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A.E. CHARTORYYSKY'S ACTIVITY according to the RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY of XIXNAChALA XX of centuries.



UDK 94 (47) (470.3) "1795/1815"

A.E. CHARTORYYSKY'S ACTIVITY according to the RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY of H1H-NAChALA of the 20th centuries

A.M Zyuzin, graduate student of department of history of Russia and study of local lore of the pre-Soviet period of N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod.

The historiographic analysis of activity of Adam Chartoryysky during his being the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs and the trustee of the Vilensky educational district is presented in article.

Adam Ezhi Chartoryysky is the Polish prince who in 1795 arrived to St. Petersburg together with the brother as the hostage after the Polish revolt. The prince Adam managed to make friends quickly with the Grand duke Alexander Pavlovich and to be credible it. The figure of the prince was very contradictory, on the one hand, his activity is entirely directed to maintenance of interests of its native Poland, per se not existing at that time, with another - he became one of the most noticeable associates of the Russian emperor Alexander I. Our interest in this, certainly, uncommon personality is defined by the fact that the prince, serving Foreign Ministry of the Russian Empire in 1804-1806, made and tried to put into practice a number of projects of restoration of Poland under a scepter of the Russian monarch. Chartoryysky was one of participants of Secret committee at the tsar with whom the emperor conferred about the transformations conceived by it. Besides, in 1803 Alexander I charged to Adam Charotoryysky to be engaged in affairs of education in the Vilensky educational district, having appointed him the trustee.

The prince Adam Ezhi Chartoryysky headed the Russian Foreign Ministry in one the most difficult for it the periods - influence of France quickly grew in Europe and the organization of collective repulse to aggressive actions of Napoleon became the main task of Russia. This period is very short as in the extensive political biography of the prince Adam, and in the history of relationship of Russia and the countries of the West. However events of this period and their further value give the sufficient grounds for their detailed analysis.

Serious works on the history of Poland appeared in Russia in the 1860th They covered generally political events of the 18th century. From domestic historians for the first time S.M. Solovyov dealt with the Polish issue, the considerable contribution to the analysis of foreign policy of Russia and directly relationship of the European countries against the background of the Polish fragmentation was brought also by such large historians as N.F. Dubrovin, A.A. Kornilov, N.K. Shilder, M.I. Bogdanovich, N.I. Kareev, A.N. Popov and also the Grand duke Nikolay Mikhaylovich. Representatives of the official Real direction

riografiya - N.K. Shilder, M.I. Bogdanovich and N.F. Dubrovin - with a big share of scepticism concerned as the prince Chartoryysky according to them hating Russia and to his ministerial activity: "This person dreamed of restoration of Poland on Dnieper and sincerely hated Russia. The prince Chartoryysky understood that the Russian society treats it with full mistrust, but was not confused it and cared only for to losing trust of Poles and to prove them the readiness to serve the intimate and true purposes to see the fatherland restored" [1, page 396]. The same relation was also to its activity on a post of the trustee of the Vilensky educational district to which it was appointed in 1802: "If political ministerial activity of the prince Chartoryysky did not make success wished them in St. Petersburg, then it could have it as the trustee of the Vilensky educational district and with success to opolyachivat the edge entrusted to its care. To his plan, the actual restoration of Poland within 1772 the moral connection of all divided parts of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had to precede Poe-spolitoy. Such connection could be reached education of youth including Russian, in the Polish spirit and in Polish, say, to opolyachit it so that the population of the Russian-Lithuanian areas itself would recognize itself as Poles and all Western Russia represented itself the undoubted part which is unfairly torn off from Poland. The prince Charto-ryysky valued such activity and widely used protection and trust of Alexander to him" [1, page 397].

The liberal historians of the second half of the 19th century S.M. Solovyov, A.A. Kornilov, N.I. Kareev and A.N. Popov inclined to softer assessment lit Adam Chartoryysky's activity from positions

reasonable need: "... Alexander generous dreamed of restoration of the Polish kingdom. of course, not with the purpose to increase number of enemies of the empire and to strengthen them, weakening the state. He dreamed of restoration not of hostile Russia of Poland, but the allied, unseparably connected to it under one majestic power, him and its receivers. Such Poland if it is possible, would serve as a fencing for Russia against Napoleon's plan and in general against the West of Europe. In this sense he also expressed to the prince Chartoryysky the thoughts who can be and sincerely trusted in a possibility of the similar phenomenon and maintained such delusion by force of friendship which was fed for it by the emperor, and force of the influence as his Minister of Foreign Affairs" [2, page 670]. Accepting political motives of the Polish prince, the liberal scientists-historians nevertheless directly said that his ultimate goal - recovery of the Polish statehood - is unattainable delusion.

A certain contribution to illumination of the biography of Chartoryysky was made by conservative historians. S.V. Sholko-vich's work devoted to secret societies and the analysis of management in the Vilensky educational district which was under Chartoryysky's guardianship differed in the deep analysis and a critical view of policy of the prince in the Western region. Sholkovich claims that thanks to guardianship of the prince the district entrusted to it finally opolyachitsya: "From here the intrigue in the different ends of the former Speech of Poe-spolitoy, both by means of different reliable faces, and by means of the different secret and obvious, legal and unlawful societies began to flow. Were that: secret societies of masons, society of "friends of sciences", and

"economic", opened in Warsaw with the permission of the Prussian government. From the persons who are at the head of this movement were: Stanislav Pototsky, Krasitsky, Soltyk, Hrebtovich, Dzyalynsky, in particular Fadey Chatsky and Jan Snyadetsky helping Adam and during the latest time. Under the influence of activity of this circle Warsaw quickened - the Polish emigrants began to come back from abroad. Such excited patriotic movement could not but affect also the Russian provinces. Since Adam became the trustee of the Vilensky educational district and the strongest opolyachivaniye of Northwest Russia began. Means for achievement of this purpose were chosen: Roman Catholic belief, the Polish land tenure, Polish, literature and education of youth in the Polish spirit. By means of religion in minds of the primordial Russian population thoughts were inspired that Catholic that the Pole - all the same. By means of land tenure the same influence extended and supported, also, moreover, money for arms of various rebels was earned; by means of language and literature in minds of educated classes the moral contact and unity with the died Poland were artificially excited and kept, and by means of education in the hearts of youth the hatred to all Russian and the Orthodox Christian was lodged" [3, page 65].

Rich material on the political history of Lithuania contains in work of the historian P.D. Bryantsev, in it it rather accurately defines the opinion on Adam Chartoryysky's impact on policy of Russia and in particular on the emperor: "... only it [emperor] came to the throne of the father as he immediately expanded the rights of Poles and a circle of their actions in areas being Litas -

sky state. Since its time the control in the West Russian areas was regained in all almost old shlyakhetsky completeness. All major branches of management passed to Poles. Poles appeared everywhere above over Russians. The Russian management created by Catherine the Great was changed in the root.

In 1803 Adam Chartoryysky was made the trustee of the Vilensky educational district. Having received this position, he all indulged in formation of educational institutions and education of youth; he spent the huge sums of money for this business both from own means, and from dobrokhotny donations and the state treasury. But Chartoryysky. did not mean to ennoble a moral or material condition of the people of the edge entrusted to it; it had other purpose: Charto-ryysky wanted to opolyachit this edge as it consisted mostly of the Russian inhabitants and to prepare it for future Poland" [4, page 587].

In general it is possible to note that representatives of an official and conservative historiography are very similar in opinions on activity of the prince Charto-ryysky, the last are distinguished by sharper criticism of his separate actions and measures during stay on various official posts of the Russian Empire.

Historiographic material,

presented in the present article, demonstrates that political activity of A.E. Chartoryysky, despite a huge role which he played in the history of Poland and Russia, is studied insufficiently. An important research problem of the present stage of studying the Russian-Polish relations is the question of the purposes of the Russian policy in Poland, of the possible Russian-Polish union which projects arose

since 1760, about in what measure this union was acceptable for Poland as this union could affect in policy of Russia. The Polish prince Adam Chartoryysky offered answers to these main issues at the beginning of the 19th century, being on Russian

service. The research of this question demands deeper studying the Russian archive materials and deeper comparative analysis of domestic and foreign policy of Russia and Poland Х^П-ХГХ of centuries

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A.E. CHARTORYISKY’S ACTIVITY ACCORDING TO THE RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY OF XIX AND BEGINNING OF XX CENTURIES

A.M. Zyuzin, Postgraduate Student of the Department of History of Russia and Regional Studies of Pre-Soviet Period of Nizhniy Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevski

In the article the historiographic research of Adam Chartoryisky’s activity as the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs and as the trustee of Vilensky academic district is presented.

Percival Thomas
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