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© 2005 K.S. Balyukin


Development of business to Dona had contradictory character. The circumstances influencing its development made generally negative impact: even in the 18th century among the Cossacks there was negligence to business, and it did not become the dominating line in character of the Cossack.

It should be noted, as the tsarist government constrained the policy trade development, believing that she will distract the Cossack from the main, the state ordered, duties. However the aspiration to natural forms of relationship among which commerce takes the major place was shown to Dona more and more distinctly and more persistently to what induced the following factors: geographical - favorable location of the region lying on the main trade ways from Europe to Asia; natural - edge with fertile lands.

Cossacks in X1X-XX of centuries tried to obtain recognition behind them legitimate right for trade. But the autocracy limited to decrees, regulations, instructions, charters their actions, constraining natural development of public life in general, economic in particular. The industry, commerce imprisoned initial and consequently, initiatives, could not yield fast positive result. The tsarist government cared for that the Cossack free-thinking did not become an infectious example for other people of the empire, subordinating free Cossack spirit feudal servile consciousness. Incalculable military duties, frequent forced relocations considerably constrained development of economic life of edge, its legal basis lagged behind.

Commerce to Dona on the list of trade people was multinational, but that trade which foundation was laid by natives of the Cossack estate became then a basis of development of all commercial business, having put in it the customs, the right and subject forms of implementation. In the history of the Don trade both the negative phenomena of the general feudal statehood, and local features of formation of economic life were fully reflected, first of all - in the field of land use. But nevertheless trade developed: in the 18th century. The Uryupinsk fair on turns was the third (after Makaryevsky and Radical) in the European part of Russia. It was carried out annually from September 15 to October 10, merchants from many Russian cities gathered here. In the 18th century in structure of the administrative authority of Army of Donskoy there were a Commercial court, persons knowing trade affairs.

However the most important act of organized trade became founded in 1804. Trade society of the Don Cossacks. Process of formation of commercial law to Dona is from this point observed. Vigorous activity of this society, from the point of view of legal and organizational, began in 1827 when Regulations on the right of the Don Cossacks for trade which entered approved in 1835 subsequently were founded. Regulations on management of Army of Donskoy and then in the Code of laws of civil. In 1885 the new document regulating trade in Army Don where it was emphasized that "is impossible to be engaged in trade to the sluzhily Cossacks who are not consisting in trade society" was created taking into account social and class features of the Don Cossacks. It was noted that "constantly engaged in trade can get the considerable credit and extend the trade. For the same who does not consist in Trade society continuous trade is impossible and consequently, also acquisition of trade turnovers" is impossible [1].

Introduction of the reliable and favorable credit as fragile position of the Cossack in commerce disturbed it in acquisition of the last formed the main basis for revision of old rules of trade. In this regard it should be noted that the Russian merchants which to the middle of the 19th century gained strength and which entered as equals the world market (after 1861 - in particular), with mistrust treated the Cossack trade, preferring not to enter with her representatives long-term transactions.

Overcoming similar alienation of trade Cossacks from all Russian merchants was served by granting gildeysky commercial laws to trade Cossacks which were compatible to laws of merchants and in many respects guaranteed freedom of the Cossack trade, increased its value in the business world of Russia. The acting as the senior entrusted Trade society Ustinov wrote in the official report to the Minister of War D.A. Milyutin (on November 24, 1864) "talent to the Don merchants of the right to consist in guilds and to use, personally and potomstvenno, all advantages connected to this rank will rouse the Don Trade society to moral and material progress, will beneficially work on development of public trust and the credit and will give to the Don trading class that degree of solidarity and civil liberty without which the rational course of trade" is inconceivable [2].

The authorities of Don not without intention arranged transfer of Cossacks in Trade society with a set of formalities. In a military way the rigid regulation of activity of Trade society, as well as trade life in general, constrained a business initiative of Cossacks, long time held trade on supporting roles of public life of edge. But, despite deterrents, trade in Army Don continued to develop where education and development of a banking system, distribution of trade out of Army limits, permission from another town and foreign trade in the territory of Army, permissions of purchase not -

was the main thing

personal estate on lands of Donskoy's Army that contributed to the development of productive forces of edge.

In 1835. Regulations on the Don Trade society and Regulations on the right of the Don Cossacks for trade understood Position about management of Army of Donskoy, and then and the Code of laws of civil. Thus, to the last quarter of the 19th century the commercial law to Dona represented quite motley conglomerate of rules, the contradictory, mutually excluding each other and, finally, hardly applied. In this regard, recognizing need of revision of the trade legislation, on November 10, 1885 for the purpose of study in general a condition of activity of Trade society the ataman Voysk of Donskoy founded the special commission under the chairmanship of the senior adviser of regional board, the councilor of state Mironov which, having revised all documents on the right of the Don Cossacks for trade and on the Don trade society existing for that time, improved some situations in a codification order, formulated others anew, without breaking the main statutes, excluded the third from the arch as lost the value. The new project accurately formulated the relation of the trade Cossacks to military and public duties: the Cossacks who are consisting in trade society, as well as being in active service were exempted from duties road, guard and other which constrained classes trade.

As a result the document under the general name "Provision on the Right of the Don Cossacks for Trade and on the Don Trade Society" which historically was late on the relation not only to the general condition of world, but also domestic trade, and the reason for that - military and camp position of Area of Army of Donskoy, prepared to it the history of Russia was accepted. At this time the world market gathered that experience and prospects which formed then the bases of socioeconomic way of the leading European states. In Russia not only in government circles, but also in all its estates other consciousness to which historians repeatedly pointed dominated: Russia is primordially agricultural country and intensive trade leading to factory production to it not only it is not necessary, but is contraindicated as it will never be able successfully to compete with foreign economy, and the organization of life in factory conditions in general rastlevayushche affect the Russian. Therefore it is not accidental in society as circles of officials, and merchants, there was a rejection of any industrialiation.

Therefore, emergence of the document ordering it is legislatively right also rules of trade in Army Don where conservative trends of the Russian public opinion went deep military and official psychology of administration, - the fact, undoubtedly, positive.

Situation consisted of three sections. The first - "About the right of the Don Cossacks for trade" - defined that "to all inhabitants of the Cossack estate

the right of free trade and industry as in army limits, so & #34 belongs; in all provinces, the cities, settlements and at портах"" [3]. Further it was proclaimed that trade of the Don Cossacks is exempted from all state fees, they had to pay collecting only in the income of Army.

Situation was also aimed at the development of a credit system, granting to trade Cossacks the right of entry into obligations as with the state treasury (banks), and individuals on deliveries and contracts. In the sphere of the credit right the new situation equalized trade Cossacks with merchants.

The second - "About drawing up society of trade Cossacks" - legislatively recognized behind the Don trade the right of self-government, but limited.

The third - "About Entrusted Trade society" - defined a self-government order in Trade society.

In the same time one more important decision in the history of trade merchants - obtaining the right of the introduction of trade Cossacks in merchants was made. Activity of the Don merchant society was defined "By the provision on trade in Army Don". Article 28 of this provision stated that the faces of the Cossack estate "reliable behavior can join the Don merchant society, trading or persons interested to make trade" [4]. Entered merchants accepted a rank of the Don merchants who acquired the rights for those times considerable: they were exempted from corporal punishments that raised their social status, equalized them (legislatively, first of all) with the nobility. The Don merchants acquired the right to trade outside the boundaries of Donskoy's Army that considerably recovered the Don trade circles.

For decades of the attitude of Cossacks and non-residents in the sphere of business were ambiguous: among the Cossack estate there was an opinion that nonresident people wash away their tenor of life, encroach it is free or involuntarily on their privileged position. Such point of view found reflection and in the Cossack legislation. New rules of the adopted Trade Provision were more loyal to faces from another town which had the right to permanent residence within Army, to get in the property of the house, factory, the plants, trade and industrial institutions with the consent of stanitsa societies. Thereby the rule forbidding to non-residents to have immovable property in Army was legislatively cancelled. And one more essential fact - the vremennoobyazanny peasants lodged on lands of Donskoy's Army in rules on business activity were equalized with non-residents. The statement of these statutes completed the formation of Commercial law in Army Don which offered the big prospects of development of trade to Dona. With this right the Don merchants entered in the 20th century rich with social shocks

The second half of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries are characteristic of the Don trade in development of a numerous layer of the small and average owners defining a basis of all economic relations. Statistics demonstrates that small and medium business was a source of income as for the private, and army capital, was an economic basis of spiritual and cultural life of edge. The personalized list of Society of the Don trade Cossacks for 1859 demonstrates that only in Novocherkassk there were 272 members of Trade society with the stated capital in 1045.5 thousand rubles silver [5]. The considerable capitals accumulated in hands of residents of trade villages: The old Cherkassk-162100 rubles, Aksay - 305000 rubles, Gnilovsky - 475004 rubles. The whole families began to be allocated with the capitals: in Old Cherkassk - Zhichenkova (Zhuchen-kova), in Lower Chirsky - Paramonov, in Konstantinovskaya — Korol-kovy, etc. Trade caused navigation development, many trade families: Cat's, Paramonov, etc. were engaged sudoizvozy. In 1863 in Army Don there were 295 shipowners, their fleet made 225 seaworthy and 120 river crafts. In poor harvest, crisis 1863 when the purchased ability went down almost on 1/3, the trade revenues were 3842978 rubles. Indicators of the previous 1862 were higher on 2 million rubles. (Goods turnover of the Don fairs in 1863 was more than 22 million rubles, namely they were barometers of the domestic market [6].

In the 20th century the Don Cossacks entered economically strengthened: continuous growth of business both in the sphere of commerce, and in production is observed. Despite the known social and economic shocks the Cossacks together with all Russia endured at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century such economic recovery which neither in former, nor during the subsequent periods of historical development on was observed.


1. GARO, t. 200 (295), op. 1, unit hr. 70, St. 2, l. 4.
2. GARO, t. 200 (295), op. 1, unit hr. 70, St. 2, l. 53.
3. GARO, t. 200, op. 1, unit hr. 1336, St. 32, l. 1 about.
4. GARO, t. 200 (295), op. 1, unit hr. 70, St. 2, l. 7 about.
5. GARO, t. 200 (295), op. 1, unit hr. 104, St. 4, l. 1-12 about.
6. GARO, t. 200, op. 1, 233, St. 5, l.

Rostov state economic university On June 14, 2005

© 2005 B.A. Bicheev



At the different people the ethnic consciousness is focused around symbols, significant for them. Language, religion, the territory of traditional accommodation, etc. can act as such defining symbols. For any ethnic group the relation to the home ground is one of the main ethnoforming constants. An outcome from the fatherland, by whatever incentive motives it was caused, always causes a condition of "cultural shock", and the forced migration in other geographical and cultural environment is connected, first of all, with a problem of mental health of ethnic group.

However ethnic group, having lost habitual natural and geographical and cultural and political space, does not become another at all. In a situation of psychological crisis protective functions of ethnic consciousness come into effect. The ethnic group appears all process of the activity forced to react to a dichotomy of the existence.

When the Kalmyk people violently were deported to Siberia, ethnic components of consciousness appeared in a condition of a contradiction with reality. According to researchers, treat aspects of the cultural shock felt by ethnic group in case of the forced resettlement: tension connected with need of psychological adaptation; feeling of loss and deprivation; feeling of isolation; failure in values, feelings and self-identification; the alarm caused by cultural differences; feeling of inferiority [1].

Violent deportation to Siberia (1943-1956) finds the reflection as the tragic event perceived as attempt of physical extermination of the people in historical memory and ethnic consciousness of Kalmyks. Deportations of the people preceded not less dramatic events connected with occupation of the territory of the republic by the German troops. To summer of 1942 on the occupied part of the republic "the new order" was established and "the president of the Kalmyk people" is appointed. Representatives of the Kalmyk beloemigration in cooperation with the German command created "the Kalmyk case". According to some information, it consisted of 3592 people, including civil, on others - the case consisted of 25 (or 13) squadrons in 1200 riders [2].

At the beginning of 1943 the territory of Kalmykia was freed from occupation. However the begun course of restoration of economy of the freed republic soon was interrupted with the confidential Decree of Presidium of VS USSR of December 27, 1943. "About elimination Kalmyk the ASSR and formation of the Astrakhan region as a part of RSFSR" for No. 115/144. The Kalmyk people attributed to the contingent of special immigrants were deported to various regions of Siberia, hungering, deprivations, violations

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