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Early history of Old Belief in South Ural: features of distribution and subconfessional structure

UDK 94 (470.57) & #43;29 BBk of 63.3(2 Dews. Bash.) & #43;86.37


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In the submitted article on the basis of the analysis of the published sources and an extensive circle of the archive materials for the first time introduced for scientific use early history of Old Belief in South Ural is stated, the main stages of its distribution are allocated, short localization and characteristic of sub-konfesssionalnogo structure is given.

The territory of South Ural represents the polietnichny and polikonfesionalny region where several centuries occur intensive interaction of the most various cultural traditions - Turkic, Finno-Ugric, East Slavic. This interaction developed in the course of economic and cultural development of the edge which stretched for quite long historical period. The Russian population was formed mainly during land and industrial colonization by resettlement streams occurring at different times of many Russian provinces. The complexity and mosaicity of its structure in which are allocated with researchers several ethnographic grupp1 is explained by it. The Old Belief non-uniform serves a peculiar ethnoconfessional component of each of these groups in the social plan and the including set of subfaiths.

Old Belief, as public

the religious movement, arose at the end of HUL of century result of the church reform initiated by the patriarch Nikon (1652-1658) and directed to unification of ceremonies on a modern Greek sample. During reform, changes in old printing books were made, and the charter of church service changed. Reformatory activity of Nikon caused sharp resistance in a part of clergy and laymen. Against the background of the concept which developed in public consciousness of that time about the special mission of Russia as only keeper of Orthodoxy (the theory "Moscow - the Third Rome") innovations were perceived by refusal of respect for purity of orthodox belief. In 1666 all innovations of Nikon were legalized by the decision of Cathedral, and supporters of an ancient church service (Old Believers) are anathematized.

Already at the end of HU11 of century the Old Belief faced need of the solution of a number of world outlook and organizational problems. With reduction of number of confessors of a donikonovsky postavleniye sharply there was a question of the relation to the institute of priesthood which divided Old Belief into two directions - Popovtsy and a bespopovshchina. Old Believers found possible prini-

mother of "runaway priests" from the dominating church. Bespopovtsa, considering post-reform church of the deprived grace, preferred to refuse sacraments for which execution the priest was required absolutely. As a result of further dogmatic disputes these currents broke up in turn to a set of rumors and soglasiy2.

The Old Belief problem in general saved up quite solid historiographic reserve in the domestic humanity. However the South Ural Old Belief remained practically out of sight of historians and ethnographers and was not devoted to it special publications. The exception is made by D.K. Zelenin's article which appeared at the beginning of the past stoletiya3. Some historical events taking place in the explored region were reflected in the monograph by N.N. Pokrovsky "the Anti-feudal protest of the uralo-Siberian kre-styan-Old Believers in HUS of century" (Novosibirsk, 1974). Problems of difficult relationship of the South Ural Old Believers with public authorities and orthodox clergy were considered by Yu.N. Sergeevym4. The southern Ural region got only into the few gear on history and the culture of all Ural Old Belief. In this regard it is possible to call the book of the Ekaterinburg arkheograf "Essays of history of Old Belief of the Urals and adjacent territoriy5.

There are also pre-revolutionary publications which contain different degree of saturation information on split in the territory interesting us. The side between sources and a historiography is represented very conditional here. In this plan N. Chernavsky's work about the Orenburg diocese is very valuable. In detail describing all a little considerable local events, the author gives the mass of the most interesting information about Old Believers: about popularity of their ideas among the Cossacks, about the basis of monasteries, missionary activity of secular governing bodies and orthodox clergy, statistical tablitsy6. Work of this sort on the Ufa diocese was written I.G. to Zolotoverkhovnikovym7.

In general, the existing works do not give a complete idea on the studied problem,

submitting to our attention only separate fragmentary data. Therefore in the present article we made an attempt of the complex analysis of the published sources and archive materials and consecutive statement of an initial stage of history of Old Belief in South Ural.

As indirect confirmation of early emergence here of Old Belief two unsuccessful attempts of establishment of the certain Ufa diocese at the end of the 17th century can serve (in 1666 and 1681). As the main argument of local administration in favor of need of such action the fight with raskolom8 acted. However it is possible to speak about strengthening of this phenomenon in the region already only since the beginning of HUS of century when here the flow of Old Believers from the known Old Belief center crushed by the authorities on the river Kerzhe-nets in the Nizhny Novgorod province directed. The Old Believers (mainly popovsky direction) running from there except secret monasteries lodged in the special settlement of yaitsky Cossack army - Shatsky



The territory of the Urals owing to the remoteness from the Russian center and also in connection with prirodnogeografichesky features (remote mountains and the dense woods), was represented convenient for settling to the "dissenters" disappearing from persecutions. The appeal of the region was enhanced also by its small economic and cultural familiarity therefore distribution of Old Belief in the region went in parallel with processes of the Russian colonization of edge.

Activity of the Orenburg expedition in the 30-40th of HUS of century when six lines of fortresses with the center in Orenburg were built became a powerful push for new inflow of the Russian population to Bashkiria. Soldiers of garrison regiments, the Ufa, Samara, isetsky and yaitsky Cossacks and also sluzhily from the abolished Zakamsk line became inhabitants of the last. Also exiled and fluent were used. In this motley weight it was easy to get lost and disgraced staroobryadtsam10. All these people were subsequently the center of the Orenburg army which considerable part was also gathered from alien Great Russian kre-


By this time data on the basis of a raskolnichy monastery in Tabynsky fortress the Balakhna merchant I. Utyatnikov belong. In the 1720th years he, together with P. Osokin, was engaged in extraction of salt and construction of the Voskresensky copper-smelting plant here. As the active participant of suppression of the Bashkir revolt Utyatnikov received the commissioner's rank, but soon "fallen into obvious split, unfortunately terminated the life" 12. And the secret Old Belief monastery existed on this place even more than two desyatiletiy13. This fact assumes existence of a certain circle of people,

whose spiritual needs it was designed to satisfy.

Thus, the period since the end of HU11 to the 40th years of HUS of century is defined by us as the first, earliest stage in formation of Old Belief in South Ural. Process went in two directions. First, from the southwest from the territories occupied long since by the yaitsky Cossacks and from Kerzhensky monasteries. Secondly, - from the northeast, from the Isetsky region. Thus, the bulk of dissenters was concentrated on perimeter of the studied region.

Further distribution here of Old Belief was caused by the continuing economic development of edge where existence of rich deposits of copper and iron ores and also extensive forests contributed to the development of the mining industry. The productions interested in low cost, plant owners overlooked confessional accessory of the workers. Besides, some of large businessmen, in particular Demidov and Osokina, had a direct bearing on split most, and the working contingent at their enterprises was in many respects formed of Old Believers peasants. So, the plants constructed by I. Osokin Troitskiye and Usen-Ivanovsky (1750-60 - e years), were almost completely populated with the Old Believers brought from different places (mainly from the Balakhna County of the Nizhny Novgorod province) 14. According to 1911, there were more than 8 thousand staroobryadtsev15 here.

Dissenters lived in the majority of mining settlements of South Ural practically from the moment of their basis that was repeatedly noted by officials by drawing up various official reports: "appearance of dissenters in Verkhneuralsk the county belongs by the time of initial settling of the plants by Tverdyshev and Myasnikov" 16. The same sort of record are available on Beloretsk


to the plant and many other.

The analysis of archival documents allows to reveal places of resettlement of Old Believers and their approximate number in the middle of H1H of century. In the 184050th years they were fixed, except mentioned above, on Blagoveschensky (169 people), Arkhangelsk (277 people), Voskresensk (35 people), Verkhotor-sk (57 people), Bogoyavlensk (169 people), Satka (46 people), Kusinsk (167 people), Katav-Ivanovskoye (61 people), Yuryuzan-Ivanovskoye (167 people), Zlatoust the plants and in belonging to them numerous derevnyakh18. Real figures were always significantly underestimated, but even according to official figures only at eight enterprises in 1911 there were 17,346 Old Believers. Thus, during almost all HUS of century the Russian Old Belief population in South Ural is localized mainly in a mountain zone, along Ural Ridge, i.e. in places of concentration about -

the myshlenny enterprises and villages relating to them. Mining construction in the 40-90th years of HUS of century promoted significant increase in number of Old Believers in South Ural. It allows us to designate this period as the second stage of folding of an Old Belief enclave here. Besides, a certain role was played also by the continuing country colonization.

(The period since the end of XVIII prior to the beginning of the 20th centuries) in formation of Old Belief in South Ural and in Bashkiria the country resettlement movement becomes the prevailing factor of the third stage allocated with us.

Comparison of the data taken from later sources to data on emergence of settlements allows us in some cases from certain degree correctnesses

to extrapolate conclusions about time of appearance of Old Believers in any given settlements to dates of the basis of the last.

at the end of HUS of century the whole bush of the Russian villages in the north of the Ufa province (northeast regions of modern Bashkortostan) grows. Documents speak about existence in local villages Tas-tube, Duvana, Blizzards, the Resident of Yaroslavl, Voznesenke, Rukh-tino, Sikiyaze, etc. which founders were peasants from the Kungur and Krasnoufimsky Counties Perm gubernii19, "dissenters of the Pomor, fedoseevsky and Austrian sects" 20. It is possible that Old Believers arrived as a part of the first parties of settlers here, or the subsequent, but already in the middle of HK of century they are noted in sources.

A part of this human stream from the Perm province affected also the neighboring Birsk County (modern Askinsky district of RB) where compactly arise the settlement of Kuyashtyr (1787) 21, Evbulyak (end of HUS of century), Korolevo (1794), Askino (1783), Keys (1795). At the end of HK of century were widespread a bespopovshchina fedoseevsky sogla-siya22 and Orthodoxy in shape edinoveriya23 here. At the same time in the villages of Askino, Korolevo, Evbulyak almost all were "dissenters" that allows us to consider the first residents of the called settlements as Old Believers.

Density of the Russian population in the center of the Ufa province increases. In the new villages of Pervushin (1795). Ufa County, to Eldyaka (1787), Izhbulatov (1805). Birsk County, derevenyakh Barmy (1792), Kazanchina (beginning of HK of century). The Belebey County, etc. - also in the 19th century lived staroobryadtsy24. However the lack of sources does not allow to specify time of their emergence.

The new impulse to kolonizatsionny processes was given by peasant reform of 1861. In the Ufa province the set of new settlements appeared at this time, generally they were located the southern and central Counties populated is not so dense as ostalnye25. In 1871 in the Sterlitamak County Old Believers (generally a mordva) a cart -

order the village of Pomryaskino (other name - the Shelter), then a part of its inhabitants based to Ozerkovk (1891) and to Guryanovk (1896) 26. Cela Gavrilovca (1886) and Polynovk (1890) were also known as



With attenuation of a resettlement boom at the end of HK - the beginning of the 20th centuries process of formation of Old Belief in South Ural can be considered almost complete. By this time its final geography in scales of the studied region is defined, there are possible an identification and localization of subfaiths. Archival sources allow to map Old Belief consent which borders have no enough accurate outlines, are mobile and interpenetrated.

As initial inflow of Old Believers to South Ural came from large Popovskikh of the centers, here practically prior to the beginning of HK of century prevailed beglopopovshchina28, popular among the Cossacks, the population of fortresses and the mountain plants. The first belokrinitsky monasteries began to arise in a mining zone: on the Mountains Yurma, Taga-nay, in forests, near the Ilmen, Chebarkul and Trudoyarsky lakes when in 1852 the Ural bishop of a belokrinitsky postavleniye Vitaly (Mints lions) together with the Simbirsk bishop Sofrony (Fat), making trips around the country, reached also local mest29. To the end of the century only in the Ufa diocese there were already 6,099 "Austrians", that is nearly a half of all Old Believers (13,229 people) 30.

From bespopovsky soglasiya by the first from the territory of the modern Kurgan region and Central Ural Mountains in the explored region it was brought the Pomor-skoye31. From the Perm province at the end of HUS of century on the territory of northeast regions of modern RB get fedoseevsky, and at a boundary of HK and the XX centuries - strannichesky soglasiya32. Spasov-sky and ryabinovsky veroucheniya33 appeared in Bashkiria in the second half of HK of century of the center of Russia and the Volga region. The fight against split started in the 30th of HGH of century led to transformation of quite numerous Beglopopovtsy sofontiyevsky consent in bespopovsky chasovennoye34. This circumstance predetermined overweight towards a bespopovshchina, only in the southwest (Belebey County) the Beglopopovtsy communities remained.

The condition of Old Belief in the region interesting us on the eve of the 20th century can be illustrated with materials. The first All-Russian census of 1897, assuming and registration of the population on religious sign. The census contains the following data on the Ufa province in which Orthodox Christians and brothers in faith there were 961,727 people, Old Believers - 34,011, almost equally in each county: in Ufa - 8,876, Belebey - 7,913, Sterlitamak - 7,488, the Zlatoust-6,586 people. Exceptions are

Birsk (2,406 people) and Menzelinsky (742 people) counties where their number was neznachitelnym35.

Some falsification of data in a census was put initially: brothers in faith whose spiritual inclination to Old Belief was obvious united in one column with representatives of official Orthodoxy. Thus the number of the last artificially increased. Besides, the alerted relation of Old Believers to a census also affected objectivity of its results. According to "The status report and activity of the Ufa Diocesan Brotherhood of Resurrection for 1898" in the Ufa province the total number of Old Believers is defined by figure 40,189 chelovek36. In the bulk Old Believers were Russians. Among so-called "foreigners" their greatest number (1,388 people) was among a mordva, as is well-known strongly hristianizirovanny and undergone considerable assimilation in the conditions of Russian an okra -


Thus, in the course of distribution of Old Belief in South Ural it is possible vyde-

to pour three stages different in intensity and temporary duration. To the first quarter of HUS the centuries the bulk of dissenters here were made by yaitsky Cossacks and inhabitants of secret Old Belief monasteries. Further distribution of Old Belief was connected with construction of fortresses and the mining enterprises, and then - with the country resettlement movement. This process continued up to the beginning of the XX century. By this time places of compact accommodation of Old Believers within the studied territory, limits of the main rumors and soglasiya were designated, the prevalence of the bespopovsky direction was outlined. Today in South Ural are available practically all remained popovsky and bespopovsky Old Belief consent. Modern communities are very non-uniform in the organizational relation, some of them represent small separate groups of believers, others have accurate structure, are integrated around authoritative leaders, in them the completeness of a church service is observed.

1 Kuzya ev R.G. People of Central Volga area and South Ural. Ethnogenetic view of history. M, 1992. Page 120.
2 History of Old Belief church: short essay. M, 1991.
3 D.K. Zelenin. Lines of life of the usen-Ivanovo conservatives//News of society of history, archeology and ethnography at the Kazan university. 1905, T.21. Issue 3. Page 201-258.
4 Yu.N. Sergeyev. From history of Old Belief and Christian sectarianism in South Ural (the end of HUL - the beginning of the 20th century)//the Bashkir edge. Issue 3. Ufa, 1993. Page 30-39; It. Orthodox church in Bashkortostan (the second half of HU! - middle of HK of a century). Ufa, 1996.
5 Essays of history of Old Belief of the Urals and adjacent territories. Yekaterinburg, 2000.
6 N. Chernavsky. The Orenburg diocese in the past and the present//Works of the Orenburg scientific archival commission. Issue I. Orenburg, 1900; Issue II. 1901-1902.
7 I.G. Zolotoverkhovnikov. The Ufa diocese for 1897. Geographical, ethnographic, administrative and historical and statistical essay. Ufa, 1899.
8 Yu.N. Sergeyev. Orthodox church in Bashkortostan... Page 54.
9lyubavsky M.K. The review of history of the Russian colonization since the most ancient times to the XX century. M, 1996. Page 327.
10 Rakhmatullin U.H. Naseleniye Bashkiria in HUP-HUSh of centuries. Questions of formation of the non Bashkir population. M, 1988. Page 58-60, 88-89.
11 V.A. Ivanov, S.M. Chugunov. Cossacks history in the Urals. Sterlitamak, 2001. Page 35-36. The Orenburg Cossack army was formed in 1748
12 P.I. Rychkov. Topography of the Orenburg province. Ufa, 1999. Page 271.
13 Yu.N. Sergeyev. Decree. soch. Page 55.
14 D.K. Zelenin. Decree. soch. Page 204.
15 CGIA RB. I.9, Op.1. 906. L.7.
16 TsGAOO. F.10. Op.8. 97. L.93ob.
17 TsGAOO. F.10. Op.8. 97. L.49ob.
18 CGIA RB. I-6.Op.1. 339. L.1-16.
19 M.I. Rodnov. Short history of settling of the Duvansky region//Bashkir edge. Issue 4. (Materials on the history of Duvansky district). Ufa, 1994. Page 25-26.
20 CGIA RB. I-6. Op.1. 500. L.23-24.
21 Dates of foundation of settlements see on: A.Z. Asfandiyarov. History of villages and villages of Bashkortostan. Prince 4., Ufa, 1993. Page 202-204.
22 TsGIARB. I-6. Op.1. 339. L.24; 906. L.11.
23 N.N. Chernavsky. Decree.soch. Page 340.
24 Hereinafter dates on: A.Z. Asfandiyarov. Decree.soch. Prince 6. Ufa, 1995.S. 123-125; Z.P. Zdobnova. The atlas of the Russian dialects of Bashkiria (in two parts). Ch.1. Page 13; Ch.2. Page 18; CGIA RB. I-6. Op.1. 339; I-1. Op.1. 906.
25 A.P. Samorodov. The Russian country resettlement to Bashkiria during the post-reform period. the 60-80th of HKv. Sterlitamak, 1996. Page 168.
26 A.Z. Asfandiyarov. History of villages and villages of Bashkortostan. Prince 1. Ufa, 1997. Page 150, 154, 166.
27 TsGIARB. I-9. Op.1. 906. L.34.
28 Beglopopovtsy consent at first it was the only form of Popovtsy, then in 1846 in the village White Krinitsa (territory of the former Austrian empire) with accession to Old Belief of the bosno-Sarajevo metropolitan Ambrose consent was issued belokrinitsky (or Austrian). Beglopopvtsa restored own hierarchy in 1923, having accepted the archbishop Nikola (Pozdnev) from obnovlenchesky church.
29 TsGAOO. F.6.Op.18. 360. L.49ob-50.
30 The report on status and activity of the Ufa Diocesan Brotherhood of Resurrection for 1898. Ufa, 1899.
31 The Pomor consent - a moderate current in the bespopovshchena, the most numerous and organized today. Formation of consent is closely connected with the known bespopovsky center - the Vygovsky all-residence based at the end of XVP of century by Daniil Vikulin in the Olonets province. Besides the sacraments of baptism which remained at bespopovets and a confession the marriage sacrament was recognized, the special marriage canon is created.
32 Fedoseevsky consent - one of radical soglasiya in the bespopovshchena. It was created in the Pskov and Novgorod provinces under the leadership of Feodosiy Vasilyev. At the beginning of XVSh of century dispersed from Pomor because of rejection of marriage and disputes on "a torzhishny brashn" - the products bought in the wordly markets. Strannichesky (begunsky) consent - the most radical direction in the bespopovshchena allocated in HUS of century. Non-recognition of a bogoustanovlennost of any government by them is the cornerstone of dogma of wanderers. Runners interrupted communications with civil society: did not register in revizsky fairy tales, did not pay taxes, had no documents and the permanent residence.
33 Spasovsky consent (or a netovshchina) was allocated at the end of XVP of century of Spasovtsa, differ from other bespopovets in the fact that do not cross turning into their belief, and accept those only through a damnation of heresies or seven bow beginning. Rescue is seen only in Spasova (Isusova) to a prayer and in repentance to God alone. Ryabinovskoye - moderate bespopovsky consent. Ryabinovtsa worshipped the wooden cross made of a rowan as considered it thereby "pevgy" - one of three derev making the Lord's Cross in the present to it does not attach such crucial importance any more.
34 Essays of history of Old Belief of the Urals and adjacent territories. Yekaterinburg, 2000. Page 87. Chasovenny consent - the current in Old Belief which departed from a beglopopovshchina. Because of the absence of priests chasovenny began to be operated by ustavshchik who conducted a church service and made sacraments (baptism, a confession) in chapels.
35 The first general population census of the Russian Empire, 1897 of HU. Ufa province. Notebook 2. 1904. Page 42.
36 The report on status and activity of the Ufa Diocesan Brotherhood of Resurrection for 1898. Ufa, 1899. Page 73-74.
37 First general population census of the Russian Empire, 1897 of HHUS. Orenburg province. 1904. Page 58; In the same place. HU. Ufa province. Notebook 2. 1904. Page 42.

Came to edition of 12.07.06

Anthony Jacob
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