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Category: History

Unarokovtsa in days of the Great Patriotic War

v. N. Diulin


Work is presented by department of the contemporary national history of the Kuban State University.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, professor V.E. Shetnev

In article the microhistory of the village of Unarokovo of Krasnodar Krai in days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, participation in it on concrete examples of ordinary citizens is investigated: the ordinary soldiers, home front workers awarded with awards, medals and also about F.I. Kravchenko, the legendary Hero of the Soviet Union. The analysis of a moral political condition of villagers these years is given.

The article explores the microhistory of the village Unarokovo in the Krasnodar region during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) and participation in it by the particular examples of common citizens: soldiers, rear workers rewarded with orders and medals and also F. Kravchenko, legendary Hero of the Soviet Union. The author analyses the moral and political condition of the village residents in these years.

A message about war for unarokovets, as well as Ache. The villager Ekaterina Nartenko for all Soviet people was unexpected - Pavlovna remembered: "There was an early morning.

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The father left for work, but for some reason quickly returned. He had an anxious and gloomy look. He told us that war began..." 1.

During the first, most difficult period of war, villagers took active part in the movement on assistance to the front: collecting material supplies in fund of defense, preparation of fighting reserves, collecting gifts and warm clothes for soldiers of the Red Army. The well-known contribution to the Victory was made by soldiers-unarokovtsy.

In the very first days of war many volunteers from the village of Unarokovo submitted the applications to the Yaroslavl regional military commissariat. In total on the front for years of war 553 inhabitants left. Voiny-unarokovtsy heroically battled on fronts of the Great Patriotic War. They were involved in the battles of Stalingrad, on the Kursk arch, in break of blockade of Leningrada2.

The pilot Semyon Arkhipovich Semenyuta bombed the enemy from the sky. He was born on February 14, 1921. Called on service

19 November, 1939. Was at war in the 160th reserve aviaregiment from June, 1941 to August, 1942, then till January, 1943 to the 324th art regiment, from March to August, 1943 in the 77th shooting crew. From now on and till October, 1945 Semyon Arkhipovich served as a radio telegraphist. Had many awards. Died on March 29, 2003 in the village of Unarokovo 3.

Unarokovtsa freed native Kuban, the whole country and the European states.

Grigory Ilyich Savelyev was born

20 April, 1925 in the village of Unarokovo. In June, 1942 it is called on the front. Was at war in 351 detached destructive battalions as the foreman of the battery. Has war decorations: "For defense of the Caucasus", "For courage", "For capture of Budapest" and many others 4.

Vladimir Anufriyevich Zaytsev also freed the small Homeland for what it is awarded the gold medal "For Defense of the Caucasus".

V.I. Zherdeev was involved in fights for Sevastopol. Awarded medal "For Liberation of Sevastopol" 5.

Mikhail Makarovich Vityuk was born on November 8, 1920 in the village of Snezhna, Vinnytsia region of the Ukrainian SSR. Called by Kakhovsky RVK of the Kherson region in September, 1940. Was at war in the 224th armored brigade - the Southwest front; the 166th detached tank battalion - the Volkhov front, the 33rd separate heavy tank regiment - the 3rd Baltic and 1st Belarusian front, in a rank the first lieutenant. Underwent all war from Stalingrad, Kursk to Berlin. Had awards: Order of Alexander Nevsky, Award of Patriotic war of the I degree, Award of Patriotic war of the II degree, medal "For the Victory over Germany", medal "For Capture of Berlin", anniversary medals: "20 years of the Victory in the Second World War of 19411945", "30 years of the Victory in the Second World War of 19411945", "40 years of the Victory in the Second World War of 19411945", "50 years of Armed Forces of the USSR", "60 years of Armed Forces of the USSR", "70 years of Armed Forces of the USSR". Died on December 19, 1993, it is buried at the rural civil cemetery of the village Unarokovo6.

Alexander Ivanovich Nartenko. Was born on February 18, 1920 in the village of Unarokovo, Yaroslavsky district. On October 18, 1940 it was called by the Yaroslavl military registration and enlistment office in armed forces. From 1940 to 1941 served in Mongolia. War began and its parts directed to the Volkhov front. 163 regiments, also on the Leningrad front, the 1st Baltic and the 2nd Belarusian fronts in a rank the second lieutenant - the lieutenant - the first lieutenant was at war as a part of the 372nd division. Freed Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, stormed Konigsberg. Met a victory on the island of Ryugin (beyond the Baltic Sea) in 1945. Got demobilize on June 13, 1946 in a rank of the first lieutenant. Has awards: Award of the Red Star, medal "For Courage", "For Services in Battle" and drugiye7.

It is necessary to mention that 346 unarokovets so never and heard the word "Victory!". They died, protecting the Homeland. Mass graves in which soldiers are buried - unarokovets are not only within Kuban and Russia (The Rostov region - V.K. Belokopytov; the village Crimean - I.N. Dereev; The Stalingrad region - G.T. Bugayevsky; Kursk region - M.P. Selivanov and others), but also abroad (G.A. Blinov, N.F. Golodny, I.L. Verenev - Ukraine; V.I. For - Polish - Poland; M.P. Kovalyov - Czechoslovakia; A.A. Blinov - Lithuania; N.M. Mikhaylov - Yugoslavia; K.N. Borodin, I.A. Kovalyov - Germany). Many of them died in prisoner-of-war camps (P.A. Velichko - the city of Slavuta; S.G. Lomov - concentration camp No. 318 of Lamsdor-do, Germany) 8.

Unarokovtsa experienced difficulties not only on fronts, but also in the back. On August 6 the enemy seized Armavir and continued on - a stupleniye to Maykop. On August 8 he entered the village of Unarokovo. Fascists were in the village short time - pass, but their acts remained in memory of inhabitants. Actions of Hitlerites in Unarokovo are demonstrated by an extract from the decision of the expanded session of Unarokovsky village council of deputies of workers of Yaroslavsky district which took place on February 1, 1943:

"From the very first days occupations... fascist bandits began to carry out the brutal mode of terror, robberies and violence. For a short time the most part of the socialized collective-farm cattle was destroyed. All Jews living in the village after brutal mockeries were shot. In anything not the wine civilians lived in a situation of threat of execution, arrest and robbery all the time. At the population food, clothes, footwear, cattle, a bird, etc. openly got. A part of collective-farm barns and sheds were broken on fuel. The school library and valuable stock are plundered. avtomo-

the bilny tractor Unarokovskoy park of MTS was brought to an unusable state." 9.

In the village of Unarokovo Elistarkhov was appointed the managing director. The commandant's office during occupation was in the village Yaroslavl.

In the village also underground work was conducted. The participant of the underground Komsomol Andrey Stefanovich Bocharov organization remembered: "From October, 1942 to day of release of the village of Unarokovo. the underground organization existed and worked". Young people aged from 15 up to 18 years entered into it:

1. Mikhail Ivanovich Alefirenko 1927;
2. Andrey Stefanovich Bocharov 1922;
3. Nikolay Egorovich Velichko 1927;
4. Grigory Pavlovich Shramkov 1927;
5. Nikolay Gavrilovich Konivets 1926;
6. Maria Shkarukilova 1926;
7. Ekaterina Pavlovna Nartenko 1923

Ekaterina Pavlovna Nartenko was born on June 15, 1923 in the village of Unarokovo. During occupation by fascists of Kuban participated in activity of the underground organization. On May 2, 1943 voluntarily left on the front as the operator. Ekaterina Pavlovna remembered that she "had to adjust fights by means of rays of light. In one of fights the workmate was killed, but I did not give up business - ran from one beam to another". It reached Berlin. In 1945 got demobilize. Has a set of awards. Now E.P. Nartenko lives in the city of Krasnodare10.

Members of the underground organization in the village of Unarokovo conducted propaganda patriotic work among the population everywhere and always, distributed at first the leaflets printed on the machine, and then handwritten in which called for resistance to "a new order", installed belief in the fastest release. And also

collected, hid and kept weapon before arrival of the Red Army. Andrey Stefanovich Bocharov remembered that in that far and hard time "underground workers were united by one: the house of Komsomol members and big hatred to the enemy" 11. Ekaterina Pavlovna Nartenko told that for suspicion of writing of leaflets she was arrested by two times. And both times were lucky her. For the first time the translator helped, and the second she and some other arrested could escape. Fascists shot those who were not in time or did not manage to escape.

In the neighborhood of the village the Yaroslavl guerrilla group conducted the diversionary activity. Precisely number it did not manage to be found out, but old residents remember that about 17 people were its part. Guerrillas actively promoted approach of the Soviet troops in Kuban which began at the beginning of 1943

The marshal of the Soviet Union A.A. Grechko wrote in the book "Battle of the Caucasus" that on January 27, 1943 are busy with guerrilla groups - Kuzhorskaya, Makhoshevskaya and regional center Yaroslavskaya12. These days also the village of Unarokovo was freed. The policeman Elistarkhov after prosecution was killed behind the village in a beam. Old residents nicknamed it Elistarkhova.

On January 29 guerrillas entered Maykop and the regional headquarters of the guerrilla movement. Giaginsky, Koshekhablsky, Shov-genovsky, Yaroslavl and other guerrilla groups were transferred to situation destructive batalyonov13.

The heroic page of history of the village of Unarokovo in days of the Great Patriotic War is life of the Hero of the Soviet Union, legendary person Fedor Iosifovich Kravchenko who was born in the village in 1912, but in 1913 the parents moved to Uruguay, and in 1929 returned home again.

VTsIK by the mechanic, later in Executive committee of the testing and assessment material worked on building at home. Was at war in

Spain, for participation it is awarded the order the Red Banner and the Red Star. Since 1938 according to Jan Berzin's recommendation turns into investigation of the Red Army and decreases to the countries of Latin America. But war returned Fedor Iosifovich home and since May, 1942 he in guerrilla connection of Alexey Fedorov.

On May 3, 1945 to the captain F.I. Kravchenko the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union is given, and on May 4 he leaves for Western Europe to France and to Spain where time-veddeyatelnostyyu till 1950 is engaged. The disease affected and Fedor Iosifovich remains at work in Moscow.

In 1972 the fellow countrymen came to it with congratulations in honor of the 60 anniversary, but it could not arrive to the small homeland before the death in 1988 14

Thus, unarokovets adequately protected the houses, the village, edge and the country from fascist aggressors, having tested all "delights" of occupation. In spite of the fact that there were from among inhabitants also policemen, and traitors peasants endured all burdens of war as they could helped the front and who was there, returned to the village with the Victory. Only from 553 people who left on the front, 353 persons died or their names on an obelisk at a mass grave in the center of the village were missing, and their detailed lists are attached to this work.

Studying pages of history, talking to veterans of war, reading letters of veterans, we did not find any word which would be told reproachfully to the country leaders, edge, the area, sat down, would express discontent with situation of the developed system, all suffered hard times and believed in the Victory. F.P. Zyryanov told: "Results of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union the most convincing showed in the way that in the world not of such forces which could force to the knees the people devoted to the Homeland" 15.

1 Museum MOE SOSH No. 16 of the village of Unarokovo of Mostovsky district. Memoirs of veterans.
2 In the same place.
3 In the same place.
4 In the same place.
5 In the same place.
6 In the same place.
7 In the same place.
8 "They did not return from fight. Book of Memory". Maykop. 1995.
9 Museum MOE SOSH No. 16 of the village of Unarokovo of Mostovsky district. Reference of national archive of the Republic of Adygea. Fund P. - 334 op.1. 67.
10 Museum MOE SOSH No. 16 of the village of Unarokovo of Mostovsky district. Memoirs of veterans.
11 Museum MOE SOSH No. 16 of the village of Unarokovo of Mostovsky district. From A.S. Bocharov's letter.
12 A.A. buckwheat. "Fight for the Caucasus". Moscow. 1969. Page 183.
13 In the same place.
14 Sovershenno sekretno newspaper / lot B. "the GRU reveals a name of the illegal immigrant". No. 12. 2003, December. Page 26.
15 F.P. Zyryanov. "history of Russia". Krasnodar. 2000. Page 359.
Agnes Sanders
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