 347 S.

9 RTsHIDNI. T. 644. Op. 2. Unit hr. 17. L. 154-193.
10 CAMO Russian Federation. T. 2. Op. 920266. 1. L. 918-922.
11 CAMO Russian Federation. T. 2. Op. 920266. 1. L. 918-922.

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the blowing norm: bread wheat and rye - on 300 g, meat - 75 g, fish - 80 g, oil cow - 40 g, sugar - 40 g, potatoes - 400 g, vegetables - 200 g. Sick prisoners of war received generally the same, but it is less than fish - 50 g, potatoes - 300 g, but 200 more g of milk and 30 g of fat.12

Vodka on 100 g a day on cheloveka13 was allocated to the military personnel of the Red Army who is on a front line according to the resolution state treasury bills No. 562s of 22.08.1941. Except the main products of a daily diet also other supplies were provided to the military personnel of fighting and rear parts: tobacco (sheet) - 20 g, matches - 3 boxes, tissue paper - 7 packs a month, soap - 200 g a month. Crews of warplanes received 25 boxes of cigarettes, the 10th box of matches and 300 g of soap in mesyats14.

The Soviet troops received food partially due to reduction of norms of supply of workers and employees and also collective farmers. The daily food allowance of adult population in the cities and industrial settlements made in 1942 2,555 calories, in 1943 - 2,751 calorie. Despite difficulties, supply of army it was satisfied on sugar and fats for 100%, on tea, salt and tobacco products for 80%, on meat and bread for 66% and for 30% - on potatoes and ovoshcham15. It is necessary to emphasize that during the static periods the Soviet troops were provided with food in time and sufficiently. However during the periods of too fast approach the backs lagged behind, and shortage produktov16 was felt.

In the German Wehrmacht during an initial stage of war the day ration of the serviceman was established: bread - 650 g, butter or fat - 45 g, sausage or cheese - 120 g, meat - 120 g, fruit jelly - 200 g, natural coffee - 5 g, coffee substitute - 10 g, cigarettes - 6 pieces 17 According to other data a diet looked a little differently. Dry ration: 750 g of bread, 45 g of oil or fats, 120 g of sausages, fish canned food, cheese, 200 g of jam or artificial honey, 7 cigarettes, 2 cigars, 1 bag of lollipops, etc. Hot meals: 750 g of potatoes, vegetables and 120 g of meat, 45 g of vegetable or animal fat, 15 g of sauce, 8 g of coffee or 10 g to an erzatskofa or chaya18.

However from the beginning of war against the USSR the Third Reich was not able to provide the troops with a sufficient food allowance a long time. Already on November 20, 1941 at a meeting with the commander-in-chief of ground forces Brau-hich's background Moritz managing affairs of Ministry of Food and agriculture noted that reduction of a meat week diet from 1350 to 1000 since December 15, 1941 of 19 V of 1942 is required situation worsened in connection with expansion of theaters of war and increase in number of Wehrmacht.

April 5, 1943. The management of military economy and arms at General headquarters (OKV) issued "The decree on change of a set of food supply for Wehrmacht and also the unions and the organizations, supplied by Wehrmacht" 20. The week diet decreased and distributed on 4 sets depending on dislocation of division.

A set of I received: 1. All connections in areas of armies of East front, in northern Norway and in Sicily. 2. Patients who are in military hospitals in busy east areas. 3. Despite the area of fighting: a) so12 Yu.A. Gorkov. The state Committee of Defense decides (1941-1945). Figures, documents. M, 2002. Page 481.

13 RTsHIDNI. T. 644. Op. 2. Unit hr. 7. L. 184.
14 Russian archive: Great Patriotic War: Orders of the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR on June 22, 1941 - 1942. T.13(2-2). M, 1997. Page 97-102.
15 Great victory of the Soviet Union of 1941-1945 of M., 1976. Page 398.
16 D. Glants. Risen from the ashes. As the Red Army of 1941 turned into Army of the Victory. M, 2009. Page 307.
17 P. P. East front. Hitler goes east. 1941-43. M, 2005 (silt.).
18 Buchner A. Das Handbuch der Deutschen Infanterie. 1939-1945 [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://www.ostfront.ru/Text/Inf.division203.html. Zagl. from the screen.
19 F. Halder. Military diary, 1941-1942. M, 2003. Page 519-520.
20 RGVA. T. 1280. Op. 2. 3. L. 1.

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stava of warships in the sea and then which are 21 days in the harbor; b) crews of planes which were at war at the front and also crews of the planes fixing weather in places of fighting departures; c) troops which were withdrawn from the area of fighting in Europe, Russia, from Africa, Rhodes and Crete for a period of up to 6 weeks. The set of II intended for: 1) connections in "front-line areas" of East front; 2) army divisions for the period of their fighting application (fight against guerrillas, defense on the channel coast, the coast of Atlantic and the coast of the Mediterranean Sea); h) crews of planes which do not make fighting departures against the enemy, but are used for other military and air tasks. Set

III received: 1. Army divisions of Wehrmacht which performed tasks in the occupied areas if they did not get under sets of I or II. 2. Structures of warships which were in the harbor more than 21 day. 3. Bodies and spare divisions of which replenishment in warring troops was formed. 4. The patients of military hospitals who are not specified under A 2 point. The set of IV intended to all army divisions preparing military replenishment in non-belligerent troops.

In Wehrmacht there was no difference in norms of an allowance. The main food for all - from the shooter to the general - were odinakovy21. These tab. 2 show four sets of food supply of Wehrmacht.

Tablitsa2

Sets of food supply for Wehrmacht for 1943 22

(in grams)

A lump - plekt Bread a daily diet Meat (on a bone). week/day Fat (on bread) a daily diet Sugar a daily diet Cutlets a week diet Number a lump - the plekt

I 700 1,050 (150) 50 40 45 I

II 700 800 (115) 40 40 z5 II

III/IVl 700 700 (100) 40 z0 70 III

IV 2 600 600 (85) z0 z0 115 IV

Within four sets of food the following regulation of the week meat diet specified in tab. 3 was provided.

Table 3

A week meat set (in grams) 23

Set Midday food Evening food Notes

I II III IV 1050 of 800 g 700 g 600 g (7X90) 6z0 (7X60) 420 g (6X50) z00 (6X50) z00 420 g {3x120 I skin sausage 2x30 fresh-killed meat of 380 g {2x120 I skin sausage 4x35 fresh-killed meat of 400 g {2x120 I skin sausage 4x40 fresh-killed meat of 300 g {2x120 I skin sausage 2x30 fresh-killed meat Other division of a meat share in limits of a week diet on midday is allowed I write also evening food. Fresh-killed meat can be made for evening food or as warm food and a half a vegetable diet or as sandwich.

To the above-stated norms of food supply the following raises were provided: 1. According to the decision of the top military commander all soldiers until the end of a month in which it executed 21 years weekly needed up to 200 g mya21 P. P. East front. Hitler goes east. 1941-1943 (silt).

22 RGVA. T. 1280. Op. 2. 3. L. 3.
23 RGVA. T. 1280. Op. 2. 3. L. 3-4.

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sa, daily up to 100 g of bread or 70 g of flour of rye bread. 2. On the basis of the medical certificate: a) to certain soldiers who needed special food if raises were not sufficient: daily up to 200 g of bread; b) to soldiers who performed especially hard work to a set of food of IV it was necessary daily up to 200 g of bread, weekly z0 to of the fat (smeared on bread). h. According to the decision of the commander in addition it was necessary to the soldiers serving anti-aircraft installations in day and after air raids to a set of IV: daily 50 g of meat, weekly 200 g of meat, daily up to 100 g of bread and 10 g of the fat (smeared on bread), weekly up to 40 g of fat.

Bread was provided to troops rye, on norms of I, II, III - on 700 g, on norm

IV -600 g. White loaf was received only by patients in military hospitals and flight personnel of military aircraft on the basis of the written instruction medical chasti24. The fat smeared on bread (oil, margarine, a smalets), had to be present at a diet 24 days a month; jam - once in z day, and artificial honey - once in z or 4 dnya25.

Each military unit contained big herd of cattle and small living creatures: cows, pigs, geese, ducks and chickens. For care for cattle in each division the special veterinary office was created. In each division there was a company of butchers which slaughtered per day 15 cows, 120 pigs (240 sheep) and produced z 000 kg of sausages or kolbasy26.

Soldiers of Wehrmacht needed three meals a day, however at the front it was not always possible to deliver food in time. The breakfast made 1/6 diets, a lunch - 1/2 diets and a dinner - diet l/z. Soldiers and officers ate from one copper. Usually the lunch of the military personnel consisted of soup, roast with sauce and potato though the menu could fluctuate considerably depending on a situation. Except for emergency situations, soldiers in due time received a daily allowance ratsion27.

The soldier's ration provided special types of diets:

The marching diet represented the cold ration which was given on z-4 day to the troops moving on vehicles or in a pedestrian order. Included 700 g of bread, 200 g of cold meat or cheese, 60 g of oil, 9 g of coffee (or 4 g of tea), 10 g of sugar, 6 cigarettes. The total weight of a ration - 980 g

The emergency ration consisted of 250 g of cookies, 200 g of cold meat, 150 g of tinned vegetables, 25 g of salt, 25 g of coffee. The total weight - 825 g (with packing). The reduced emergency ration included 250 g of cookies and 200 g concentrated vegetables. The total weight of a ration was 450 g (unpacked) and 5z5 (with packing).

The fighting ration and a ration for infighting were given to staff of divisions which should go into battle. Chocolate, candies, lollipops, cigarettes and whenever possible cookies.28 entered a ration

In Germany "special norms for prisoners in concentration camps it was not established, - writes G.-Y. Rick, - they received... 20% lower than a ration of the average German consumer. Foreign workers and prisoners of war from the western countries received food on the same norms, as well as the civilian population of Germany" 29. Comparing norms of food of Wehrmacht during an initial stage of war to data for 194z, it is possible to draw the following conclusions:

24 RGVA. T. 1280. Op. 2. 3. L. 4.
25 RGVA. T. 1280. Op. 2. 3. L. 2ob.
26 P. P. East front. Hitler goes east. 1941-43. M, 2005.
27 Buchner A. Das Handbuch der Deutschen Infanterie. 1939-1945 [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://www.0stfr0nt.ru/Text/Inf.divisi0n203.html. Zagl. from the screen.
28 War hammer. Full encyclopedia of the German army of 1933-1945 Minsk, 2010. Page 276.
29 Rick G.-Y. Food problem and agriculture during the war / / Results of World War II. Conclusions of defeated. SPb.; M, 1998. Page 452-453.

>- the daily ration on the first set in 1943 was not much more increased in comparison with the beginning of a campaign; on other three sets the reduction of a daily diet is observed;

>- alignment of a diet of bread in each set happened due to reduction of a meat set; reduction of a meat diet in III and IV sets was followed by increase in a cutlet diet.

On East front in providing Wehrmacht with food the special difficulties began to arise in connection with military defeats, an environment of troops, retreat. So, near Stalingrad the 6th Paulyusa army instead of necessary 700 t of food and ammunition daily received only one fifth this quantities. As the soldier O. Ryule "remembers... since November 25 the soldiers were daily given about 200 g of bread, diets of meat, sausage, fat" 30 were reduced significantly. In the New 1943 which is in "copper" the corporal R. Vakker wrote to the family: "200 g of bread, during the lunchtime watery soup, and in the evening of 50 g of sausage - that's all" 31. In the middle of January defending in Stalingrad, according to the military diary OKV, gave a ration which made: 150 g of bread, 200 g of horse-flesh, 15 g of fats, 15 g of sugar and one sigaretu32.

As of an ermaniye since spring of 1943 began to lose occupied territories, the Ministry of Food was forced to reduce norms of an allowance both for Wehrmacht, and for the population of Germany. According to G.-I. Rick, decrease in average norms of supply of the population with food to a minimum (1,800 calories), happened only at the very end of war. According to "Statistische Schnellberichte" the caloric content of the products received by Wehrmacht in the middle of 1943 was reduced to 2000 calories, and at the very end of war decreased to 1,412 calories a day on cheloveka33.

Thus, supply of the Red Army with food was generally satisfied, and carried out in many respects due to redistribution of food from the civil sector in military. The daily diet was differentiated for each category of the military personnel depending on proximity to the front and degree of risk, included only the main products and provided their minimum power value. Norms of a daily diet of the military personnel practically did not change during all war. The additional ration was received only by generals and officers of field army. Vodka on 100 g a day was allocated to the military personnel for the person on a front line.

Supply of the German army with food was carried out in many respects due to robbery of occupied territories; to a lesser extent due to redistribution of food from the civil sector in military. The daily diet was differentiated on 4 sets depending on complexity of fighting tasks. Norms of a daily diet during war decreased, especially during environments and retreats. Food allowances were received by the military personnel on the basis of the medical certificate, or the soldiers who did not reach 21 years. The fighting ration and a ration for infighting included chocolate, candies, lollipops, cigarettes and whenever possible cookies.

30 A.A. Anikeev. Agrarian policy of fascist Germany in the years of World War II. Rostov-on-Don, 1990. Page 130.
31 CAMO Russian Federation. T. 32. Op. 11306. 282. L. 51.
32 Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht (Wehrmachtfuhrungsstab)/Hrgs.v. W. Hu-batch. Frankfurt of the car., 1963. Bd. 3: 1.1.1943 - 31.12.1943. S. 53-54.
33 Statistische Schnellberichte; Planungsamt, Dezember 1944.

MILITARY EVERYDAY LIFE: FOOD PPOVISION OF RED ARMY AND GERMAN WEHRMACHT DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

G.I. KOLGA

Jamal Oil and Gas Institute, Branch of Tumen State Oil and Gas University

Comparative analysis of food provision during the Great Patriotic war shows that the Red Army was supplied due to redistribute the civil and military supply, but German Wehrmacht - due to robbery of the occupied territories. Daily ration in both armies differentiated for each category depending on closeness to the front line and degree of risk, moreover, in RKKA daily ration was permanent during the war, and in Wehrmacht it was gradually reduced.

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