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Outstanding Russian gifted hydrotechnician M.I. Serdyukov (1678-1754)

II of the university

& MAGAZINE water/ /communications

V.V. Kononov,

Cand.Tech.Sci., dots., SPGUVK





Article is devoted to life and activity of the Novgorod merchant M.I. Serdyukov who constructed hydraulic engineering constructions on the Russia's first artificial Vyshnevolotsky waterway.

The article is devoted to the life and activity of the Novgorod merchant M. I. Serdukov who built hydraulic structures on the first Russian artificial Vishnevolotskiy waterway.

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ERVYY in Russia the artificial Vyshnevolotsky waterway for transportation of goods to the northwest area was under construction of the central and southern regions under Peter I's decree during 1703-1708 on the route: the Volga River — the Tvertsa River — the channel on a watershed — the Tsna River — the Lake Mstino — the Meta River — the Lake Ilmen — the Volkhov River — Lake Ladoga — the Neva River — the Baltic Sea. In the first years of operation of the waterway there were difficulties in pilotage. The constructions constructed under the leadership of five "overseas slyuz-nykh2 masters" of Holland on the water separate site did not conform to technical requirements (fig. 1, 2). As water level in Tvertsa was higher, than in Tsna, there was a need of construction of locks. The first lock was constructed in 1705 on the Tsne River at distance of 5.3 km below the channel on a watershed (fig. 2). However it was unsuitable as it was built on the low place and a subtime from it did not allow to raise water level in the channel. The lock could not pass a water consumption during a flood therefore water washed away not strengthened coast about a lock and passed by it. The Dutch masters post1 See also in the present collection A.M. Gape-ev's article, V.V. Kononov "Water transport connections of Russia in HUP-H1H of centuries"

2 In Peter's times the locks were called as slyuza (from golland. z1sh8). Quotes are quoted from the book by V.A. Gorelov "River channels in Russia (To the history of the Russian channels in the 18th century)". L.; M, 1953.

roil on Tsna are slightly higher than this useless lock two semi-locks, and at distance of 522 m is lower than the channel — the third semi-lock. By means of these semi-locks it was possible to accumulate water in Tsna, and then to carry out releases of water from Tsna to the canal and Tvertsu.

On the channel two semi-locks were constructed: one in the place of an output of the channel in Tsna, another in 1766 m from the first towards Tvertsa. The main lack of the created system was that it did not eliminate Tvertsa's shallow water as on a watershed there were no sufficient water supplies. The admission of vessels through the water separate site was carried out in the "popuskovy" way. At ship traffic the semi-locks on Tsna closed top across Tvertsa, and semi-locks on the channel opened and lowered through them water from Tsna. On a wave of release of court moved against the current with use of horse or human draft (barge haulers) and came into the canal; semi-locks on it closed. Within several days in the channel, water collected then vessels went out of the channel and were located on Tsna. Then opened Tsninsky semi-locks, and vessels on a wave of release went down Tsna and further on Meta. Thus, during ship traffic across Tvertsa it was impossible to go across Tsna and Meta because of a lack of water and, on the contrary, at ship traffic across Tsna and Meta it was impossible to go across Tvertsa. This shortcoming was found in the first year of work of a system in low-flow the period of 1709

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00 Strugi1 with the wood, going from Volga in Pe14 terburg, at the draft of 0.52 m were forced to stop in Tvertsa's upper courses as here depth of water was 0.26 m. It was necessary to apply to further ship traffic
1 Planes are flat-bottomed vessels for transportation of goods on the rivers.

— a part of cargoes to place "pauzka" on vessels with smaller draft.

Despite difficulties of passing by vessels of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway, on it from Volga to St. Petersburg transported food, fodder for horses, the ship wood, military equipment, manufactured goods,

>, etc. Transportations in the opposite direction — from St. Petersburg to Volga — were impossible because of impassable thresholds at ship traffic up the Mete River around Borovichi.

Peter I informed of difficulties of pilotage on the Vyshnevolotsky waterway in 1710 charged to the English engineer John Perry who was in the Russian service to survey possibilities of creation of other waterways. They had to provide transportation of goods during all navigation in both directions: from Volga to St. Petersburg, and from St. Petersburg to Volga. D. Perry writes about it so: "To disgust of such inconveniences it was necessary for its Majesty that I found three different navigable ways from Lake Ladoga to the Volga River that followed on a current of various rivers from the most those places where falls, even to their sources that I where they more between themselves approach noticed and where it has to be more capable between them connection is arranged. So, povinuyas to the Supreme will, I was accepted to my business: measured falling, or a razlichnost of these rivers as those which fall into Volga it is so equal and flowing into Lake Ladoga". The same year D. Perry surveyed waterways in three directions (fig. 3):

— the Volga River — the Sheksna River — the lake. White — the river Kovzha — a watershed — the river Vytegra — the lake. Onega — the Svir River — the lake. Ladoga — the Neva River — the Baltic Sea (subsequently the Mariinsky waterway);

— the Volga River — the Mologa River — the river Chago-doshcha — the Chagoda River — the Goryun River — the lake. Waugh-zhansky — the Sominka River — the Lake Somino — the river Volchi-na — a watershed — the Tikhvinka River — the river Syas — the lake. Ladoga — the Neva River — the Baltic Sea (subsequently the Tikhvin waterway);

— Vyshnevolotsky waterway.

According to D. Perry, the most comfortable waterway can be created in the first direction through Kovzhu — Vytegra. Peter I in 1711 left to Vytegra and studied conditions and possibilities of construction of this waterway. He made sure that the Kovzhi connection and Vytegra require "heavy work, great costs, big time". The war which began soon with Turkey forced Peter I to postpone creation of the new waterway.

In 1712 Peter I addressed again search of such option of connection of the rivers by which dangerous Borovitsky thresholds on Meta will be bypassed. It was the fourth option of the route of the waterway: the Volga River — the Mologa River — the river of Mag-lina — channels on watersheds with inclusion of the Uveri River, Lake Limandra, river Vilgei — the Meta River — the Lake Ilmen — the Volkhov River — the river Ti-goda — the channel on a watershed — the Tosna River — the Neva River — the Baltic Sea. Advantage of this option was the fact that vessels bypassed Borovitsky and Volkhov thresholds and did not go through Lake Ladoga. Thresholds on the Mologa River, Meglin, Vilgey and also the large volume of works on construction of channels and locks throughout 230 km were shortcomings of this option. During 1713-1725 Peter I directed some more expeditions for inspection of all four options of waterways.

Twice — in 1713 and 1717 — on the route of the fourth option even construction works began, however in communication by lack of the project, in large volume of works and lack of sufficient means they were stopped.

At that time while there was long-term search of options of new waterways, not enough attention was paid to the Vyshnevolotsky waterway, and he gradually fell into decay. Technical supervision of hydraulic engineering constructions appeared in hands of the merchants and industrialists passing with vessels. They at own risk in the spring and in the fall, locking semi-locks and filling with water the channel, "... with need... goods raised the of Volga..." In the summer in view of shallow water the Tvertsy River on the Vyshnevolotsky system of navigation was not. In two semi-locks on Tsna the gate were broken and carried away by a flood so it was necessary to put openings boards.

The commission from Novgorod in 1719 noted that "the first in the channel slyuza1 is very bad and filled up it with sand, and obruba everything decayed and fell off also through that slyuza with need big to vessels the course".

Just at this time Mikhail Ivanovich Serdyukov offered Peter I the project of reconstruction of the water separate section of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway.

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Fig. 3. The scheme of four options of connection of river basins of Volga and Neva at Peter I: I \It is firm — Tsna; II \Syas — Chagodosha; III \Vytegra — Kovzha; IV \Vilgey — Mologa. Tosno — Tigoda

M.I. Serdyukov's works on creation of navigable conditions on the Vyshnevolotsky waterway

Mikhail Ivanovich Serdyukov (his real name — Barono) was born in 1678 in family of the Mongolian workman — the horse breeder Imegen. In 1691 Imegen's estate was attacked by people of the Cherkassk hetman, having taken prisoner group of his citizens, including 13-year-old Barono. It was brought at first to the Chekoysky jail, and then to Yeniseisk. The salesman Ivan Mikhaylovich Serdyukov who was at this time in the city bought the captured boy for 10 rubles. I.M. Serdyukov became a godfather Barono. He named him Mikhail, a middle name Ivanovich and the surname. Mikhail quickly was taught to read and write and joined trade business. In 1695 I.M. Serdyukov brought Mikhail to Moscow "for learning to merchants". The same year I.M. Serdyukov, having taken Mikhail, carried the goods for sale at first to Astrakhan, and then abroad, to Persia. The travel lasted several years.

After the death of his godfather in 1700, M.I. Serdyukov, the salesman who by then is already entrusted, he was employed by the Moscow merchant M.G. Evreinov entering "the living room one hundred" Peter I. On memoirs of the grandson merchant M.G. Evreinov in one of visits in 1700 of "benches and An bars" of his grandfather Peter I met M.I. Ser-dyukovym and paid attention to it "not only one quickness and knowledge of trade, but also natural tendency to the equipment". Peter I signs up Serdyukov in the Novgorod merchants and charges it the different "state commissions". They consisted in supply of troops and builders of waterways of the message with food, fodder, materials. M.I. Serdyukov lodged in Novgorod, in 1705 got family.

During construction of hydraulic engineering constructions and the channel on a watershed at Vyshny Volochyok, M.I. Serdyukov was a contractor at the head of building prince Matvei Gagarin. It constantly used the Vyshnevolotsky waterway since then as became the Novgorod merchant, for cargo delivery from the Volga piers to Novgorod, and then and to St. Petersburg. Being by nature gifted person, he studied the device of "the water operating mills" and constructed them for the needs on the Tvertsa, Tsne Rivers (fig. 4), participated in pilotage through the water separate site of a way and personally learned all difficulties of a sudopropusk.

He arrived the first at an idea of what for food water of the water separate site can be used the water of the Shlina River flowing near Vyshny Volochyok and falling into the Tsna River below the Tveretsky channel. M.I. Serdyukov sent the offers on reorganization of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway to Peter I in 1718-1719. And on May 1, 1719 their personal meeting took place, and on June 26, 1719 Peter I issued "The decree on return of the Vyshnevolotsky channel in contents to the Novgorodian Serdyu-kov". During 1719-1722 M.I. Serdyu-kov were constructed and reconstructed (fig. 5): the wooden dam with floodgates on the Shlin River in 10 km is higher than its confluence with the Tsna River; channels from a reservoir before a dam on the Shlin River to the lake Klyu-chinsky 1.7 km long, from the lake Klyuchinsko-go to the lake Gorodolyubsky 2 km long, from the Lake Gorodolyubsky to the Tsna River 5 km long are dug; the channels straightening the ship courses on the Tvertsa and Tsne Rivers are dug out; semi-locks on Tveretsky and Tsninsky canals (fig. 6) are constructed. The complex of constructions allowed to give Shlina River waters via channels on the water separate site. Depths became navigable not only during a flood, but also during the summer period. Vessels passed the water separate site without stops.

Along with works on improvement of navigable conditions on the Vyshnevolotsky waterway, Peter I as the decree of September 26, 1718 announced the beginning of construction of the channel bypassing Lake Ladoga on which in the period of storm many vessels perished. Ladoga Canal (now it is called Old Ladoga) was open for navigation in 1731. Its extent was 111 km; it was the largest hydraulic engineering construction in Europe of that time.

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[MAGAZINE water / _ / communications

Fig. 5. The hydraulic engineering constructions of Vyshnevolotsky separate point constructed by M.I. Serdyukov (according to fig. of that time); And — the Tveretsky channel; The B is the Tveretsky semi-lock; In — the Tsninsky canal; There are Tsninsky semi-locks; D — a dam on the Tsne River E — a dam on the Shlin River; Z, I, K — the channels pumping water from the Shlina River to the Tsna River; L — a dam of a factory reservoir on the Tsne River



Fig. 6. The semi-locks constructed by M.I. Serdyukov; and — the plan; — a longitudinal section; in — a cross-section; d — a fragment of fastening of the bottom a stone

In 1736-1741 M.I. Serdyukov carried out the second reconstruction of constructions of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway. Were constructed by it: a new dam on the Shlin River; the Tsninsky semi-lock is reconstructed; the dam with three floodgates on the Tsne River in three * kilometers above Vyshny Volochyok at races | the plants put here is constructed therefore

ES A was formed a reservoir of 6 and the podpory 2 m called Factory. In it it was possible to accumulate water in the spring in the period of a flood, and in the period of a mezhena to dump it through dam floodgates to the Tveretsky canal and the Tvertsa River for maintenance of navigable depths. It was the first in Russia and in the world

experience of improvement of conditions of navigation by regulation of a drain of the river.

In 1742-1754 M.I. Serdyukov did a great job on improvement of conditions of navigation on Borovitsky thresholds on the Mete River. He for the first time applied the way of clearing of thresholds which is thought up by it — "dry". For this purpose on large inflows of the Mety River it constructed dams, the detaining waters of these rivers during a flood. Water levels of the Mety River on thresholds went down that allowed to perform works on their clearing almost dry. On large thresholds it constructed the stone semi-dams and struyenapravlyayushchy dams separating

Fig. 7. Bleach plans of thresholds (a) and Gverstka (b) with display of dams, postronny M.I. Serdyukov. The Vyshnevolotsky waterway after M.I. Serdyukov

the thresholds from the main course blocking non-navigable sleeves (fig. 7). It were the Russia's first works on improvement of conditions of navigation by construction of vypra-vitelny constructions. After completion of works on the Mete and Tvertsa Rivers the sizes and draft of the vessels passing across the waterway increased: length is up to 36.4 m, width is up to 8.56 m, draft is up to 0.66 m, loading capacity

up to 130 t. The Vyshnevolotsky waterway became the main transport system on cargo delivery from the central regions of Russia to the northwest area and to St. Petersburg from now on.

After M.I. Serdyukov's death in 1754 the order passed with Vyshnevolotsky separate point at first to his son Ivan, and then to the grandson Mikhail. Neither son, nor grandson not

in the ouniversitet

& MAGAZINE of water communications

carried out any works on construction of new constructions, and were limited to maintenance as operating.

However and these works gradually ceased to be performed in this connection constructions decayed and collapsed. Accidents with vessels became more frequent. In 1774 all introduction transport system was redeemed by the state from Ser-dyukovykh. In 1785 across Vyshnevolotskom to the waterway the empress Catherine II passed. She inspected a system, saw all shortcomings and gave the order to allocate money for its reconstruction. Wooden semi-locks were replaced with stone, and on thresholds protections are established.

Results of reconstruction immediately affected increase in volume of transportations. From 1787 to 1797 on a system passed on average 3890 vessels and about 300 thousand tons of cargoes for navigation were transported. However it was insufficiently for satisfaction of needs of St. Petersburg and its trade seaport. In this regard, along with measures for increase in capacity of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway, were constructed: in 1810 — the Mariinsky waterway; in 1811 — the Tikhvin waterway on the routes planned at Peter I. Commissioning of two new water transport systems did not reduce the volume of transportations across the Vyshnevolotsky waterway. This results from the fact that new waterways assumed the additional goods turnover exceeding possibilities of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway.

With commissioning in 1851 of the railroad between St. Petersburg and Moscow outflow of cargoes began with the water transport on railway. The transport value of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway gradually decreased. At the end of the 19th century on it prodolsm

reaped to be carried out timber-rafting and local transportations. Further the Vyshnevolotsky waterway was not restored. However constructions and M.I. Serdyu-kov's reservoirs on Vyshnevolotsky separate point were demanded later as sources for water supply on the Volga slope. During the Great Patriotic War in 1944-1945 the channel Novo-Tve-retsky from the Vyshnevolotsky reservoir (former Factory) to the Tvertsa River with a volume of 100 m3/s for water supply to the Volga River for the purpose of increase in power production of Ivankovsky, Uglich, Rybinsk hydroelectric power station was dug. In 1947, dams for protection of territories against flooding at rise in water level in the Vyshnevolotsky reservoir were built that allowed to increase its volume twice. In 1949 the Novotveretsky hydroelectric power station on the new channel is constructed. From the Vyshnevolotsky reservoir water moves to the Volga River for water supply of Moscow. Thus, and today M.I. Serdyukov's ideas about accumulation of water in reservoirs of Vyshnevolotsky separate point, on regulation of a drain of the rivers, about construction of the regulating dams with locks were demanded.

Merits of Mikhail Ivanovich Serdyukov who is given gifted hydraulic engineering were highly appreciated by his contemporaries and descendants. In 1742 the empress Elizabeth Petrovna signed the decree on "M.I. Serdyukov's grant in the nobility". M.I. Serdyukov's portrait is in the State Hermitage. The house on the bank of the Vyshnevolotsky reservoir in which M.I. Serdyukov lived in 1719-1754 remained. M.I. Serdyukov in the village of Gorodolyublya near Vyshny Volochyok is buried; the gravestone on a grave remained up to now.

Andresen Leiv
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