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On the way to the Holy Land: pilgrim trips of the Russian students at the end XIX beginning of the 20th centuries.


VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007

UDC 930

On the way to the Holy Land: pilgrim trips of the Russian students at the end XIX beginning of the 20th centuries

T.E. Anikeev, E.S. Anikeev

GOUVPO "Moscow State University of service"

The students as social group became one of favourite objects of a research of both domestic, and foreign scientists more than a century ago. During this time about students hundreds and hundreds of books and articles are written, dozens of empirical social researches that gives the chance, first, to refuse understanding of students as marginal, uniform as the heterogeneous internally differentiated, sociocultural community which is strictly localized in time and in space of social group in favor of definition of students with a set of ways inherent in it and styles of activity and, secondly, to formulate a subject of our article as sociocultural value of pilgrim trips of the Russian students and to characterize these trips as one of lifestyles of the Russian students are conducted.

Since the Epiphany, Russia, and then the Russian State felt the considerable need for the educated people capable to work (to serve) in bodies both central (orders), and local (mandative log huts, chambers) managements.

Emergence in Russia of various schools gradually paved the way for the Russian higher education.1 However since XVIII century the Russian higher education develops generally in traditions of the German education according to which it is preferred not as "elite" university education; 1 and training of highly qualified specialists for concrete practical activities?

To the second half of the 19th century the students gained clearly class, and in the second half of the century - class imushchestveny character. In some closed higher education institutions (military and diplomatic) trained experts mainly from estate of noblemen. At the universities there was a training of doctors, scientists, writers, the most educated officials. At a turn of the XIX-XX centuries major factors of determination of the choice by students of specialty for training are outlined. It is possible to carry not only type and level of pre-university educational preparation, but also a social origin (settlement student's structures - associations in the second half of the century were multifunctional and in many respects helped to create styles of student's life) to them, at last, family educational and professional tradition.

The "Russian" student "was born" in post-reform time: before he was dissolved in the mass of lordly children and few commoners.

The high type of life of the Russian student is created in the 1860-70th years. This is "pechalnik" for the life of people, sensitive, angry, impatient, brought up by Nekrasov's flour, studying at Dobrolyubov, Pisarev, Cher-

nyshevsky. Severe tests fell to lot of this youth. In historical the 1890th its role is enormous. In students as in focus of public life, what sometimes only vaguely glimmers in gray fog of the surrounding atmosphere is immeasurably brighter, more passionate and more resolute. Prompt youth, in the full swing honesty and a pravdoiskatelstvo, painful and fearless, create the special scale, prospects of life, the assessment of events?

The fixed ratio on age between various higher education institutions is characteristic of students of Russia of the end of the XIX century. Students of the universities are more senior than graduates of technological higher education institutions. Among them natives of the nobility and clergy prevail, the class list of "technicians" is more democratic. At the universities more residents of the big and "average" cities study, technologically higher education institutions and female courses are filled by natives of the province. And the last. Irrespective of a profile of higher education institution every second student has personal earnings and spends for it not less than three hours daily, irrespective of season. The number of the working students grows to the middle of term of training and falls by its end. The financial position of students is directly connected with their social origin (merchant children are most provided). As a rule, two of three students realize the belonging to various social and political movements.

Not only Leo Tolstoy and Karl Marx, but also Charles Darwin, Dmitry Pisarev and Nikolay Mikhaylovsky reign over their minds. Newspapers, less actively magazines and books are actively read. The lack of time and possible inaccessibility of some editions are the main reasons for it. But the measure of susceptibility, responsiveness, a certain "thoughtful" relation of student's youth to changes of a social and political situation in Russia is important, in our opinion.

Told grants, apparently, the right to characterize confessional life of the younger generation of Russia as a phenomenon dual: The belief was not only a resort, but also a form edinstva6 the Church accumulated spiritual gifts and redistributed them among believers. In the spiritual plan it found expression in veneration of saints of places. The phenomenon of a confessional pilgrimage becomes more and more significant and not only in life of the Russian students. He is understood as the Sacred way to the Sacred purpose. Terrestrial and Spiritual Ascension are closely bound, and the pilgrimage becomes not what other as a reflection under Sacred space and it is more important, than participation in a way, its "accommodation".

Communications of Russia with the Greek world davniye8 During the ancient period they had mainly trade and military and diplomatic character. Then Epiphany


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Russia (at first a baptism of the grand duchess Olga in 955, and then adoption of Christianity as nation-wide religion by her grandson Vladimir) created the soil for confessional and cultural contacts during which the art system of the Byzantine empire was acquired, monuments of the Greek literature and diverse scientific treatises were translated.

The special place in the history russko - the "Greek" communications since adoption of Christianity was got by pilgrimages and travel. Along with official visits of Tsargrad by the Russian metropolitans and diplomats there is the most interesting tradition of private pilgrimages and travel.

As it often happens in world history, the first dated historical data on pilgrimages were preceded by generalized characters of pilgrims and a pilgrimage in folklore. Old Russian bylinas and spiritual verses are mentioned a kalikakh-feather-hozhikh - the pilgrims going for worship to the Holy Land and extracting to themselves livelihood alms.

Gradually there are stylistics not only the Russian spiritual verse (they were created heat-ki-perekhozhiye), but stylistics of Russian "circulations" to the Holy Land.

Apparently, "Life and Daniil's circulation of the Russian land of the abbot" (beginning of the XII century) was one of the first. He in detail examined shrines of Jerusalem, visited various regions of Palestine. Thoroughness of descriptions, deep erudition (any area is called and it is immediately specified that here occurred in bible days), uncommon writer's skill got to "Life and circulation" broad popularity. Today there are 152 hand-written lists of this monument. Daniil's composition can be considered as "a model pilgrimage", in our opinion. For many centuries it defined specifics of a special genre of traveling notes - pilgrim hozhdeniya9

However, recognizing originality of a genre of Russian pilgrim "circulations", it is necessary to tell also that the Russian pilgrims in the description of the Holy Land were guided by the "Greek" "Jerusalem" travelers. So, for example, Arseny Sukhanov who was well knowing Greek called the description of the travel on the Christian East proskanitariy.

Among the most interesting, in our opinion, traveling notes of the Middle Ages it is necessary to mention "Zosima's circulations to Tsargrad, Athos and Palestine". The author, Troitse-Sergiyev's monk of the monastery, traveled in a private order in 1419-1422. He sought to visit Saints of Earth (memorable places) and to tell about them in traditions of pilgrim literature. Zosima went on pilgrimage without hurrying, long being late in many places. In Tsargrad he spent ten weeks, in Cyprus - one and a half months, in Palestine - all summer. Like other Russian pilgrims Zosima pays attention to topography of Jerusalem and Constantinople, but feature of its traveling notes is the description along with the Holy sites, secular sights of "the Greek world" (equestrian statue of Justinian, a hippodrome) and those unexpected events which happen to it (attack on the ship of pilgrims of Catalan pirates during which Zosima was wounded).

Descriptions of private Russian pilgrimages to the Holy Land accurately break up to two groups: the sources created before fall of Byzantium and Constantinople and those monuments which appeared later! 0

Till the 15th century inclusive "circulations" were the only form of traveling (pilgrim) notes. Since the 15th century also other genre versions appear: "stateyny lists", "paintings" of ambassadors, "formal replies" of pathfinders. Nevertheless the Greek world still remained for Russians first of all a pilgrimage object therefore, probably, and in the 16-17th centuries we have as describing the Christian East and its monuments traditional "circulations". However these monuments of the Russian history and literature undergo changes both on structure and in the principles of the image. In their contents the motives peculiar pilgrim merge and secular (trade, diplomatic) to circulations, there is an aspiration "to decorate" the narration due to loss of reliability, the addiction to a legend is combined with conscious fiction.

In the Time of Troubles on travel of Russians to "the Greek world" quite big break was taken (too terrible and disturbing events took place then in Russia). The tradition of circulation on the orthodox East revived only in the second third of century.

We will tell several words about Arseny Sukhanov's pilgrimage, Troitse-Sergiyev's cellarer of the monastery which we already mentioned.

1649 together with suite of the Jerusalem patriarch Paisius he was seconded by

B on the East for clarification of distinction of ceremonies of the Russian and the Eastern Churches. Together with the patriarch Paisius he left in Yassy, visited Athos, but the diplomatic errand given it in passing with church (at the time of the beginning of a pilgrimage he is the archdeacon of Chudovo of the monastery in Moscow) induced Arseny to interrupt a trip in 1650 and to be for the report to Moscow.

In 1651 Arseny Sukhanov continued a travel to the Holy Land which he in detail described in Proskinitariya. On the way to Jerusalem he visited Constantinople, Chios, Rhodes, Egypt. From Jerusalem through Asia Minor and the Caucasus returned in June, 1653 to Moscow. There it also presented to the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich as the report Proskinitary. After short rest Arseny Sukhanov at the request of the patriarch Nikon goes to Athos again for purchase of the Greek and Slavic manuscripts and books which were necessary for the correction of prayer books, church ranks and ceremonies begun in Russia. In different monasteries of Athos the cellarer of the Trinity collected and sent more than five hundred "manuscripts" among which there were "Illiad" and Homer's "Odyssey", "Works and days" of Hesiod, Eskhil and Sophocles's tragedies, Platon's "Dialogues", Strabo and Pavsaniya's "Chronographs", works on medicine, astronomy and grammar to Moscow.

The judge of the Greek pagan wisdom and the admirer of the Byzantine fathers of Church, Arseny Sukhanov resolutely defends purity of the Russian Orthodoxy before gentiles. All this made compositions it very popular in the people. Except ceremonial and theological questions in its Proskinitariya a lot of place are taken by descriptions of pyramids near Cairo, Alexandria, plants and animals, exotic for the Russian century.

Travel to the "Greek" world longer than others pu-



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tevy notes stored on themselves the pilgrimage press to Shrines, but to the first third of the 18th century there is a gradual refusal of a traditional form of medieval circulations and in the most various texts the lines characteristic of secular culture appear.

A number of pilgrims writers of Peter's time is opened by Ioann Lukyanov who after the travel to the Holy Land took monkhood with a name Leonti. Its pilgrimage is closely connected with Old Belief history. After death in the middle of the XVII century of the last bishop Pavel Kolomensky of community of Old Believers sympathizing old belief were left without bishop, so opportunities to ordain new priests were deprived. Probably the secret mission on Ioann Lukyanov's East was also connected with it. In its task entered to find any of the Greek hierarches which would agree to impose one of Old Believers. The objective was not achieved, but the Russian literature received the most interesting description of the Holy Land and Constantinople.

As the writer Ioann Lukyanov followed traditions of the archpriest Habakkuk with whom at him much in common on mentality, stylistics, sometimes even according to vocabulary.

Unlike pilgrims of the Middle Ages of Ioann Lukyanov take already not only the Holy sites, but also difficulties of a travel, danger to which he was exposed. He describes them colourfully and vividly: "You will look: everywhere there is a shout yes groan, beat, plunder, other cries - is killed, other cries - is robbed, everywhere chase one person of blackamoors to ten twenty, many horses and stuff abandoned yes so from them (blackamoors - E.A., THAT.) also run away".

It is necessary to mention also such pilgrim traveler of postpeter's time what was "pedestrian hodets" V.P Grigorovich-Barsky. The pilgrimage took 24 years it (1723-1747) and, in fact, became business of life of this surprising person. Having begun training in Kiyevo-Mogilyansky Academy, but not having graduated it, Gri-gorovich-Barsky under an assumed name comes to Jesuit Board of Lviv, but also from there is soon excluded for commitment to Orthodoxy. From Lviv the studied less student, having been fond of the idea of wandering, goes to Italy in the beginning, then to the East (Corfu, Kefalonia, Zakynthos, Chios, Thessaloniki...), after that to Athos, and from there - to Palestine. On the road lives alms everywhere. Remembering the benefactors, Lordly with warmth writes about the hospitality shown it by Greeks: it was free of charge fed in hotels, and completely enclosed was supplied with clothes.

Having bypassed all Palestine, Syria and Arabia to the mountain Sinai and having visited Egypt, the pilgrim visited islands of the Archipelago again and stopped for some time in Antioch. Here at the beginning of 1735 the Antioch patriarch Sylvester who fell in love "peshekhodets" tonsured Lordly in monks, having kept it a name of Vasily. But also monkhood could not keep the pilgrim from continuation of wanderings, apparently. He went to Constantinople, then spent year on Athos, again returned to Tsargrad, there was nearly detained by order of the Russian ambassador Neplyuev, and, by miracle having avoided arrest, through Bulgaria, Moldova and Poland returned to Kiev where died in 1747.

In all the wanderings of V.P Grigorovich-Barsky kept detailed diaries in which told

about everything what happened that he saw and worried. Except descriptions he removed types, plans, facades of wonderful places and buildings whom about 150 were gathered.

Like ancient pilgrims it goes to Shrines, getting money for bread a handout, but the inquisitiveness moves it at all not less, than Christian piety. Also the travel to the Holy sites in Europe, Asia and Africa being" to high Russian literature of the XVIII century belongs ".

In the second half of the 18th century the quantity of notes of pilgrims is sharply reduced, but the quantity of notes about secular travel grows. It and is clear. From them it is necessary to select "Tsaregradsky letters on ancient and present Turks", the composition created in the 70th years of the 18th century and belonging probably P.A. Leva-shevu; "Unfortunate adventures Vasilya Baranshchikova, the petty bourgeois of Nizhny Novgorod in three parts of the world: in America, Asia and Europe from 1780 to 1787" (in fact, it is already adventure story where development of a dynamic plot happens against the background of "overseas" scenery, exotic for the Russian reader, among which both Jaffa, and Constantinople).

The 19th century is opened by also quite secular "travel" to the Greek world. It "Memoirs on Pavel Svinyin's fleet". The author participated in an expedition of the vice admiral D.N. Senyavin to the Aegean Sea. He describes Athos, islands of the Archipelago, alternating the information about modern Greeks antique reminis-tseption. And as since the beginning of the 19th century the Greek Archipelago, Asia Minor and the Middle East are of interest not only to pilgrims, officers of the fleet and diplomats, as well as to graduates of the Russian Academy of Arts so far as then and "Views of the Holy sites" appear. So, for example, in 1820 a trip to Jerusalem was made by M.N. Vorobyov where it drew, measured and sketched all major places honored by Christians.

The subject of the Holy sites attracted also brothers Chernetso-vykh. After the travel in 1838-1844 to Constantinople and to the Middle East they published the lithographed album with views of Palestine.

In 1835 the count V.P. Orlov-Davydov organized a scientific and art expedition across the Ionian Islands, Greece and Asia Minor. The architect N.E. Yefimov, the antiquary Kremer and the great Russian artist Karl Bryullov were its part.

Five years later in St. Petersburg "Traveling notes" of Orlov-Davydov and to them the atlas in which there were drawings of participants of a travel, and Karl Bryullov were published including.

At last, it is necessary to mention that the 30th years of the 19th century are time when again traveling notes of pilgrims appear. In 1830 Andrey Nikolaevich Muravyev went to Palestine and Egypt! 1

He visited Egypt (Alexandria, Cairo, Memphis), then through the Sinai desert went to Palestine and arrived in Jerusalem on the eve of Easter. Here spent three weeks, visited (and described subsequently) all temples and monasteries of the city and the next vicinities! 2 Travel of the young pious man had a wide response in the Russian society, and "The travel written on his impressions in 1830" (SPb., 1832) determined a new genre in the Russian literature by the Holy sites and the new page in


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history of the description of the Holy sites.

The novelty was that Muravyev managed to create actually the work of art, to find graphic means for a poeticizing of religious feeling, to develop special style of the story behind which subsequently even definition of "muravyevsky" was approved.

The figure of the archimandrite Leonid (Kavelin) who since 1863 was the chief of the Russian spiritual mission in Jerusalem is characteristic of the middle of the XIX century except Andrey Nikolaevich Muravyev. The archimandrite Leonid combined at first sight difficult combined qualities of the observant traveler and the historian-archivist, the pious pilgrim and the archeologist. He equally was interested also Shrines and those who visited them to it. Its Travelling notes about the Holy Land, Athos and Constantinople (still not published) are continuation and revival of tradition of private pilgrimages and travel which we consider.

In 1903 at the initiative of professors of the Moscow university the interesting scientific expedition was held. For several time before professor S.N. Trubetskoy conceived to form scientific student's organization. This thought with delight was accepted by professor's listeners. Sergey Nikolaevich was elected the chairman of society, and the secretary - the student A.I. Anisimov! 3

B 1903 historical and philological society led vigorous, full-blooded life. This year

S.N. Trubetskoy managed to fulfill the cherished dream: to organize a scientific expedition to Greece. In this expedition together with professors students had to go, and the right to take part also to students not to members of society was granted. The scientific and cultural value of such trip was not subject to doubt. All winter 1902-1903 academic years there was an intense training to a trip; to this business such experts as professors Malmberg (history of art), Nikitsky (history of Ancient Greece) and also the secretary of the Russian archaeological society Lepper were invited.

S.N. Trubetskoy communicated with the Ministries of national education, foreign affairs and means of communication, with the government of Greece and our embassy. Rooms for tourists and on were prepared

opportunities are provided all trifles.

The excursion left Moscow on July 29, 1903. Went by the Moscow and Kursk railroad by four specially allotted cars. Tourists there were 140 people. The teaching personnel consisted of the following persons: professors

S.N. Trubetskoy, L.M. Lopatin, V.K. Malmberg, I.F. Ognev, Ya.N. Nikitsky, privatdozent N.V. Davydov. In Constantinople Lepper joined tourists. Thanks to S.N. Trubetskoy's efforts, the monetary subsidy was received from the Ministry of national education, reduced rates for journey by rail were presented. Thus, all trip with full contents and the road cost each student only 60 rubles.

The excursion on the structure as N.V. Davydov wrote, "represented kind of a university microcosm - the Moscow students in all its variety, among the students participating in a trip there were representatives, apparently, of all nationalities of the Russian Empire sending the sons to the Moscow university: there were young people from rich families, from a sufficient class, and the students existing only on the money earned by personal earnings. But, despite such variety, society in general was common and quickly became organized in public unit which all members as soon as business concerned the general interest, acted at the same time"! 4

The phenomenon of a Christian pilgrimage is not among mastered not only in public consciousness, but also in historical science. The Russian orthodox pilgrim perceived (and today perceives) Jerusalem and the Holy Land not as set of valuable, historically noteworthy monuments of architecture and archeology, but as special historical and liturgical reality, occurrence into which is possible only as a result of first-hand spiritual experience. The pilgrim develops the personal spiritual experience of comprehension of the Holy Land. It does ancient tradition of prayful visit it by the Russian people in the special way of a unification them, an element of various professional subcultures. At recovery of modern subculture of the Russian universities it is impossible to lose this its traditional part, in our opinion.



In 1631 in Kiev the Kiyevo-Mogilyansky Board, then in 1685 in Moscow - Slavyano - Greek-Latin Academy which as envisioned by its founder Fedor Alekseyevich had to become the Russia's first higher educational institution of classical university type opens. In practice the Academy was the special higher spiritual school. The social and national composition of Academy was motley: here children of princes, the patriarch's relatives, children of the enslaving person and children of clergy studied. The Vsesoslovnost was characteristic of this educational institution.

By the end of the XIX century in the Russian Empire there were ten universities: Moscow (1755), Yuryevsky (1802), Kazan (1804), St. Petersburg (1819), Gelsingforsky (1827), Kiev (1834), Novorossiysk (1865), Warsaw (1869), Tomsk (1888).

At the beginning of the twentieth century Russia had 124 higher educational institutions from which 65 higher education institutions were state, and 59 - non-governmental, private educational institutions.

In 1872 in the Kiev university there took place the Russia's first student's self-census (special statistiko-sociological inspection which was carried out to study position of students by means of mass actual data). Later many educational institutions (the universities in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tomsk, Kharkiv, Odessa) conducted similar censuses up to 1917. As

the rule, self-censuses were carried out by participating students of statistical seminars under the leadership of teachers. Results of student's self-censuses allow to recreate social shape of the Russian students of a boundary of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries.

5 V.V. Svetlyakovsky. Student's censuses in Russia: a short historical essay//Students in figures. - SPb., 1908. - Page 61.
6 See in more detail: I. Preobrazhensky. Domestic church according to statistical data from 1840-41 to 1890-91 - SPb., 1901.
7 For more details see E.N. Anikeev. The heuristic nature of the concept "religion metaphysics" for historico-philosophical and theological researches

>//The person - Culture - Society. Current problems of philosophical, politological and theological researches. Materials of the International conference devoted to the 60 anniversary of reconstruction of philosophical faculty of MSU. On February 13-15, 2002 - T. III. - M.: MSU, 2002. - Page 6-7.

8 (Holy Land) we understand the general dukhovnokulturologichesky dominant of the people and regions which were a part of the Byzantine empire which and after its disintegration kept Greek as language of culture and a church service, and Orthodox Christians as traditional confessional rules of conduct as "the Greek world".


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9 In literary tradition of the work of this genre meet up to the first quarter of the 18th century, in national reading keep popularity and in the 19th century. As the modern researcher of a genre of circulations N.I. Prokofiev writes, his principles and formal components are that "it is necessary to write only what was tested by the traveler that he saw own eyes..., to write not cunning, but simply, to create the finished small essays sketches and to group in the whole work on a basis or the temporary or prostranstvennotopografichesky principle; the bible or apocryphal legend - a necessary element in pilgrim circulations, but it has to be local, correlated to a certain historical and geographical area". (Book of circulations: Notes of the Russian travelers of the 11-15th centuries / Sost., podgot. text, vstup. article and comment. N.I. Prokofieva. - M, 1984. - Page 19).
10 Leonid, arkhy. A review of Tsaregradsky monuments and Shrines of the 16th and 15th centuries on the Russian monuments / ChOIDR. - 1870. - Prince 4. - Page 22-62.
11 Andrey Nikolaevich of Ants (1806-1874) is a poet, the playwright, the spiritual writer and the memoirist. His creativity holds absolutely specific place in the history of the Russian literature. Books by Muravyev had both educational, and promotional, and missionary tasks. Muravyev's identity bright and original, still causes ambiguous estimates as he did not limit himself only to literary work, but was one of the most authoritative and influential representatives of Russian Orthodox Church. So, within more than twenty years, he was epitropy (attorney) of three patriarchal thrones (Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem), the founder and a ktitor of the Andreevsky monastery on Athos, one of the best experts on the Biting and a temple ktitor for the sake of Andrew the First-Called where it was buried.
12 From a travel Andrey Nikolaevich brought a set of memorable things and "antiquities" which formed the basis of its well-known collection (See in more detail A.N. Muravyev. The description of objects of antiquity and Shrine, collected by the traveler on the Holy sites. - Kiev, 1972). Besides, at its insistance from Thebes to St. Petersburg were brought

two original sphinxes and in 1832-1834 are established on the embankment opposite to Academy of artists.

13 "Society it, - N.V. Davydov writes in the book, - aimed to promote communication on scientific ground of students and to serve as the cultural center to those who seriously treats education business got sympathies of university youth soon, expanded in number and has to was organized, having put the basis to library, having created reading room and organizing meetings with reports of members it on scientific subjects. Soon after its basis the society broke into several sections: economic, criminalistic, section of social sciences, literary. The first public meeting (i.e. open not for some members of society, and for all students) took place in the crowded large audience brilliantly and became an important event of the academic life. Among speakers professors and students acted, especially strong impression was made by the speech of professor P.I. Novgorodtsev. Happiness Sergey Nikolaevich's face when on it, and then and at section meetings his pupils and other students made scientific papers when between them the hot discussion was started shone, an interesting debate rose and because of the academic science the organic communication and the known proximity between teachers and listeners personally arose". (N.V. Davydov. From the past. Memoirs. - Part II. - M, 1917. - Page 132).
14 N.V. Davydov. From the past. Memoirs. - Part II. - M, 1917. - Page 166.

The list of the used literature

1. A.E. Ivanov. The higher school of Russia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries. - M, 1991.
2. A short historical essay of the twenty-fifth anniversary of activity "Societies of assistance to the needing students" Imperial Moscow technical school. 1889-1914 - M, 1914.
3. N.G Zavadsky Students and political parties of Russia in 1901-1914 - SPb., 1998.
4. Russian students at the turn of the century. Materials of the All-Russian student's forum. - M, 2001.
5. "And that saw everything the eyes" To the 900 anniversary of circulation of the abbot Daniil to the Holy Land. Exhibition catalog.

- M, 2007.

UDC 94 (4/9)

Development of periodicals and library science by the Russian emigrants in China in 20-40 years

The XX century

L.F. Goverdovskaya

Vladivostok state university of economy and service

The emigre press, perhaps, as any other source, absorbed in itself all nuances of everyday life of "east branch" of Foreign Russia. In total in Manchuria at different times there were about 270 names of various periodicals emigrantov1 the Russian diaspora in China surpassed many others In number of periodicals. The American researcher of the Russian literary emigration E. Stein noted that "the Russian Far East considerably surpassed the Russian America in the number of magazines" 2 V one Harbin in 1920-1945 more than 50 large newspapers, more than 20 social and political and literary magazines in Russian were issued. It were both the short-lived editions and leaving during ten and more years. Here

a number of large publishing houses worked. The publishing centers were also in Shanghai, Tianjin. The press in detail lit not only life of the Russian colonies in Manchuria and China, but also constantly paid much attention to life of the Russian emigration in Europe and America, to political situation in the Soviet Russia, world economic development. In general the press those years was a motley picture. Boulevard leaves and political newspapers in the conditions of fierce competition often disappeared, without leaving a mark, also quickly, as well as arose. Articles and essays devoted to dates from the history of the Russian state, life and activity of writers, composers and artists were constantly published in newspapers. Many announcements of concerts and theater productions were followed

Jack Rivera
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