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Emergence of Popechitelstv about blind people and deaf-mutes in pre-revolutionary Russia



VOZNIKNOVENIYE POPECHITELSTV About BLIND PEOPLE AND DEAF-MUTES In

PRE-REVOLUTIONARY RUSSIA

D.V. Kupreev Krasnodar

The history of emergence Popechitelstva about blind people is connected with the organization of the help to disabled people of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 - 1878. The help was carried out by the Main guardianship for contempt of the needing families of soldiers. The head of this department K.K. Grot arrived at an idea of need of creation of specialized structure for contempt, both blind disabled veterans, and all other persons deprived of sight. In 1881 the Mariinsky guardianship about blind people called in honor of the empress Maria Aleksandrovna, Alexander II's spouse was created. It acted on the charitable basis. Thus, the help to blind people began to be carried out by charitable department under the auspices of House of Romanovs. Some time Mariinsky guardianship was under authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. On March 10, 1883 it was listed by the royal decree in Department of institutions of the empress Maria, having received the final name Popechitelstva Empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people.

The status of new charitable structure was established by the Main beginnings for activity Popechitelstva the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people. He was defined peculiar. It was specified in the Main beginnings that Guardianship, "being private institution, uses protection of the Government and consists with all institutions arranged to them in Department of institutions of the Empress Maria" 1. The mention of "private" character Popechitelstva did not mean his accessory to any person. Meant that Guardianship - the independent department which is not depending on the state and other charities.

The chairman headed Guardianship about blind people. He directed the General meeting and Council - the central administrative bodies Popechitelstva. The general meeting was convened periodically. It considered all questions connected with activity Popechitelstva about blind people. Popechitelstva ran the current activity Council. Its chairman, he is a chairman Popechitelstva about blind people, supervised the work of general meetings. Relationship of the chairman and glavnoupravlyayushchy Department of the empress Maria was not stipulated by the legislation. Glavnoupravlyayushchy exercised "the highest supervision" over all institutions of the empress Maria. Proceeding from it, the chairman Popechitelstva about blind people had to submit to glavnoupravlyayushchy. At the same time the chairman had the right to report on affairs Popechitelstva personally to the emperor and his spouse. The order of representation of these affairs on "the highest blagovozzreniye" did not make a reservation too, but the chairman Popechitelstva about blind people had a rank of the secretary of state.

In 1898 in Department of the empress Maria the specialized charitable department for assistance to deaf-mutes - Guardianship of the empress Maria Fiodorovna about deaf-mutes was created. It consisted under the patronage of the widowing empress. Actually Maria Fiodorovna was a patroness of two charitable departments. Completely Guardianship about deaf-mutes was called as "Imperatritsa Maria Fiodorovna's Guardianship consisting under Most august protection of their imperial Majesties about deaf-mutes". Activity of it department was defined by the Provision on Popechitelstva consisting under most august protection of their imperial majesties of the monarchess empress Maria Fiodorovna on deaf-mutes. The character Popechitelstva about deaf-mutes in situation was not defined. It was specified only that it "consists in Department of institutions of the empress Maria" 2. The central administrative bodies of guardianship about blind people were the Committee and Council. The committee exercised "the highest supervision" of all institutions of contempt of deaf-mutes and considered the most important questions connected with activity

1 The main beginnings for activity Popechitelstva the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people and rules of activity of the Kiev office Popechitelstva. Kiev, 1904. Page 3.
2 The provision on Popechitelstva consisting under most august protection of their imperial majesties of the monarchess empress Maria Fiodorovna and deaf-mutes. Saratov, 1909. Page 1.
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HISTORY OF STATE AND LAW

Popechitelstva. Council was engaged in the current teaching and educational, medical and administrative affairs. Direct management of Guardianship about deaf-mutes was in hands of the Chairman of the Committee. He was at the same time a chairman of the board. The order of relationship of the Chairman of the Committee Popechitelstva about deaf-mutes with glavnoupravlyayushchy Department of institutions of the empress Maria did not make a reservation.

Guardianship about blind people and Guardianship about deaf-mutes, as well as Department of institutions of the empress Maria, rather safely endured overthrow of the patrons in February, 1917. In March, 1917 the Department of institutions of the empress was formally abolished. Own office of its imperial majesty on institutions of the empress Maria was transformed to Management of Mariinsky charitable institutions. In its maintaining there were all former structural units, charities and institutions of contempt.

Amy Brown
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