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The place of national consciousness in everyday life of children of the Russian noblemen on memoirs of the XIX beginning of the XX century

i. Yu. Martianova


Work is presented by department of pre-revolutionary national history of the Kuban State University.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor S.S. Mintz

Article tells about ways, forms and channels of formation of national identity in everyday life of children of the Russian noblemen. It is based on materials of memoirs of H1H - the beginnings of the 20th century. The national identity among the Russian noblemen is shown as result of the cultural choice of each child.

I. Martianova


The article is devoted to the modes, forms and channels of national identity forming in everyday life of Russian noble children. The article is based on the memoirs of the 19th and early 20h centuries. The author demonstrates that national identity among the Russian nobles was a result of cultural choice of every child.

The national consciousness of the child is formed in the continuous course of his everyday life in interactions with carriers of various cultures, in contact with the material world surrounding it. Judging by memoirs of noblemen, this process often went for them a difficult way, putting them in the childhood in a situation of the hard choice. The analysis of everyday life of noble children and characteristic of the conditions influencing formation of their national self-identification - the purpose of this work. Article is based on the analysis of materials of 170 memoirs sources.

In the 18th century the national self-identification for the nobleman according to A.V. Shi-pilova was a question idle as "its national (ethnic) identity does not interest either people around, or him; the nobleman vnenatsionalen by definition, he lives not in the world of the nations, and in the world

estates... its society - pan-European noble community" [23, page 97]. In work

AA. Gellnera is claimed that in the 18th century of the national states is not present, and the privileged estate "often exceeds the limit of this political unit, is nadpolitichesky and competes with the government" [4, page 52]. In the 19th century this situation obviously changes. Political events of a beginning of the century, Patriotic war of 1812, distribution of the ideas of romanticism as new cultural paradigm forced an educated part of the nobility, and after it and other representatives of this estate to pay attention to a question of the national identity and to notice communication with the simple people, having shared with it political lot, emotional mood and expectations of the country.

Many authors of memoirs came from families where parents treated different

to the people and religions, for example, Mordvinov' families (the admiral Nikolay Semyonovich Mordvinov was married to Englishwoman Henriette Aleksandrovne Kobley, since small years who was brought up by the relatives in Italy) [16, page 397], Yasinsky (the father Jeremiah Iyeremiyevich Yasinsky, the Pole and Catholic, was married to the Russian Olga Maksimovna Belinskaya, the daughter of the Kharkiv landowner) [25, page 9], Korolenko (the father Galaktion Afanasyevich - the Ukrainian considering himself the Russian and Evelyn Iosifovn Skure-vich's mother - the Pole) [11, page 514], etc. Even if the family was monoetnichny, then children to whom since childhood explained their family tree which was very often beginning with any semi-mythical ancestor of a foreign origin acquired the communication with the world and general history. It was one of features of formation of national self-identification of noblemen. So, B.N. Chicherin the ancestor called Italian Chicheri who arrived in Moscow at the end of the 15th century in Sofya Paleolog's suite [22, page 92], and I.I. Yasinsky who since childhood was engaged under the leadership of the father in genealogy reckoned some kind from Cuman Yasyni whose descendants considered themselves Lithuanians in the 16th century and Poles in the 18-19th centuries that, however, did not prevent the memoirist to consider himself the Russian [25, page 8, 9].

In the families which are brought closer to the yard and entering into the high society, children directly met foreigners at home as the last visited salons of their parents. Remembered the acquaintance to the English envoy lord Nepir

V. P. Meshchersky who still the teenager through this visitor got acquainted with news of big-time politics as "live communications of friendship attracted him (Nepir. - I.M.)" to Meshchersky' living room [15, page 15].

The vast majority of children of noblemen in HGH of century, on memoirs of memoirists, got education and an education from hands of foreigners. So, in Nabokov' family tutors and tutors, "often changed. and, employing them, the father as though followed the witty plan to choose every time of the representative of other estate or the tribe" [18, page 219]. Through seven anglomen

Nabokov there passed, besides the Russian, English and French tutors, an Ukrainian, the Latvian, the Pole, the Jew. Facing representatives of other people, children built up the relationship with them in the conditions of daily occurrence, studied contacts and ability to find a common language with people of other nations.

Travel over the country and Europe during which children could broaden the horizons in daily communication became one of conditions of the noble childhood of HGH of century in wealthy families and establish the relations with representatives of other people. For some of them, for example N.E. Wrangel [6, page 76] and A.N. Krylova [13, page 52], these trips were followed by training at local schools. Since early years the noblemen had an opportunity to compare orders and customs of the country to foreign, developing the critical attitude towards reality.

For many children of noblemen from the province and impoverished families hiring of the tutor or a trip abroad were impossible therefore such children were defined in educational institutions where besides lessons in daily use of children the communication in foreign languages was cultivated.

For juvenile noblemen of the conflicts on the national soil none of memoirists mention in educational institutions. On the contrary, the international relations are characterized in cloudless tones even by those who were far from idealization of an ethnoconfessional situation in the Russian Empire subsequently. So, the anonymous author "Thoughts and memoirs of the Pole", been born in 1838, studied in the Brest military school and remembered that "Poles in the Brest case there was more than a half of all structure. At first we kept away from companions Russians, but by the end of my stay in the case we lived in peace and friendship and agrees. Between us the world and respect for national and religious beliefs were installed" [17, page 674]. The lack of an international conflict in the children's environment positively affected formation of national consciousness of the noblemen studying in such institutions.

Besides people, since childhood of noblemen in their everyday life surrounded also the things which were achievements of the European material culture (same books). In some houses in the native language I.A. Yakovlev, the father A.I. Herzen had no literature absolutely, for example [5, page 62]. Children's balls were held as masquerades. Suits of various people were most popular. Authors of masquerade attires strove for the maximum similarity to originals. Years later memoirists in detail described details of suits as the, and the companions [12, page 137, 138]. Houses of some of them surrounded performing the European painting [14, page 217]. Noble families which life was focused on consumption of goods of any European country, most often England (for example, family of future writer V. Nabokov) and France met.

Summing up all aforesaid, it is possible to claim that the childhood of the Russian noblemen whatever to a sort tribe they were proceeded in the conditions of daily continuous contact with "others" cultures and their carriers. The ability to carry out and coordinate international contacts in ordinary life was an indicator of good breeding and education of the noble offspring. For nobility of any European people the ethnic purity of family was a minor question. Whether noblemen were also indifferent and to commitment of family to that other cultural tradition - she got out randomly depending on tastes and views of the senior generation of family and even from combination of circumstances. For this reason from first years of life noble children all content of the life were going to be members of this different races community. In the formed outlook of the child the thought was put that he is a representative some kind of, glorified in the history long before his birth and having continuation in it, and its task is to increase glory of a sort or at least not to shame it. However it is only one party of formation of national consciousness of noble children. Let's address another now.

The contact with the ethnic environment and national culture was not less continuous. Both was that counterbalance of internationality of the noble childhood, allowing noblemen to identify itself with ethnic group which they considered later.

- the first half of HGH of century the child in noble family was in XVIII on its emotional periphery, i.e. there was no constant close contact with parents, his requirements were satisfied in the last turn, often settled out the child to other building, allocated it distant rooms, etc. Owing to such situation children in noble family in the everyday life were more, than adults, are connected with servants, and through it - with the traditional environment and culture [10, page 160], though did not mix themselves with it. In process of growing the child moved away from commonalty, acquiring nonnational norms and values. However acquaintance to the culture of the people and close communication with it in the childhood allowed the nobleman to realize the national identity.

Communication with the oldest generation of family which in different degree kept lines of a national identity, inherent lives of noblemen of the past (for the Russian noblemen of the second half of HK of century - line of a pre-Pertine era) was of great importance for formation of national feeling at the child. Most often it was associated at memoirists with their grandmothers. With age, having left light, the woman often went to the estate to rest. Here she suited for herself such daily occurrence which submitted to the same norms, as national life - to an agricultural cycle and religion. The description of a family life in estates of grandmothers are similar, for example, at Pole F.V. Bulgarin [1, page 64-

67] and Russian A.D. Galakhov [3, page 65]. For them old women were a living incarnation of history and traditions. Grandmothers willingly took part in education of children, and grandchildren long were in their ancient (in comparison with parental) houses and estates. Grandmothers with their simplicity and traditional character in life as if remained out of time, and they supported grandchildren respectively.

Grandmothers in noble families acquainted grandchildren with folklore [20, page 45] promoting awareness of national identity. Often they became an irreplaceable source of acquaintance to oral national tradition. B.P. Vysheslavtsev remembered how ". the grandmother Anna tells me fairy tales about the Baba-yaga, at the same time to me the small hut with the big Russian oven is drawn. and with the Baba-yaga with a terrible nose a hook. Child primitive I see this drawing as now. I saw and then its "unreality", but through it I saw and guessed the real Baba-yaga, she got up from ancient primitive soul of my people, from its terrible and dark winter nights." [7, page 131, 132].

Acquainted noble children with national culture in everyday life also nurses, helping formation of national consciousness of the child. And if under grandmother's influence not each child got, then cares of the nurse were avoided by none of juvenile noblemen. The domonical family became native for the nurse; receiving will and having the children, they often refused to abandon the owners, having become attached to their children. In representations of memoirists there was a stereotype of an image of the nurse, for example, in the Russian families: "The true Russian nurse" was "cheerful and kind, strong attached to children whom she left, and to the house where she grew roots" [2, page 5]. The nurse "is pious and bright", mother could "be sure. in devotion and experience of this kind woman" [9, page 283]. On memoirs of the count V.A. Sollogub the nurse did not abandon children on travel even abroad [21, page 28]. She was the main conductor of national culture in noble family, especially if the family participated in a social life, and was that thread which connected the noble child with the people.

an Important role in familiarizing of noble children with the national beginning was played by learning the native language and literature. The memoirists creating the works in the middle - the second half of HK of century surely note this fact, describing everyday life of the childhood. If ordered knowledge of the native language and literature to a floor -

it was not possible to chit, in the 19th century tell about it already with regret. N.V. Chicherin to the son wrote in the letter: "I ended learning language of thirteen years at the Tambov seminarist. After I studied to a regiment, rewriting what was pleasant to me in books and trying to guess rules and beauty of language, had no anybody who could explain me them" [22, page 92].

In educational and educational institutions for noblemen since the beginning of the 19th century began to pay bigger attention to studying the Russian literature, history, language. These teachers are remembered most often by memoirists. With great respect images of teachers of the Russian literature of I.A. Garetovsky at A.D. Galakhov, V.V. Avdiyev at V.G. Korolenko, etc. are shown. Let's note that if memoirists on the birth belonged to one nation, but identified themselves with another, then for choice justification they first of all emphasized the extent of acquaintance to language of the chosen nation and its literature.

For children of representatives of the high society sometimes the educational institution was the only place where they could learn the native language as their parents and all circle of acquaintances spoke French and was badly familiar with rules of literary Russian. A.D. Galakhov many years teaching Russian explained the arisen interest in the native language with introduction of policy by the government of "official nationality" [3, page 111]. After these measures the nobility began to care for the invitation to houses and institutions of the teachers knowing Russian. So, A.D. Galakhov teaching in an orphanage for girls, the prince P.P. Gagarin who opened this institution invited to give lessons to the fourteen-year-old son who was hardly speaking Russian. "Also that was considered as an important thing, - the memoirist wrote, - that I was nobility and behaved at lessons differently, than teachers. or not knowing French at all, or. frightening by a very foul reprimand." [3, page 110]. Success of the young teacher became known in light. He received several invitations to private houses and uchre-

zhdeniye. The memoirist noted positive influence of the uvarovsky theory on younger generation of noblemen. "Submitting to this formula (Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality. - I.M.), the Russian youth became preferable to be brought up in domestic educational institutions, but not in the boards which are contained foreigners or at home under a wing of foreign tutors" [3, page 111].

Noble children acquired the national identity and through close daily communication with other social groups. Bypassing the bans remembered such communication A.D. Galakhov [3, page 32, 33], A.N. Engelgardt (nee Makarova) [24, page 130], P.A. Kropotkin [12, page 67,

68]. In some families the parents, on the contrary, considered that such rapprochement can only do good to their children. B.N. Chicherin's parents [22, page 150] and the count A.A. Ignatyev were that [8, page 69].

For formation of national identity at noble children the large role was played by travel over the country. V.A. Sollogub, remembering the first big trip around the country in the Simbirsk manor of mother, wrote: "For me, the boy darling, it became gradually more and more clear that except the court world, the world secular and French, except even the world of complacency of the grandmother, there was still a world another, the world of korennorusskiya, the world demotic and that to this world a name - a bulk." [21, page 66]. And the attitude of the common people towards lordly children which is recorded in memoirs literature in the lightest tones helped to realize the communication with this world. At V.A. Sollogub such attitude of peasants towards children of landowners is expressed in the description of a meeting at entrance to the estate: "Hardly living old women rose to me and to the brother, stretching gingerbreads. "Take, kasatik, take, the handsome man, - the Lord brought to look at you!. You are fathers ours, and we are children yours"" [21, page 71, 72]. How here not to realize the relationship with this world, be the author of both the Polish origin, and non-russian education!

How difficult for noble children was definition national

accessories, show cases when the child for various reasons associated himself with other national culture to which neither parents, nor tradition in which he was brought up belonged. V.F. Pecherin who, coming from family where parents considered themselves Russians, since childhood dreamed of escape to Europe can be an example, dreamed to forget that it is Russian and to exterminate in itself all signs of "Russianness" [19, page 151]. Sometimes the senior generation of family for some reason inspired all course of everyday life in the children belonging to other culture contrary to obvious origin of the child and his family. I.I. Yasinsky described in the memoirs family of the familiar Georgian prince in Lotoki who considered himself the Russian and for full belief of people around in "Russianness" "put on as the ancient Russian prince, and the estate reminded it an ancient tower." [25, page 31]. His daughters grew in such daily surroundings.

In Korolenko's family the father (the Ukrainian by origin and the nobleman favor of the Polish kings) inspired in children that they should consider themselves Russians though they since childhood spoke in Polish and were brought up by mother - the Pole. The younger son Vladimir, future writer, having become the adult, considered himself the Russian. Surrounding with it him also perceived. The senior brother his Yulian, on a response of I.I. Yasinsky knowing both brothers, "was extremely polite with the Polish fold and the Polish accent" [25, page 139].

I.I. Yasinsky wrote about a difficult ethnoconfessional situation in everyday life of the family. His father "little by little became Russified", communicated generally with Russians, but memories of origin "were filled my father with great Polish conceit" [25, page 9]. Sometimes, the father of the writer "organized at himself Catholic church services, then from the provincial city priests ran, and orthodox mummy did not recognize priests, and the father called us Russians and Russians. However, religious conflicts continued until on

eyes priests and as soon as they left span, in the house the russification began: mother smoked a Catholic incense. and the father taught me every evening to orthodox prayers" [25, page 11]. For children of complexity were supplemented that "constantly. servants, governesses - Poles, Germans, Russian - and all pretty changed". They were employed by Yasinsky Sr. and his spouse as her husband too actively looked after them fired. She employed the taste teachers (too different races), but "too for a short time" as "the father did not like pedagogical taste of mummy" [25, page 11]. After all. I. Yasinsky characterized formation of national identity in the "is-

thorium of personal development of the average Russian person" [25, page 3].

Actually we see that the national consciousness of the child in everyday life of noble family occurred in the conditions of a mutually interlacing European and national, the general and original, defining a cultural originality of estate and complexity of process of self-determination for the child. For it the nationality is first of all the cultural choice, but not any given percent of "blood" recorded by a metrics. Making the choice, the child of privileged estate of the Russian Empire learned to respect and others choice which could be also other.


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