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The public resettlement policy and the movement of the Ukrainian population to the Regions of Kuban at the end to the XVIII first half of XIX in



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Svetlana SAZONOVA

The PUBLIC RESETTLEMENT POLICY AND the MOVEMENT of the UKRAINIAN POPULATION TO the Regions of KUBAN at the end of XVIII - the FIRST HALF of the 19th century

The North Caucasus as the polietnichny region always had high intensity of migrations. Expansion of borders of the Russian state at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th century and development of new territories was followed by movement of the population both from the Russian and Little Russian territories, and in most

During the Post-Soviet period the vector of ethnic resettlements changes. The Krasnodar and Stavropol regions, the Rostov region were exposed to the largest migration pressure. The lack of accurate reference points, inconsistency in migration policy at the federal and regional levels, limited financial opportunities in assistance to displaced persons and refugees and also led unavailability of local communities to reception of considerable mass of visitors to emergence and aggravation of various manifestations of social tension.

On this background the scientific research directed to studying the public resettlement policy of the Russian Empire developed at the end of HUS — ХГХ of centuries and which found the legal embodiment in the laws, orders, decrees signed by emperors, the Senate and the State Council and also local authorities is more and more updated. As, in our opinion, carrying out historical continuity and relying on past legislative experience, in modern Russia it will be possible to build the new legal framework of the public migration policy and to create a favorable situation for its realization.

From the moment of the conclusion of the Yassky peace treaty (1791) finally there was a transition under jurisdiction of the Russian Empire of a right bank of the Kuban River. At the end of XVIII — the first half of the 19th centuries on these lands "after soldiers, and it is frequent together with them, there were Cossacks and peasants plowmen, strongly fixed and developed the won lands, creating on them villages, the village and the farm" 1. On the one hand, mass resettlements of Cossacks and state peasants from the internal provinces of Russia were organized by power structures, and with another — part of them occurred spontaneously, but both in the first, and in the second case this process was regulated by the state through the legislation.

The pre-revolutionary historiography saved up huge material on a problem of the military-Cossack colonization of Chernomoriya (I.V. Bentkovsky, to I. Dib, P.P. Korolenko, E.D. Felitsin, F.A. Shcherbina). The history of the resettlement movement on the outskirts of the Russian Empire also became a subject special and

1 Chekmenev S.A. The North Caucasian Cossacks, its role and the place in development of new lands at the end of XVIII — the first half of the 19th century//Messenger of PGLU, 2000, No. 4, p. 71

region.

Svetlana Evgenyevna SAZONOVA is a teacher of history, the graduate student of the Armavir pedagogical university

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systematic studying Soviet historical science. Development of steppe Ciscaucasia, in particular territories of the Black Sea Cossack army, is in details investigated in V.P. Gromov, V.N. Ratushnyak, A.V. Fadeyev, S.A. Chekmenev, P.A. Shatsky's works, etc.

However many historians by consideration of process of resettlement into the North Caucasus paid not enough attention it to legislative registration. Being guided by legal acts and new archive materials which are for the first time introduced for scientific use, we set the purpose in this article to open a role of the state in the course of colonization by natives of Little Russian provinces of the territory of the North Caucasus at the end of XVIII — the first half of the 19th century

The thought of the device in "Kerch or on Taman" the former Zaporizhia Cossacks for the first time was stated to Kut on January 31, 1788 1 and conceived as means to stop possible leaving of free army division to Turkey, by an example of "incorrect Cossacks", and to turn the Cossack tops into social oporu2. The government, inhabiting Chernomoriya, "looked for in eya settlers of that live stronghold against external public enemies what the Cossacks long since were considered" that allowed to cut down in addition maintenance costs of permanent army here, having replaced it with the courageous, hardy people who got used to difficulties.

Mass process of development of the Kuban lands began at the end of the 18th century, from the moment of resettlement because of Bug of the former Cossack Zaporozhetses together with which in parallel there was a process of resettlement of family Cossacks and Little Russian peasants. The general figure of moved is unknown as such account by army was not kept. But according to later documents it is visible that because of Bug into Kuban only 17,021 Cossacks and about 8 thousand zhenshchin3 moved. By 1802 the population of Chernomoriya reached already 23,579 of m of the item and 9144 zh. the item, "was the share of each inhabitant more than on square verst" spaces. Follows

1 PSZ. T. XXII, No. 16605
2 RGVIA. T. 400. Op. 1. Unit hr. 115. L. 1 about.
3 E.D. Felitsin. Materials for history of the Kuban army. — Ekaterinodar, 1897, p. 2

to pay attention to an adverse ratio of floors: practically 39 women were the share of 100 men. It was explained by the fact that during the first period on new lands generally single Cossacks — "sirom" who did not have families and big property moved. Power structures carefully paid attention to this fact, and in the subsequent resettlements made strict selection, giving preference to families, "in which more maids and widows to marry able" 4 to reduce the number of the single Cossacks and to increase interest in economic development of edge. Besides, since 1822 the ban to marry widows and maidens to limits of the Black Sea Cossack army and the stranger to enter with them in brak5 was imposed. These limits finally were lifted only in 1856 6

Every year in the Black Sea Cossack army sharply there was a problem of reduction of population caused by martial law, disorder of life, frequent crop failures, impracticality of inhabitants to local climate, epidemics, etc. It is clear, that protection of borders along Kuban and development of new lands without continuous inflow of the new population became unreal. The government, recognizing a difficult situation, begins to carry out organized mass resettlements of Cossacks and state peasants with the terr - the ritoriya of the Russian Empire suffering malozemely. At the beginning of the 19th century the Poltava and Chernihiv provinces of Left-bank Ukraine concerned them. In these areas, less than 5 were the share of each soul of the population on the last audit des. convenient or less than 10 des. inconvenient zemli7. The available complex of legislative documents showed that organized resettlements in Chernomoriya took place in 1809—1811, 1821—1826, 1845 — 1850. Responsibility for the organization and the course of resettlement was assigned to Little Russian governors, under their management the algorithm was developed and

4 GAKK. T. 249. Op. 1. 764. L. 12 about.; E.I. Druzhinina. The southern Ukraine in 1800-1825 - M., 1970, p. 97
5 GAKK. T. 318. Op. 1. 11
6 GAKK. T. 318. Op. 2. 621
7 PSZ. T. XXXIX. No. 29848; RGADA. T. 1261. Op. 1. 2332. L. 2 about. - 4 about.
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a number of instructions according to which these actions were carried out. Police and the provincial authorities of those places through which there passed parties of immigrants had to "render them the necessary grant and protection, sending officials or corporals or soldiers... for their protection in way from oppression and stops, it is equal also for observance between immigrants of an order" 1.

In 1807 the ataman Bursak petitioned for the first resettlement in Chernomoriya.

On March 17, 1808 in Most highly approved report of the Ministry of Internal Affairs "About mass resettlement of 25 thousand male souls of Little Russian Cossacks on lands of the Black Sea Cossack army" it was reported about eviction here, "voluntarily shown willingness" of residents of the Poltava and Chernihiv provinces in three-year time, with granting lgot2. All costs for their transition were undertaken by treasury of Army Black Sea. From 1809 to 1811 into Kuban 23,088 of m of the item were moved and enlisted in number of Cossacks of the Black Sea army in total

Several years later, in 1820, the Chief of General Staff of the 2nd (Southern army) major general P.D. Kiselyov who was carrying out audit of the Black Sea Cossack army in the official report sent to Committee of Ministers noted universal reduction of the population and ruin of the Cossack economy. This problem, according to him, could be solved as follows: "On extensive space of the earth occupied by army Black Sea to increase number of inhabitants, resettlement from Little Russia of twenty five thousand more Cossacks still to an example." 3. On April 20, 1820 the emperor Alexander I approved this project.

In 1821 the second mass resettlement organized by the authorities which dragged on instead of the three-year term appointed on the project for 6 years since 1821-1826 4 Government began

>, relying on the previous experience, ordered to the Black Sea army administration to allocate for immigrants of the earth and to place them, tol1 GAKK. T. 250. Op. 2. 153. L. 22-22 about.

2 PSZ. T. XXI. No. 15177; T. XXXIX. No. 29848, etc.
3 GAKK. T. 249. Op. 1. 764. L. 2
4 GAKK. T. 250. Op. 2. 672. L. 8

to attaching to old, poorly populated kurenny settlements (villages) remote from borders, "that, newcomers did not fall a victim of predatoriness of zakuban-ets". But also this resettlement was still accompanied by great difficulties as in the majority "volunteers" were natives of the poorest Ukrainian families migrating on new lands with secret hope to improve the situation and to receive a small ground. Besides the army suffered an acute shortage of bread at this time and could not render the feasible help to all persons in need because 1821-1822 were poor harvest, and in addition the locust which flew in infinite quantity destroyed not only bread, but also travy5.

The first party of Ukrainians reached limits of the Black Sea army on August 30, the main part appeared in the fall of 1821 here. For 1821-1822 there arrived nearly two thirds of all planned immigrants here. The army administration hardly coped with their placement. Also officials were forced to inform the government on adverse conditions for resettlement and a difficult situation of migrants.

For reception and assistance to immigrants in the Black Sea Cossack army the order of September 6, 1821 founded select committee as a part of three asessor, the secretary, four officials for special instructions (regimental Cossack captains), under the general presidency of the army ataman. Documents of the State archive of Krasnodar Krai contain detailed data on activity of this Committee. For example, it made detailed accounting of the arriving immigrants, including capable to carry arms; controlled process of their placement on a wintering and further settlement, disposed of the wood for construction of houses, organized collecting donations and delivery of provisions, helped medicines, etc. 6

Under its management the first generous donation of old inhabited Cossacks was collected on December 29, 1821.

5 GAKK. T. 345. Op. 1. 166. L. 319
6 GAKK. T. 345. Op. 1. 1, 2, 168, 169, 171, 172, etc.
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In 1822 the position of immigrants even more worsened. The Black Sea army, owing to the lasted crop failure, had no opportunity to help already not only to them, but also even to the boundary regiments.

Up to 1824 in Chernomoriya crop failures proceeded. The army office and Cossack old residents as far as possible carefully helped and supported all in distress.

In January, 1826 the three-year preferential term of accommodation of immigrants expired, and the food situation improved, need for activity of Committee thereby was gone.

The carried-out second government resettlement of the Ukrainian population because of the high mortality of the population could not improve a demographic situation in Chernomoriya. In 1848-1850 the power made the third (last) attempt of organized mass replenishment of number and fighting capacity of army. The order of January 24, 1848 the emperor Nicholas I ordered to move into the North Caucasus 2020 families from the Poltava, Chernihiv and Kharkiv provinces. Resettlement was carried out by earlier developed and tested rules. However borders of army were reached only by 1980 families. It was explained by adverse conditions and unsuccessfully chosen time for movement. The last resettlement did not bring big benefit for army.

But, besides government colonization of this territory at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th century, everywhere there were spontaneous independent resettlements of the former Zaporozhetses, the state and runaway peasants and other categories of the population. The state, trying to control this process, issued a number of resolutions about "a vozbrane-niya at himself reception of fugitives, citizens

rossky" 1. But, considering difficult martial law and the catastrophic shortage of people, "as usual former Zaporozhetses, signed up willfully and without any analysis in the structure of army of newcomers, why those people undoubtedly, there was in army a considerable number" 2. The highest Cossack administration could not suspend a flow of fugitives even in any way when it wished to obey laws and orders of the central authorities.

Thus, process of settling and development of the territory of Kuban at the end of XVIII - the first half of the 19th century had the accurate legal justification recorded in government acts and decrees and also at orders of army administration of the Black Sea Cossack army.

As a result of the resettlement policy pursued by the authorities Chernomoriya's population in 66 years, that is from 1794 to 1860, increased more than in 7 raz3. By the general calculations, more than 105 thousand Little Russian Cossacks and peasants were moved here: natives of the Poltava, Chernihiv and Kharkiv provinces. However growth rates of the population restrained high mortality. The army administration, Cossack old residents everywhere tried to help migrants to adapt to new living conditions. In turn, natives of Ukraine, despite difficulties, having the general outlook, traditions and culture, integrally joined ranks of inhabitants of the Black Sea Cossack army, became a part it and on an equal basis with old residents divided all weights and pleasures of border life.

1 GAKK. T. 249. Op. 1. 281. L. 27; PSZ. T. XXIII. No. 17058
2 B.A. Trekhbratov. History of Kuban. - Krasnodar, 2000, building 164
3 GAKK. T. 250. Op. 2. 642. T. 2. L. 300
Danielsson Olof
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