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Some features of reflection in the central press of fighting in Chechnya (1994-1996)



Alexey GLUSHACHENKOV

some features of reflection in the central press of fighting In CHECHNYA (1994-1996)

According to a number of printed media, the Russian society by the end 1994 - to the beginning

1995 years stopped somewhere in an interval between the totalitarian past and expected by domestic liberals very foggy future. For characteristic of the situation which developed in Russia, mass media applied various terms: deadlock, catastrophic, explosive, etc. In many respects aggravated a political situation in the country difficult social and economic situation, the worsening financial position of most of the population in comparison with previous years is noticeable. So, since January, 1992 increase in prices by 3-4 times advanced salary increase. On average consumer prices of food grew more than in 12 thousand times since then. Decline in production in the country was not stopped.

Publicizing of participation of army in the Chechen events was the extremely important subject discussed in printed media of the considered period. Opening the block of articles about the Chechen events connected with the beginning and the course of war the author considers it necessary to mark out their main features.

The first feature is connected with what began wars in October

1994 years had the hidden character, officials denied participation in it of the Russian military personnel: "The Russian army is not involved in bloodshed in Grozny. Battles are conducted by politicians and mercenaries", "The Ministry of Defence will take all measures for release of hostages during fights in Grozny and investigations on their participation in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation...", "On inquiry of the State Duma the negative answer to their belonging to the Russian army came to the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation about nine captured servicemen shown on television.", whether "Will save Rodin

— mother of captured sons", "As call the military personnel who burned down in tanks in Grozny ten days ago?", "Grachev betrayed the lieutenants", "Failure storm of Grozny was preparing in the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation" 1, etc.

According to the press service of the president of Chechnya, in captivity there were about 70 officers, one of whom died subsequently. The Committee of Soldiers' Mothers of Russia presented to a surname of soldiers and officers from the Kantemirovsky division which are in Chechne2. During this period there was well-known a statement of the Minister of Defence P. Grachev: "I not really am interested in what there occurs. Armed forces do not participate there. Though I watch television and I hear, there like prisoners took. I would never assume that tanks entered the city. It is wild illiteracy. And secondly, if the army was at war, then one paraborne regiment it would be possible to solve everything within two hours." 3

1 "Red star", October 1994, 18, November 29, on December 1. Komsomolskaya Pravda, December 1994, 1, December 2, December 3, on December 6, etc.
2 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on December 1994, 1
3 Izvestia, on November 1994, 29. Komsomolskaya Pravda, on December 1994, 2

GLUShAChENKOV

Alexey Alekseyevich — to. and. N, the associate professor, the chief of department of humanitarian and social and economic disciplines of Military and air engineering academy of

N.E. Zhukovsky

The second feature of publications is connected with unpreparedness and disorganization of conducting combat operations, misunderstanding of the purposes of war voyennosluzhashchimi1. Can be an example of it as official comments of the Russian President B. Yeltsin "The other day we will finish the armed actions in Chechnya." 2, and statements of the Minister of Defence P. Grachev "I Did Not Promise Blitzkrieg." 3 Messages of the press about the truth of war were absolutely others: "A favourite question on a front line: when that paraborne regiment which the Minister of Defence promised to take the city in 2 hours approaches.", "We are trench cattle. And the war in Chechnya — war of stripes. Our naval commanders showed full lack of talent.", "The lack of talent of politicians and generals was shown in the decision of storm of Grozny on "blackamoor".", "The army was not prepared for war.", "We were not learned to catch bandits on tanks." 4

The press reported about the egregious cases of lack of talent adjoining on crime which was shown also in training of staff for this war, and in work of military registration and enlistment offices. So, for example, to the private L. Bolshakov who was several months in the Chechen captivity the agenda on military sluzhbu5 came. Mother of one of the military personnel looked for the son in Grozny, and he was under an assumed name buried on others zemle6. On a number of newspaper messages, to Chechnya sent children of an appeal of fall of 1994. Some commanders refused to conduct their battle even under the threat of the military tribunala7. At the same time in the press there were messages about mass receipt in military registration and enlistment offices of statements of the volunteers to Chechnya who served in army and having fighting experience to replace with itself young people soldat8. Indirect podtverzh-

1 "Red star", January 1995, 18, on August 17. Komsomolskaya Pravda, on April 1996, 25. Moskovskij Komsomolets, January 1995, 12, on January 28, etc.
2 "Red star", on January 1994, 19
3 "Red star", on January 1994, 12
4 Krasnayazvezda, on April 1996, 5. "Komsomol

truth", on December 1994, 7. Komsomolskaya Pravda,

1995, On September 2
5 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on November 1995, 1
6 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on October 1995, 25
7 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on February 1995, 4. Moskovskij Komsomolets, on January 1995, 12
8 "Red star", January 1995, 27, on January 31

a deniye of unpreparedness and inconsistency of conducting combat operations are also opinions of medical officers who consider that about 60 — 70% of all wounds were from svoikh9.

Unpreparedness to fighting was shown also in total absence of ideas of number of the resisting forces and their arms. Scales of arms and the military equipment which are at the disposal of army of D. Dudaev surpassed all possible assumptions. Quantitative showed in various editions differ, but in general the approximate picture can be presented in it vide10:

• two launchers of the operational and tactical Moon rockets. However, according to some information, launchers were damaged and rockets for them were not;

• all educational and training planes, being at Kalinovskaya and Khankala air bases. On 251 plane left in Chechnya there was only 41 trained pilot. Within construction of the Armed forces D. Dudaev on bases of the Armavir school conducted preparation about one hundred more pilots. Besides, 40 people were sent to Turkey for training in flight business;

• 108 units of the armored equipment: 42 T-62 and T-72 tanks, 36 BMP-1 and BMP-2, 30 BTR-70 and BRDM-2, 153 artillery and mortar ustanovok, 590 units of modern anti-tank means;

• according to official figures, 57,596 units of small arms. Hardly the quantity of ammunition gives in to calculation. You should not forget also that inflow of ammunition and arms to this region was constant and uncontrollable from the federal authorities.

The third feature of publications about the Chechen events, according to the author, is social and economic. From the analysis of a number of articles it is possible to draw a conclusion that "money for the conflict in Chechnya

9 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on March 1995, 28
10 "Red star", on August 1994, 9. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, January 1995, 10, January 11, on March 15. Moskovskij Komsomolets, on January 1995, 13. Beginners N.N., V.Ya. Snegovsky, A. Sokolov. The Russian Armed forces in the Chechen conflict. Analysis, results, conclusions. Paris — Moscow. "HOLVEG-INFOGLOB - TRIVOLA", 1995, p. 13-17

were not provided." Interesting the help calculation on financial expenses on the Chechen campaign under the heading "The Army Is at War for Own Salary" published in Moskovskij Komsomolets for January 10, 1996 is submitted 1. In it, in particular, it was said that, according to Audit Chamber, the maintenance of army group in Chechnya for 1995 cost 5.7 trillion rubles: food — 103.1 mrld. rubles, fuel — 6113.2 mrld. rubles, ware property - 2556 mrld. rubles, medical support — 59 mrld. rubles, field and daily — 266.4 mrld. rubles, insurance payments — 34.3 mrld. rubles, room and insurance expenses — 33.5 mrld. rubles, capital repairs of arms and military equipment — 775 mrld. rubles, transportation of troops

— 220.3 mrld. rubles, veterinary service — 0.6 mrld. rubles, additional expenses — 43 mrld. rubles, an other expenses — 239 mrld. rubles, capital investments on arrangement — 249 mrld. rubles, purchase of arms and military equipment — 2840 mrld. rubles. At that time the debt of the Ministry of Defence on a monetary allowance of the military personnel and the salary to civil personnel of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for January 1, 1996 made about 4.3 trillion rubles. It follows from this that "the military personnel with nobility inherent in them borrowed to the state the lion's share of money necessary for restoration of a constitutional order in Chechnya." 2 it is simple to explain difficulties with payments of compensations, an insurance (in Chechnya the soldier received 200 thousand rubles for service, in case of death — 3 million rubles which were hardly enough for a funeral) 3 From here.

The fourth feature of publicizing of process of "targeting of a constitutional order" in Chechnya is that it carried obviously expressed political shade. Proceeding from dynamics of number of publications about events in Chechnya in 1995 and

1996 years, a number of the following conclusions (cm of chart 1, 2) arises.
1. Decrease in number of publications in
1995 and 1996 it falls on the periods,
1 Rossiyskaya Gazeta, on April 1995, 27
2 Moskovskij Komsomolets, on January 1996, 10
3 "Red star", on January 1996, 13. Komsomolskaya Pravda, on January 1995, 14

connected with preparation and elections to the State Duma in 1995 and the Russian President in June, 1996.

2. Growth of number of publications coincides with the beginning of work of deputies of the State Duma of the II convocation and personnel shifts after the election of the president of the Russian Federation, in particular, of appointment to the post of the Minister of Defence I. Rodionov, the secretary of the Security council general A. Lebed which did not support the solution of political affairs by a power method.
3. Increase in number of publications is connected with activization of legislative activity and the address of attention to problems of the army which is at war in Chechnya. So, the Russian President and the State Duma adopted and issued more than 10 regulations directed to social security voyennoslu-zhashchikh4. Trips of the Russian President and deputies of the State Duma to Chechnya carried obviously propaganda harak-ter5.
4. Recessions of number of publications coincide with obvious intervention of politicians of various level in the course of fighting: May, 1995, June-July, November
1996 years that caused extremely sharp discontent of the military personnel: "Those who to us shoot at a back. who needs a respite.", "How much is truce.", "About what do not tell in the General Staff", "In the General Staff mood gloomy. It is a respite for fighters again." 6

The fifth feature of these events, proceeding from the analysis of printed media, was the fact that the accurate front line was not. War was waged as in the territory of Chechnya, and is far beyond its limits. Acts of terrorism were committed: in Budyonnovsk the city hospital is occupied, in 1995 in Kizlyar are taken

4 "Red star", on January 1995, 12. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, July 1995, 5, on December 6. Moskovskij Komsomolets, on February 1995, 15. "Red star", May 1996, 18, June 14, June 15, June 26, August 20, on November 27. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, on June 1996, 27
5 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on December 1994, 8. Komsomolskaya Pravda, on December 1995, 2. "Red star", on May 1996, 30. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 1996,
29 May, on May 30. Moskovskij Komsomolets, 1994,
30 November. Moskovskij Komsomolets, on February 1995, 23
6 "Red star", 1995, November 5.

Komsomolskaya Pravda, on May 1995, 16. Komsomolskaya Pravda, on April 1996, 3. Moskovskij Komsomolets, on July 1996, 11

Dynamics of coverage of events in the Chechen republic in printed media in 1995 *

Chart 1

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20

highway

8 9 10 11 12

Analyzed by the author

Dynamics of coverage of events in the Chechen republic in printed media in 1996 *

Chart 2

* Analyzed by the author

about one thousand hostages, in Kaspiysk the house which overwhelming part of residents were military personnel and their members semey1 is blown up. The military personnel who came back from Chechnya repeatedly received letters threats: "If once again you go to be at war to Chechnya, then back you will arrive to a funeral of the family." 2

The warring army during the considered period faced also that she had to defend the honor and advantage in printed media before society which it protected: "Dirty war against the Russian army", "Our society is very sick if it allows to mock at fallen", "With whom we are at war, misters!", "From panic before treachery

1 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on June 1995, 20. Komsomolskaya Pravda, on January 1996, 10. "Red star", January 1996, 10, on November 11
2 Komsomolskaya Pravda, on February 1996, 10

one step" 3, etc. To "A red star" a stream letters of Russians with support of the Russian military personnel in Chechnya came: "We changed idea of the military personnel. We received two truths about events in Chechnya. One is formed in the Moscow offices, another is visible from trenches of the Russian military personnel.", "They protect all of us." 4 Deputy of the State Duma, in the past the famous journalist A. Nevzorov after the trip to Chechnya noted: "Did not see any Russian soldier who refused to go into battle, in troops fantastic fighting spirit, each battalion commander is the cleverest than the State Duma there." Result of its trip became

3 "Red star", on December 1994, 24. "Red star", January 1995, 11, on March 15
4 "Red star", January 1995, 24, February 14, on February 15

the video reporting "Hell" after which viewing the officers in Chechnya asked ten more such reports to break a lie wall around armii1.

A huge number of articles was devoted to feats of the Russian military personnel and perpetuation of memory of those who did not return: "The courage and heroism of the Russian soldiers", "Tears of soldiers' mothers", "In those heavy fights", "The Perm echo of the Chechen war", "Not for me will come spring", "About them still will write novels" 2, etc. The editorial offices of the newspapers "Krasnaya Zvezda", Komsomolskaya pravda made attempts to publish complete lists of the dead in the Chechen war under headings "Light memory names" and "The book of memory" 3.

1 "Red star", on January 1995, 13
2 "Red star", January 1995, 12, February 4, August 25, on December 10. "Red star", February 1996, 27, on December 16. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, on November 1996, 14. Moskovskij Komsomolets, January 1995, 31, February 9, on February 15. Rossiyskaya Gazeta,
1996, November 14. Komsomolskaya Pravda, April 1995, 19, on May 24, etc.
3 "Red star", 1996, 18 December.

Komsomolskaya Pravda, on April 1996, 4, etc.

the Russian history demonstrated

that Russia kept army and almost always existed as the military power, and the army was the main force and a symbol of the government. Nearly hundred years ago the famous Russian publicist M.O. Menshikov, as well as many others, emphasized: "The army is not the place for a dump of sewage at all. The army is the greatest jewelry of the people, the neobkhodimeyshy body providing to the state life. The army should be preserved as a shrine, caring in every possible way for preservation of its spirit." 4

While victorious, though not always the perfect army remained a basis of national existence of Russia, reckoned with her opinion in the world, foundations of the state became stronger, the base for internal transformations was created, transition to cultural legal democratic state was gradually provided, the system of original values was formed.

4 M. Menshikov. Letters neighbor. SPb, 1911, building 128
Arvidsson Thomas
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