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Sources on ecological history of the North of Western Siberia (1920th years)

e. I. Gololobov


Work is presented by department of social and humanitarian disciplines of the Surgut state pedagogical university.

In article the case of archival sources on ecological history of the North of Western Siberia in the 1920th revealed in central (GARF) and regional (GASO, GUTO GA in Tobolsk, GUTO GA in Tyumen, GAOPOTUO) archives is characterized. The revealed documents give the chance of complex studying the nature protection ideas, the regional nature protection legislation, the measures connected with rational exploitation of natural resources of the region during the considered period.


E. Gololobov


The article describes the archival sources on the ecological history of the North of Western Siberia in the 1920s, which were found in the central (State Archive of the Russian Federation) and regional (State Archive of the Sverdlovsk Region, State Archive in Tobolsk, State Archive in Tyumen, State Archive of Political Associations of the Tyumen Region) archives. The revealed documents give an opportunity to investigate the nature protection ideas, regional environmental legislation and measures of the rational natural resources development of the region in the period under investigation.

At the present stage of development of society the concept "ecology" was consistently filled with new sense and contents that led to "greening" of modern science including humanitarian. It also promoted activization of process of interaction of humanitarian and natural disciplines. Actively this process joined historical science. Foundation of scientific organizations of history of the environment (The American society of history of the environment — American Society for Environmental History, 1977 became result of cooperation; The European society of history of the environment — European for Environmental History, 1999) [17].

In national history the environmental-historical subject as the independent cross-disciplinary scientific direction is distinguished at the end of 1980 — the 1990th [17, page 5]. It is connected with problems of deterioration in the environment which became an important part of the life of modern Russian society. Interest in ecological history repeatedly arose at society and scientists, but the solution of problems had symbolical character. For the 20th century much attention was paid to problems economic and political as society did not attach significance to a problem of the aggravated degradation of the environment.

The North belongs to those regions which especially need continuous complex study from various parties including from environmental-historical. Without it deep understanding of problems vzai-is impossible

modeystviye of the nature and person who are the cornerstone of modern ecological crisis. Becomes obvious that environmental problems of the North of Western Siberia cannot be reduced only by the period of active development of oil and gas fields. Industrial development of the North in the second half of the 20th century aggravated already existing problems of ecological character. Historical experience, both positive, and negative, uses by the person of natural resources in the north of Western Siberia is useful and necessary as it can be used at permission of many new and inevitable conflicts between the nature and the person in this region.

It caused interest in studying process of interaction of the nature and the person during various historical periods. The beginning of the 20th century, in particular the 1920th, is one of the most important historical periods of interaction of the person and the nature for understanding of sources of modern ecological crisis as in nation-wide, and regional scale.

At the moment the published is-tochnikovy base of the considered problems is presented by the following collections of documents: "Ecology and power" [22] and "Natural resources, environmental management and environmental protection in the Ob-Irtysh North (1919 — 1929)" [21]. The first edition represents a unique complex of recently declassified archival documents, svya-

zonal with an ecological perspective. In the second collection for the first time the case of the sources characterizing various aspects of interaction of society and the environment in the Ob-Irtysh North in the 1920th is presented in the systematized form

The first part of the collection characterizes natural resources of the region and the traditional systems of environmental management and consists generally of the documents reflecting activity central and local committees of the North. Office work documentation of committees (reports, reports, data, resolutions, extracts from protocols) contains not only versatile information on natural resources and the systems of environmental management, but also suggestion for improvement, to economic economic activity improvement, paying special attention to careful attitude to the nature. The office work documentation of local authorities shedding light on separate aspects of use of natural resources supplements a picture. The first part of the collection included also materials from geographical and statistiko-economic descriptions of the 1920th S.A. Cook-lina and Yu.A. Kudryavtseva as they on the scientific approaches, are very close to professional methods and even stylistics to the published sources and contain interesting information of statistical property.

Enormous importance of northern resources (first of all furs and the woods) for economy of the state, on the one hand, and intensive, their often uncontrollable use — with another, demanded immediate development of the legal framework regulating use of natural resources. The second part of the collection is devoted to this field of activity of the central and local authorities.

The case of available sources on the specified subject is not exhausted by these publications, and work in this direction has to be continued.

Therefore introduction to a scientific turnover of sources of a problem of interaction of the nature and the person in the Ob-Irtysh North — the back -

cha absolutely necessary. The historical source, in particular the archival document, according to a fair remark of O.M. Medushev-skaya, possesses the unique nature. It not only means for performance of information, administrative or administrative functions. The source acts not only as a past fragment, but also as the present component capable to influence public consciousness [19, page 9]. Sources give the chance of the comparative-historical analysis which is necessary for the choice of both a public (personal) position, and the corresponding type of behavior. Ignoring the past, society loses necessary information.

At the disposal of the researcher who is engaged in historical and ecological subject there is a complex of various sources: the legislation, office work documentation of the state authorities, economic organizations and public organizations anyway connected with use of natural resources and their protection, cartographic materials, periodicals.

The second All-Russian congress of Councils of working and soldier's deputies approved the Decree drafted by V.I. Lenin about the earth. The decree declared nationalization of natural wealth of the country: "All depths of the earth, ore, oil, coal, salt, etc. and also the woods and waters having nation-wide value turn into exclusive use of the state. All small rivers, lakes, the woods and other turn into use of communities, on condition of a zavedyvaniye with them municipalities of domicile" [16, page 7]. In the first constitutional act of the Soviet power — the "Declaration of the rights of the worker and the exploited people" accepted by the III All-Russian congress of Councils of working, country and soldier's deputies of 25 (12) 1918 was declared: "All woods, depths, and waters of nation-wide value... appear national property" [16, page 7].

The principles proclaimed in the most important documents of the new state found the continuation in the Soviet legislation,

devoted to issues of protection of natural resources and the environment. On May 30, 1918 the Central Election Commission of Council of working, soldier's, country and Cossack deputies approved "The basic law about the woods". In it questions of use and protection of forest resources were regulated [5, page 114].

In 1923. The board of the National Commissariat of agriculture approved the Forest code. It was emphasized that "the resolutions of the All-Russian Congresses and VTsIK of Councils, and working, country and Red Army Councils based on explicit revolutionary will of workers and peasants, the right of a private property for the woods within RSFSR is cancelled forever" [15, 81, l. 3]. The code regulated all aspects of forest management, including hunting economy and forest conservation [15, 81, l. 3 — 9 about.].

Thus, natural resources became public property, their operation and protection were regulated by the state. The authorities declared rational, evidence-based approach to use of natural wealth.

The principles of environmental management enshrined in the Soviet legislation formed the basis organizational and administrative, planned, reporting, control and other types of office work documentation of the regional authorities.

The Ob-Irtysh North from 1923 to 1934 was a part of the Tobolsk district of the Ural region. The Ural region was created as a result of division into districts of 1923. Besides that division into districts had economic character, granting the big rights to local authorities was its main task. Regional executive committees had to acquire wider rights in comparison with gubispolkoma-m due to redistribution of a part of powers from the central authorities — narcomats [4, page 26].

Thus, territories of the Ob-Irtysh North submitted to Uraloblispolky in whose competence legislative functions (development of the regional legislation, petitions entered into Presidium

of VTsIK about changes in laws for the purpose of their adaptation to conditions of the Urals) and executive (the organization and planning of social and economic activity, carrying out policy of increase in economic and cultural level of ethnic minorities).

Was engaged in Uraloblispolk including in development of the organizational and administrative documentation regulating issues of environmental management. A source on studying rule-making activity of regional executive committee in this direction is its edition "Ofitsialny Sbornik Dekretov, Postanovleny, Rasporyazheny I Tsirkulyarov Centralnykh I Uralskikh Oblastnykh Organov Vlasti". First of all, the regional regulatory base regulated forest and hunting farms. It is natural. Two thirds of the territory of the Ural region were made by the Tobolsk district which North possessed enormous forest resources and was one of the main suppliers of furs on domestic and foreign market [2].

The normative documents accepted by the Tobolsk okrispolkom in 1924 — 1925 supplement a picture of folding of regional nature protection legal base. They are presented by rules and obligatory resolutions: "Rules of production of hunting, its terms and ways in the Tobolsk district", "Rules of forest management in forests of local value of the Tobolsk district", "Rules of a holiday and use of wood by the population for social needs from the state woods of the Tobolsk district", "The obligatory resolution No. 20 Tobokrispol-koma on an order of use of fishing grounds of local value in the Tobolsk district", "Obligatory resolution No. 21 of Tob-okrispolkom on rules of use of cedar forests", "Obligatory resolution No. 22 of Tobokrispolkom on measures of preservation of the wood and fight against its destruction near the cities and settlements", "Obligatory resolution No. 23 of Tobokrispolkom on an order of preparations of forest materials and by-products of the wood" [20].

An important role in the organization of work in northern territories was played by VTsIK which is specially created by the resolution of Presidium of June 20, 1924. Committee of assistance to nationalities of the northern outskirts (Committee of the North). Its tasks included "assistance to systematic organization of small nationalities of the North in the economic and economic, administrative and judicial and cultural and sanitary relation" [7, 94, l. 54 — 54 about.].

For performance of the tasks set for Committee of the North at an executive power at the local level the network of regional committees of the North was created. The Ob-Irtysh North entered competence of the committees of the North created at Uraloblispolkom and the Tobolsk okrispolkom. The Ural committee of the North was created on the basis of the resolution of VTsIK and SNK of the USSR of February 23, 1925. The Tobolsk committee of the North was formed under the resolution of district executive committee of May 30, 1925 [6, 53, l. 246] on the basis of the resolution of bureau of Committee of the North at VTsIK "About the organization of local committee of the North in Tobolsk" of May 15, 1925 [7, 26, l. 35].

Activity of regional committees of the North also found the reflection in scientific literature [1, page 34]. The domestic historiography always highly appreciated work of Committee of the North and its regional divisions. First of all, it was talked of national-state construction in northern territories and introduction of new forms of managing. Meanwhile materials of committees can quite be considered in istori-to-ecological aspect.

"Organization of small nationalities of the North" with all evidence demanded an integrated approach to a problem. Therefore the significant role in activity of committees was played "by the research activity directed to rational expansion of operation of surrounding natural tasks, improvement of ways and technology of this operation" and "protection of people around of the native of natural wealth from injurious operation" [7, 94, l. 54-54 about.].

Office work documentation of committees (reports, reports, data, resolutions, extracts from protocols) contains not only versatile information on natural resources and the systems of environmental management, but also the suggestion for improvement and improvement of economic economic activity, paying special attention to careful attitude to the nature [7; 8; 12; 13].

For representation of an overall picture of use of natural resources in the north the greatest interest reports on single questions of the organization of economic economic activity in the region [13, 41, l submit reports of territorial committees before higher instances, in particular before Committee of assistance to nationalities of the northern outskirts at VTsIK, and. 59-67, 83, l. 108-114]. Reports have rather accurate structure consisting of the following parts: characteristic of the territory and population (area, number and population density, its national structure); the general condition of economy, its specifics (the major industries are crafts, their value for economic development of the region); economic characteristics of each trade separately (reindeer breeding, fishery, fur trade). Reports also contain information on natural disasters, results of scientific expeditions, on the organization of the Subpolar census. Reports give the chance to present the state of affairs in the separate industries in more detail. In many respects they have problem character, paying special attention to the difficulties getting in the way of development of any given trade and to measures for their overcoming [7, 40, l. 71-72; 10, 14, l. 2-19 about.].

The state of affairs in the sphere of interaction of the nature and the person directly depended on that social and economic policy which was pursued by the state. After October, 1917 the creation of planned socialist economy became the main task of the country.

Creation of planned socialist economy demanded the organization of the appropriate public authorities. A starting point of this process became signed

V.I. Lenin on February 22, 1921 the decree of SNK according to whom at Council of work and defense (HUNDRED) the state all-planning commission (State Planning Committee) was formed. Naturally, bodies of planning were created also on places. After formation of the Ural region in 1923, [4, page 85] in the middle of January, 1924 at Uraloblispolkom created Uralplan. Its tasks included "conducting systematic planned work in the field of economic and cultural construction, performance of tasks of the State Planning Committee, check of implementation of plans" [4, page 86]. Uralplan had no administrative rights, his decisions came into force according to their regional executive committee.

Uralplan's structure consisted of several parts: 1) presidium; 2) sections (or sectors) — industrial, agricultural, trade and cooperation, financial, etc.; 3) Uralplan's plenum. Uralplan's plenum was wide advisory body in which work representatives of departments, labor unions, public organizations took part.

After change of administrative-territorial division as a result of the resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR of January 17, 1934 Uralplan was renamed into Oblplan. The materials Uralplana were laid in State are-hvive of Sverdlovsk region in R-241 fund "Planning commission of executive committee of Svredlovsky regional council of deputies of workers". The fund is presented by 6 inventories which include 6247 cases [9]. Documents on stories of the Ob-Irtysh North are submitted in inventories No. 1 and 2 covering the chronological period from 1920 to 1937. Materials of the following sectors are of the greatest interest to the chosen perspective: divisions into districts, North, productive forces and forestry.

As it was already noted, planning was the most important component of social and economic policy of the Soviet state. Plans were developed and approved by the supreme authorities of the country and owing to this fact reflected priorities economic on -

litik. Including priorities in approaches to development and use of natural resources.

Uralplan, as a matter of fact, had to realize the activity the new principles of economic development declared in the main documents of the Soviet power — complex, rational use of natural resources on a firm scientific basis. It demanded enough full knowledges of the region. Collecting and primary generalization of materials began within division into districts.

By the area it was meant peculiar, whenever possible economically finished, the territory of the country which, thanks to a combination of natural features, the cultural baggage which is saved up by the population and its preparation for production activity, would represent an independent link in sheathe chains of the national economy. That is division into districts first of all had to have economically reasonable character.

The following northern territories were a part of the Tobolsk district created within the Ural region with the district center in Tobolsk: a northern part of the Tobolsk County, Berezovsky the county without a southwest part of Sartynyinskaya (Nyaksimvolska) of the volost, east part of the Verkhpelymsky volost and the Turin County (basin of the Konda River) and the Surgut County. Therefore at division into districts the task "assistance cultural economically to the device of the northern outskirts of the Ural region", first of all due to streamlining of economic activity in the sphere of traditional trade economy in the north [9, by 2328, l was also set. 175—176].

The future of the Tobolsk North seemed in active use of forest resources. It was emphasized that it is necessary to do it with a support on knowledge of the region and rational use of its resources, "... before giving the riches to operation, we have to consider and consider precisely them possibilities of their most favorable use. In a question of forest concessions it is necessary to fight against injurious trends lesopromysh-

and to leave lennik who try to pull out a tidbit the rest to the mercy of fate. The woods is the only capital at the expense of which the Tobolsk taiga can be acquainted with culture" [18, page 479].

Archive materials on division into districts of the Tobolsk North significantly supplement published [9, 2328, 2367, 2405, 2415]. The lack of information, its preliminary character led to the fact that the published data quite often had sketchy, contradictory character, abounded with mistakes. This situation a critical response of A.A. Dunina-Gorka-vicha on the description of the Tobolsk district in the third volume of materials mentioned above on division into districts [9 visually illustrates, 2415, l. 47—50]. A.A. Dunin-Gorkavich emphasizes that the description has incomplete, unfinished character: "On some departments separate paragraphs are grabbed from my works and inserted into appropriate places, but it is not always successful". Alexander Aleksandrovich emphasized an originality of the Tobolsk North. "Therefore the review of this area should not keep within the sample framework accepted for area, he has to have the original individual character and be formed not hastily, and systematically and has to embrace all industries of life of edge" [9, 2415, l. 47 — 47ob.].

Great interest for studying problems of interaction of the nature and the person in the north of Western Siberia, certainly, represents activity of the section of the North created at Uralplana on February 6, 1924 according to the decision of Presidium of Uraloblispolkom [9, 2328, l. 147]. After inclusion of northern territories of Western Siberia in structure of the Ural region naturally there was a need of involvement of this region in the uniform economic and economic mechanism.

Activity of section of the North is presented by various office work documentation: minutes of meetings, economic reviews, data on forestry, fur and fishing crafts [9, 2451, 2457]; the materials concerning the organization of scientific expeditions on the North [9, 2453]; ha -

rakteristika of natural and fossil wealth [9, 2456]; resolutions, resolutions and conclusions about the Tobolsk North [9, 2458]; development plans for infrastructure in the north [9, 2459].

The specifics of activity of section are reflected fully by minutes of meetings. They have structure, traditional for such documentation: attendees, the agenda, the summary of performances on questions of the agenda and the decision on them [7, are specified by 10; 9]. It is possible to determine a circle of the institutions which were involved in cooperation by attendees at meetings of section: Uralgostorg, Ural regional union of hunters, to Uraloblz, Tyumen, Tobolsk and Perm okrispolkom, research and local history organizations, etc. The agenda of meetings reflects activity of section in the sphere of studying natural resources, their use and protection. We will give some questions which were considered at section meetings as an example: about a condition of forestry in the Tobolsk North, about the organization of hunting in the north, about protection of fur animals, etc. [7, 10, l. 63-76 about.]

An important role in studying a problem of interaction of the nature and the person in the Ob-Irtysh North materials of governing bodies rural, water and forestry, in particular land management of executive committee of the Ural regional council have working, country and Red Army deputies (Oblza) [10]. The management was formed on December 15, 1923 on the basis of the resolution of VTsIK of the USSR for implementation of actions for development of all branches of agriculture [5, page 115].

In fund materials about hunting and fishing crafts, forestry are presented. Materials about fishery contain data on a condition of this trade in the Ural region [10, 1017]; resolutions of regional executive committee and okrispolkom on rules of fishery [10, 335]; instructions, resolutions and extracts from the Tobokrzu protocols on fishing grounds [10, 213].

Office work documentation on hunting economy of the Tobolsk district gives an idea of its place and a role in the system of economy of the Ural region, discloses difficulties and problems which its development faced. On the materials which are available in fund it is possible to judge the prospects of development of hunting economy of the Ob-Irtysh North [10, 565, 566].

Significantly funds of district institutions supplement data of regional land management: Land management of executive committee of the Tobolsk county council of working, country and Red Army deputies (Tobolsk to an okrz) [11] and Forest department of land management of the Tobolsk executive committee of the Tobolsk county council of working, country and Red Army deputies (Tobolsk okras-lesotdel) [14].

Thus, materials of the specified funds allow to present process of study, development and use of natural resources of the North to realities. In details to track implementation of the legal framework on environmental management on places, those ideas which at -

zvana were to realize the economic prospects which are available for northern territories.

The revealed complex of documents has a number of the general features. First of all it should be noted that the organization of its comprehensive study was the main objective throughout all considered period for the institutions which were engaged in the North. On the rational, evidence-based beginnings to transform region economy. For realization of this task in institutions the corresponding sections which quite often rather closely among themselves cooperated were created. Therefore materials of sections of the North need to be considered in a complex. These materials mutually supplement each other and give the chance to estimate the nature of interaction, degree of its efficiency.

The revealed sources characterize the difficult multiple-factor nature of interaction of the nature and the person in the north. Introduction them in a scientific turn will significantly add a historical picture of this interaction and will allow to estimate the historical experience of environmental management in the north of Western Siberia accumulated in the 1920th


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8. State Archive of Sverdlovsk Region (SASR). F. R-88. Op. 5.
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