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Review of the book: Russian military emigration of 20 40th years of the 20th century: Documents and materials. T. 4. At sources of "Russian of the all-military union". 1924 / Sost. V.A. Avdeev, Yu.A. Alekseev, I.I. Basik, A.T. Zhadobin, A.A. Zdanovich, V.N. Karpov, V.V. Markovchin, V.I. Muranov. M.: RGGU, 2007. 980 pages.



russky military emigration 20 - the 40th years of the 20th century: Documents and materials. T. 4. At sources of "Russian of the all-military union". 1924 / Sost. V.A. Avdeev, Yu.A. Alekseev, I.I. Bas and to, A.T. Zhadobin, A.A. Zdanovich,

V.N. Karpov, V.V. Markovchin, V.I. Muranov. M.: RGGU, 2007. - 980 pages

The writer Mark Twain for whom the historical source served no more than the sketch to an artistic image, admitted once: "The truth is more surprising than fiction because fiction has to keep within probable, and the truth is not present". Depth of an aphorism of the great American will become clearly visible to anything who will honor with the attention released in April, 2007. The RGGU publishing center next, the 4th, volume of a series of collections "The Russian military emigration 20 - the 40th years of the 20th century: Documents and materials". It is a solid selection of the documents multilaterally covering events this time only one but extremely important in the historical meaning of year - the 1924th.

As well as previous, the real volume arose thanks to big prospecting and research of staff of Institute of military history of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and Russian Foreign Intelligence Service. The release of the collection in the RGGU Publishing center, successfully affected its registration became an innovation. The former gloomy cover covered with a simple jacket replaced the new, executed from a pripressovky opaque film, at once given to volume attractive look.

Tom "At sources of "Russian of the all-military union". 1924" in the main part contains texts (entirely or in extraction) 187 documents along with 62 documents as annexes. Their majority was taken from funds of the Central archives FSB and Russian Foreign Intelligence Services, the others are presented by sample of HECTARE funds of the Russian Federation (former RZIA) and archival department of Administration of Novorossiysk.

Thematically the volume is constructed on disclosure of ideological and political, organizational, social and moral collisions in Russian, mainly military, abroad the day before and in the first months after formation of the Russian all-military union (the DITCH C). Chapter I ("Claims on the Russian throne") - the smallest on number of the documents collected in it, acquaints with one of the main sensations of the Russian emigrant political life of 1924: the announcement the carrier of the imperial power behaved. prince Kirill Vladimirovich and reaction on it of monarchists and supporters of the general P.N. Wrangel. Chapter II ("Wrangel, Kutepov and others...") gives an idea of political, organizational, institutional, regional aspects of existence of parts of the Russian army and its command abroad and also some private plots filling a context of the stated subject (the appeal to army of the metropolitan Anthony, the general A.I. Denikin, etc.). Chapters III ("From military societies to the Russian all-military union"), GU-I ("Society of gallipoliyets"), U-I ("The officer unions and societies in France"), U-I ("Creation of Russian all-military with -

a skid") and unitary enterprise-I ("The Cossacks in Europe") represent a kaleidoscope of numerous and bright faces and events of which, actually, and there was day by day, from year to year life of military emigrants in the European countries.

As well as in the previous volumes of a series, a rare opportunity to look at military emigration from two parties is offered the reader: both her own eyes, and eye of the Soviet investigation. The operational administrative and reporting and information nature of documents creates, even at selective reading, psychological effect of stay in epicenter of uncompromising and never-ending struggle between white and red, Russia which is splashed out already out of limits. Its receptions became more and more sophisticated, extending in the opposition of "knights of a raincoat and a dagger" shrouded in mystery and shrouded in legends, but pursuing the same, one and only aim - extermination of the opponent if not now, then in the future, by all available means. The consensus was not possible here.

In process of the publication of volumes of the "Russian Military Emigration 20 — the 40th Years of the 20th Century." series, cherished in the 1990th, and in scientific literature, and in media, the myth about the Russian abroad as "the Promised Land" for all honest and noble people who "as the fates decree" appeared in the foreign land and who prayed for forgiveness of sins of revolution and Civil war begins to turn pale before incomparably more difficult historical reality which is laboriously recreated by publishers. Paraphrasing the known maxim of F.I. Tyutchev about an essence of the Russian history before and after Peter I, it is possible to depict so the content of the White movement before emigration and after: in the beginning - one criminal case, then - a continuous memorial service. And here, as to us the effect of purely psychological influence of general pathetics and narrow-minded plaints on the one who undertook to study sources of emigrant origin sees, is. The noble syllable of White Russians, their tragic, often hopeless situation should not zastit the researcher's look, forcing to give them preference before their opponents, allegedly "low" origin and the "mean" purposes. The immorality, cruelty and cynicism which are carried away white and red from the fields of Civil war which are generously watered with the Russian blood, did not get to anywhere. Alas, you make sure of it, turning over the published volume.

There is a characteristic example. In Chapter I "Claims on the Russian throne" we become witnesses of confrontation of two military and monarchic clans - "residents of Nikolayev" and "kirillovets". To us who were seemingly in time to wean firmly from the Soviet literary and cinema stamps in the image of the emigrant monarchic movement the right is granted to judge its essence and key figures. And what we see? In the next "resort" manifesto already alarmed emigration by the self-ascension on the Russian throne, conducted. Kirill Vladimirovich commands prince in case of the death to transfer him to that to whom will point "trade" and "Basic laws of the Russian Empire" (page 27). That before us: the tragedy, the farce, the comedy or old as the world desire of masters, real and imaginary to play others destinies? It seems that all was too much and in throne "occupation" the prince - "fevralist", defiantly renounced -

we shitsya from the last emperor, and in attempt "counter to elements, contrary to common sense" to lead powerless and defenseless people in misfortune. And it is possible, it was the attempt which is badly camouflaged with "regal" eloquence to appropriate enormous Russian property abroad. Otherwise with what to explain active use conducted. prince Kirill Vladimirovich of the Munich police for impact on emigrant public, disloyal to it? (page 33).

Lenin's instructions on being waiting in the wings in three days of traveling from the Soviet border of White Guards, on need in the most serious way to study the enemy, apparently from documents, for security officers of the 1920th became a guide to action. It is no wonder that collecting and the analysis of information on military emigration, as well as emigrant weight in general, in INO GPU were organized on a high professional basis. Having target, especially pragmatical character, reports of the Soviet agency are an irreplaceable source for penetration into moods of various layers and categories of emigration, into motives of both collective behavior, and personal acts. So, exactly from them we learn about the "spiritual shift" made by need at 90% of emigrants pushing on theft and fraud (page 229). And about true, in the party relation - eserovsky, the image of the Prague office of Zemgor who appropriated the means allotted by the Czechoslovak government for needs of the Russian refugees (page 701-708). The divergences which opened now and hostility between heads of the Russian army which is transformed to ROVS - P.N. Wrangel and A.P. Kutepov (page 88-89), the grand duke Nikolay Nikolaevich and Wrangel (page 447-448) are indicative and instructive. Or certificates of a comprehensive role of military representatives of P.N. Wrangel in a versheniye of fate of ordinary emigrants, similar to Kirill Vladimirovich's manipulations with the Russian diaspora in Bavaria (page 99).

A parade of recognitions of the Soviet government by the European countries in 1924, along with inevitable process of dispersion of army, forced P.N. Wrangel to saddle "a political horse", sitting on which it could show to both the former subordinates, and all emigration, and the western public maintaining a certain similarity of organized military force. Not all here fiction. Hardly plans of "a spring campaign" against the Bolshevist mode were anyway handed over in archive, to it on change project ROVSA was. It is the same rigid vertical of the military authority, but already with the maximum elimination of signs of former democratism (selectivity of positions of chiefs of societies and unions) (page 617), but also and the former requirement regular monetary, and in the increased sizes, donations from ordinary structure (page 596). What it as voluntary and compulsory society of assistance to generals of nonexistent army? Declaration as P.N. Wrangel of "spiritual unity" it in exchange allegedly not terrible "physical depression" (page 86) was in practice supported with efforts of its counterintelligence on prevention of departure of officers home (page 114).

In this regard the "filtrations" published in "Appendix No. 2" (page 755-877) 53 of the document on orders and peripetias are of special interest

returns to Russia of the former white officers. Among them - the order of GPU of March 24, 1923 (page 815 - 817) in which drastic measures on prevention of "vrangelevsky espionage" are ordered. They can seem draconian or directly not justified concerning the people who suffered much in the foreign land. But here before us published in "Supplement No. 1" "the magazine of activity" the colonel-Kuban resident D.M. Kozlikin - the general's emissary

S.G. Ulagaya who arrived illegally from abroad and hammered together the group operating against the Bolshevist authorities in Kuban in the summer of 1923 - spring of 1924 (page 735-744). In the same row with it there are "notes" of a podjesaul of I.F. Malokhutin, the employee of counterintelligence S.G. Ulagaya who is also transferred to the Soviet Russia for the purpose of activization of fight against Bolsheviks (page 745748). And it is not accidental episodes: the "treasury of the grand duke Nikolay Nikolaevich" created just in 1924 (page 182 — 184) was urged to provide conducting prospecting and diversionary work in the Soviet territory.

Possibly, not all will divide our interpretation of the unique documents which entered the 4th volume of the "Russian Military Emigration 20 — the 40th Years of the 20th Century." series. It is natural. More important another: any not indifferent reader has now an opportunity to read and analyze them independently. And it is already clear that any serious researcher of the Russian abroad will not do without them now.

I.A. Belokon

Kenneth Zimmerman
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