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Patriotism in understanding of opponents of the power of Councils. On almanac materials "White army. White business"

e. D. Borshchukova


In article on the basis of published, but little-known memoirs the specifics of patriotism of various participants of the White movement are analyzed. In it understanding of patriotism by participants of the White movement is investigated.


The article deals with the specificity of patriotism among participants of the White Movement on the basis ofpublished, but little-known memoirs. Understanding of patriotism by participants of the White Movement is investigated in the article.

Historical almanac "White army. White business" comes out in Yekaterinburg since 1995, however is almost unknown not only to a wide range of historians, but also the experts studying various aspects of Civil war in Russia. Reasons of its uncertainty a little. First, this edition was and remains regional though the questions raised in it consider the historical events which were taking place in all regions of post-imperial Russia. Secondly, so far came out only 16 but -

mayors of this edition. Thirdly, the fact that it is issued by small circulation is the reason of small popularity of the almanac. One more reason not of really broad popularity of the almanac was, in my opinion, that circumstance that it is very subjective. All its publications are aimed not so much at an objective research of the White movement how many on his chanting. It deprives the almanac of a considerable circle of the authors and readers capable to actively facilitate dissemination of the edition.

Despite numerous problems, "White army. White business" nevertheless is published, sustaining the competition of numerous scientific and popular scientific magazines in which to some extent the history of the White movement finds the reflection.

Important feature of the Ekaterinburg edition was the fact that in it memoirs, letters and other documents of the participants of Civil war who were at war against the power of Councils most of which part for various reasons was not familiar before to researchers come out. Some documents were never published before, others were published in emigrant magazines and collections of articles.

It is represented that important feature of this historical almanac is that data on activity and views of people little-known, and at times at all forgotten by historians are published in it. Authors of documents are often ordinary soldiers, junior commanders, at best, commanders of divisions, and sometimes military units.

The documents introduced for scientific use by the almanac give the chance to make clearer idea of how numerous opponents of a new social order in Russia understood patriotism.

Is of interest and a circle of publishers of sources. Among them there are teachers of higher education institutions, teachers, military personnel, journalists, museum workers, engineers, archivists, collectors, translators, students, amateur historians, artists, lawyers. Studying the history of the White movement in any given region, activity of various participants of war, they often find in archives, in the inaccessible press the documents having important scientific value.

Quite often tell absolutely unexpected sources published in the almanac about features of White Guard patriotism. So, in 1992 — 1993 various editions which are taken out by the Soviet archivists in 1945 from Harbin known issledova-were transferred in the state archive of Khabarovsk Krai from confidential storage on open

to tel as "emigrant funds". Among more than 800 editions, including newspapers and magazines, there was emigrant fiction — at all not studied editions to which nobody ever treated as a historical source. Almanac "White army. White business" in 1997 was published by the review of maintenance of these funds prepared by the leading arkheograf of the state archive of Khabarovsk Krai of N.A. Solovyova in which the author quite in detail stopped on a research of contents of many editions. In particular, the contents of the poetic collection "Mountain Take-off" published in Harbin in 1930 are analyzed. The poetess Marianna Kolosova whose verses very precisely give patriotic feelings of the person who is torn off from the Homeland, but continuing to love it selflessly and sincerely was one of two of his authors:

What can be svyaty more simply than the Holy, native, favourite sites,

Where over a birchwood the cross Sparkles on a chapel?

Grow dull, all chimeras Before shine of a cross fade.

I will not change fatherly belief,

It as life and death is simple [4, page 151].

These poetic lines very capaciously characterize an essence of emigrant patriotism. The author understands love for the small homeland and fidelity as it to the orthodox belief which got to it from ancestors. Comparison of belief with an essence of human life — with unity of life and death, with their wise and infinitely unknown simplicity is an example of patriotism of people from that, "last", absolutely not Soviet, lives. Verses by Marianna Kolosova very personal also reflect her own experiences, but along with it they are probably in consonance with understanding of intrinsic bases of patriotic feelings of most of the emigrants who left Russia because of the defeat in war with the power of Councils.

Surprisingly, but it is very similar, the ideas of patriotism sounded in poetic creativity of other white emigrant — in verses by Vsevolod

Nikandrovich of Ivanov (1888 — 1971). Even at the end of Civil war in the poem "Corpses" he, describing death of the tovari-Russian cabbage soup-White Guards, noticed: "And their death as life, seemed is so simple" [5, page 142]. For V.N. Ivanov, as well as for his many companions, the patriotism is an armed struggle against the Soviet power. Not accidentally, the Soviet power for it that other, as community "creators of new life, boors with low foreheads" [the 5th page 142].

For White Guards, and later for emigrants patriotism — first of all hatred to Councils, to Bolsheviks. That is its antipode — feeling of hatred was a synonym of love. Such is there were specifics of cruel time of Civil war.

But the patriotism not always proved against the background of "class fights". It, in particular, is visible from numerous letters of the soldier White Guard N.A. Petrov to his mother Augustus Nikolaevna of Petrova. For her son Nikolay the patriotism is an opportunity to stay at home in a circle of the family, to drink simply with them to tea and to have a heart-to-heart talk. In seventeen years Nikolay, being involved in fighting, witnessed how his companions cruelly dealt shortly with captured Red Army men. But, judging by his letters, he did not divide that hatred of the companions. Moreover, destiny it was necessary that he became the red commander and was killed in the fall of 1920 in battles against Army Polish [2, for page 80 — 102]. By the way, are of the interest of a circumstance, allowed to address these documents. A few years ago pupils of one of the Omsk schools found on the attic of the abandoned house of a pack of the old photos and letters belonging to Petrov' family and brought them in museum of local lore. This circumstance allowed to analyze letters, to prepare them for the publication.

Protocols of interrogations of the White Guards who appeared in captivity became the valuable source giving the chance to investigate moral values of opponents of the Soviet power, including the substantial party of their patriotic feelings. In particular,

protocols of the interrogations of the major general A.P. Perkhurov conducted by the staff of special department of Cheka at the 3rd army of RKKA in the spring — summer of 1921 are of interest. These documents are stored in UFSB archive across Sverdlovsk region now. The fighting general in answers to questions did not use the concept "patriotism", but in his answers to the questions posed the main moral guidelines of this person are visible. They have obvious democratic character. Interrogated had enough courage to announce to the staff of Cheka prevention any including the Soviet power, the policy aimed only at own statement contrary to the interests of the people. Especially accurately his views — views of the concluded Ekaterinburg reformatory — were formulated in the application written by it addressed to the chairman of VTsIK M.I. Kalinin. With irony the former general wrote: "I find myself still guilty and that I do not correspond to the operating structure of the Soviet power at which the central power is also isolated from the valid expectations of the people, as well as at an old regime, and it is forced to estimate actions from the point of view of speakers, but not on direct communication with the people. Deeply I believe that the power has to be in hands of all people, but not any party or certain parties. It is convinced that the correct construction of the Republic is possible only at full and permanent mission of the people and participation of his representatives in the solution of all questions. The national parliament has to consist not of party representatives, and representatives from places, people honest, sensible, clearly knowing needs, life and means of that area from which they are elected" [3, page 85].

Having explained the living position, A.P. Perkhurov said that his conscience before the people is absolutely pure that he cannot be reconciled with reigning at the Soviet power an arbitrariness, lawlessness, mockery at the personality, plunders and other immoral acts. "Without having an opportunity about -

to testovat against it in the legal way (by means of the press) — the prisoner wrote — I would like to be engaged in exclusively agricultural work in the sparsely populated area and to so wait for improvement of the situation"

[3, page 86].

It is represented to p that such statement — the evidence of the Russian patriotism, estimable. A.P. Perkhurov did not write sublime words about the love for the country, but his aspirations spoke convincingly about its relation to the Fatherland.

Memoirs of the participant of the White movement in the south of Russia of the second lieutenant Vlas Semyonovich Gvozdev who became years later the engineer-reclamation expert, Candidate of Technical Sciences, the founder of research institute of complex use and protection of water resources of the Urals were published in several issues of the almanac over the years (2000 — 2004). Rod Gvozdevykh came from boyars of the Chernihiv province. According to the legend one of his ancestors was Ioann Grozny's clown and for a careless phrase received from the tsar death [1, page 113].

At all the subjectivity V.S. Gvozdev's memoirs very honestly reflect moods of officers of White army during retreat of denikenets. In particular, he noted that many officers, it is not rare with wives, on various pretexts left service, without wishing to be at war more. Vlas Semyonovich continued to fight against the Soviet power, considering that he fulfills the military and patriotic duty. At the same time he was the person of great honor who had a clear idea of morality. For example, having met at the front and having fallen in love with Natalya Sergeyevna — the young and beautiful married woman, the landowner, the graduate of the Moscow Ekaterina's institute, he nevertheless managed to constrain the feelings, refrained from development of the relations with this uncommon woman. Understanding that it, the officer, has to serve the Fatherland at this time was one of motives of adoption of the decision by it, but not be engaged in the device of private life [1, page 113-120].

The author of memoirs very truthfully wrote about the relation of the companions to the taking place events. In particular, he emphasized that many of them died not because were killed in battle, and as a result of the typhus raging at that time. This mass disease sometimes spread panic among White Guards. Some did not maintain and, being afraid to be infected, left the divisions and parts. But the most resistant remained faithful to the oath and love for the country up to the end, despising cowardly. The author of memoirs wrote about the commander of railway battalion colonel Ivanov. Even dying, that did not fear death and condemned those who trembled: "Rascals... It is a shame with them" [1, page 118].

To understand "laboratory" of formation of patriotism in White army, it is necessary to try to like its spirit, to try to empathize reflections of the military personnel, especially during their retreat under the pressure of Red Army men. Here is how V.S. Gvozdev described one of a talk of the colleagues which took place at the very end of their stay in the operating army:

— It is necessary to flee abroad, - someone summarized — only where and how? They say, British of all who get on their vessels carry to Egypt, and the French on the vessels — to Algeria, to the Foreign legion.

The regular officer, the captain Mokrousov, would like to get to a foreign legion, and Dymov and Kocheshkov preferred to go to the Slavic countries — Czechoslovakia or Bulgaria. Quietest than Pokut, he is ready to go anywhere.

— There would be a neck, the collar will be.

— You it is good, Lev Mikhaylovich, you are an engineer, you will find to yourself a job everywhere. And what to us, officers who, except command are not capable of anything — with envy Mokrousov spoke.

All were disturbed by ignorance of foreign languages, at our schools did not study informal conversation at all! I noted about myself that I, despite the constant five on French, am not able to speak French.

— You want to know German — bring the mistress the German, you want to know French — bring the Frenchwoman! — Pyotr Mikhaylovich Belov-Tikhonov told it absolutely seriously, and only in eyes at him cheerful sparks ran.

— And you, Pyotr Mikhaylovich, speak German?

— And as! And I speak French.

The general understanding laughter gave to Pyotr Mikhaylovich pleasure, and he slightly smiled, smugly stroking, gray-haired mustache.

— Egypt! There pyramids and sphinxes, there the most ancient irrigation! As it would be interesting to go there! — kind of guessing my thoughts, Yaglov started talking. — I look at you, I listen

— all you want to go abroad. And I am afraid to leave Russia, business here not in language, any language can learn, and not in work — no work frightens me — the fact is that we leave the family here, we lose the habits.

As always, trying to reconcile all, Yaglo-va Belov-Tikhonov objected.

— You correctly speak, Vitaly Timofeyevich, but whether it is necessary to risk because of it life: we live once. And to look how other people live, it is curious too [1, page 119 — 120].

This episode from V.S. Gvozdev's memoirs is very curious in terms of understanding of patriotism of White Guard officers. It is easy to notice that many with interest and without special regret about departure from Russia were going to meet new life abroad. They did not pronounce high words about love for the country, but fear of parting with the Fatherland for them was quite explainable the ordinary reasons. They very much did not want not only to leave close people, but also to lose what was peculiar to ordinary Russian people what was accumulated by their ancestors throughout many centuries. They did not want to lose not so much the social shape (they then almost did not think of it), how many it was stridently a pity to leave "Russianness" in everything

its variety. Possibly, it also was one of important sides of patriotism, sides in many respects defining identity of the Russian people.

V.S. Gvozdev's memoirs give the chance to think of the fact that the Russian patriotism in the years of Civil war was so strong what for a while did by spiritual allies even of representatives of the confronting forces. An example of they are memories of this former White Guard officer of events of 1920 when the Army Polish entered borders of the Soviet state. Here is how Vlas Semyonovich described those events: "Poland, without declaring wars, unexpectedly set the troops on the East against the Soviet state. And its troops, easily overcoming resistance of the Red Army, in two weeks captured Kiev and were even transported through Dnieper. It drew general attention. Started talking about "collector" Pilsudsk which wanted to own lands "from the sea to the sea" — from Danzig to Odessa which it wanted to include both Belarus, and Right-bank Ukraine in borders of new, united after the century section the Poland. Occurred among our officers also such who frankly enjoyed progress of Poles, gloated over to Bolsheviks and their unlucky army. Others were silent, without risking to give the sympathies to either that, or other party. At most of officers exorcized national feelings. They took defeat of Russia painfully, were happy when Councils managed to stop approach, and the First cavalry to put to flight Poles.

— Oh, Budenny to Poles also poured. — Belov-Tikhonov who arrived from Sevastopol shared news. His eyes shone from pleasure, mustache were moved by a smile" [1, page 103].

Such view of White Guards of the course of the Soviet-Polish war still was not known in historical literature. It gives important cause for reflection: the White Guards who were at that time in the Crimea together with the author of memoirs could not but understand that success of cavalry of Budenny will be a way -

to stvovat to the fact that troops of the RKKA Southwest front will have an opportunity to delay the forces for fight against vrangelevets as, however, subsequently and it happened. And nevertheless understanding of national community with the opponent — with Red Army men — prevailed and allowed to mourn to their military failures later — to enjoy their progress in fights. It is represented, as in it the Russian patriotism of White Guards wonderfully was shown. In such context, perhaps, it is perceived a little not habitually, but nevertheless it is especially convincing. It gives the grounds to claim that during Civil war cases when over class confrontation, over class hatred more strong feeling — feeling of love for compatriots, feeling of empathy with them towered took place that, in essence, represents one of the parties of patriotism.

In memoirs it is shown how the former military personnel of White army differently reacted to stay in expatriation. The vast majority experienced huge material difficulties which became the main vital problem. But for many the impossibility to be near relatives, was far more important to live on the home ground, than lack of money, housing, work and the strong social status.

It is curious that different categories of the military personnel not equally transferred exile. Young officers easily refused military habits that allowed them to adapt quicker in new conditions. Regular officers not so much were homesick how many they endured loss of army privileges [1, page 100].

Absolutely differently endured the stay abroad ordinary structure including the Cossacks who addressed once the author of memoirs:

"— Mister lieutenant, along what road it is necessary to go that to Russia to get?

— You what you want to walk? Same it is very far!

— Well and well, what far, years for two we will reach?

— You will reach earlier.

— Here and well — Cossacks were delighted — you only tell on what coast to go and to what party?

The plan of a campaign for Don where there were wives and children, was at them well thought over in all details. Cossacks needed to know for sure only in what direction to go. Long and in details I told as, moving on the seashore all the time, they will come in the Russian city of Batum; called what Turkish cities they will have on the way. In several days all team with things landed on the Asian coast of Basfor" [1, page 101].

It is represented that this act of the Don Cossacks — the aspiration to go home to the families is not simple. In this resolute act something bigger seems: understanding of impossibility to live without the Homeland, without favourite Fatherland by them.

Being in emigration, the former White Guards were quite often forced to go on some moral compromises. At the same time their deep beliefs, as a rule, remained invariable. Here only one of the examples confirming it. In the territory of Turkey where there were emigrants, Petliura's representatives, the gathering volunteers from among Ukrainian emigrants actively acted. The author of memoirs described such dialogue with one of the former colleagues V.V. Petrov:

"— And how you, Vyacheslav Vasilyevich, settled here?

— I did not settle in any way. Receiving benefits as the refugee, sold something, and now I flirt with Petliura's representation.

— How it? — I was surprised.

— Yes you see there is Petliura's representation which undertakes care of Ukrainians. There consider that after Wrangel's defeat all Ukrainians have to adjoin them that were in his army. They are interested in it. The more them will be, the it is more than bases to demand separation of Ukraine from Russia. Here I also used this situation, went to petlyurovets and Petrenko z pid-under Poltava" was called ".

The benefit of documents is not demanded. It is only necessary to speak in Ukrainian. And I am the Kharkiv student technologist and near Poltava really was, there my aunt lives. Petlyurovtsa I was given a grant, on it and I live now. Promise to send to Germany, and I ask for America.

— So you that, for independent Ukraine?

— No that you! I for "uniform and not divisible", but it is necessary to adapt, otherwise you will not live" [1, page 102].

Their "well-known" nostalgia was the brightest and noticeable manifestation of patriotic feelings of emigrants White Guards. The author of memoirs remembered: "Especially all loved when Dubrovin to the accompaniment of Svetnitsky sang the song which words chafed soul of each of us:

>. you snow, Russia,

Zapurzhilo gray-haired snowstorm,

And sad winds steppe

The memorial service is sung over you.

Itself uneasy, Dubrovin sang this song with great abandon, not loudly, a soft pleasant baritone. Listened to a sad melody, with bated breath.

>. Not to make the way to favourite shrines,

Not to hear native voices.

Squeezed a throat, many in the eyes had tears. It was infinitely a pity also for Russia which, appear, perished, captured by cruel Bolsheviks, and itself, abandoned it is far from the Homeland" [1, page 104].

The strong spiritual bond of natives of House of Romanovs with the Russian officers in emigration was one more party of the Russian patriotism. In particular, the queen of Greece Olga, the daughter of one of the Russian grand dukes, after Civil war in every possible way favored to soldiers emigrants [1, page 112].

The statement about dynamics of patriotic feelings of emigrants — the former participants of armed struggle with the Soviet power is fair. In any case, some part of the former White Guards which also V.S. Gvozdev was among, with interest, and later and with this -

a patiya treated those actions which were taken by heads of the Soviet power. They, in particular, with interest watched the course of the Genoa conference, noting among positive, in their opinion, what remained many unnoticed. For example, by attention of emigrants there did not pass that circumstance that the Soviet delegation, having arrived to Genoa, accommodated on four floors of the best hotel of the city "A palace an imperial" in which only heads of states and very rich people stopped, as a rule. About it Vlas Semyonovich remembered: "I, the Russian emigrant, had a content. Chicherin brought three containers of baggage and the whole assembly of servants, with him there was even own tailor. The people's commissar Chicherin acting as the last delivered a speech in French and, having waited for several seconds, turned towards Lloyd George, and itself repeated it in English, having caused a thunder of applause. About it newspapers gave a phrase of the Italian baroness who was present at a conference: "Who told that Bolsheviks of the ignoramus? He speaks French as the Parisian, and in English as British, and he knows that Lloyd George understands only English". I, the Russian emigrant, was proud of the head of the delegation of the country" [1, page 113].

Emigrants were surprised and admired to the fact that the Soviet Foreign Commissar met the king of Italy and the Pope that the Soviet delegation put forward to the western powers the counter-claim — compensation of the damage brought by intervention in the sum of 50 billion gold rubles [1, page 114].

Interventionists — recent allies of White Guards — were exposed before world public opinion in an image of aggressors and destroyers whose last actions were considered as criminal, and it caused support of some part of emigrant circles. Really, the huge dynamics of views which became a peculiar infrastructure for formation of absolutely new shades of patriotic perception of the Homeland.

V.S. Gvozdev was one of those who owing to the patriotism decided to return home, though understood that he risks life. In the emigrant questionnaire he sincerely wrote that he considers himself the Bolshevik. In this regard its dialogue with the investigator is of interest:

"— Why in the questionnaire you called yourself the Bolshevik? — the investigator of GPU, the young, winning guy absolutely not similar to the investigator of Special department asked me. — You that, being abroad, entered the Communist Party?

I got used to the position of the arrested, became hardened and began to behave more safely, happened even provocatively:

— No, just I share belief of Bolsheviks, here and I consider myself the Bolshevik. And unless the commitment to any given political convictions has to be surely issued by party joining? — in turn, I asked a question.

the investigator ironically continued

Instead of the answer:

— What is pleasant to you at Bolsheviks?

— What is pleasant? The attitude towards people is pleasant, it is pleasant how Vorovsky at the Genoa conference protected the interests of Dews -

these. here, the soldier's form is pleasant — I turned towards the Red Army man standing at a door in a budenovka and with stripes on a breast — he looks as the old Russian hero. And I am a nationalist and I love all Russian.

The investigator burst out laughing:

— Both Bolshevik, and nationalist! Yes you are absolutely illiterate in political affairs" [1, page 128].

The further course of life of the author of memoirs showed that it absolutely sincerely treated political and economic changes in the country, became the famous scientist, the organizer of large research center, remaining at the same time the person sincere and consecutive in thoughts and acts. He was the real patriot of the country regardless of which political cataclysms happened on his Homeland.

Publications of memoirs literature on pages of the Ekaterinburg almanac "White army. White business" give the chance to expand our idea of patriotism of opponents of the Soviet power, allow to see patriotism as the multidimensional phenomenon differing in specific dynamics.


1. V.S. Gvozdev. Difficult beginning. (Memoirs)//White army. White business. 2002. No. 11; 2003. No. 13; 2004. No. 14; 2008. No. 16.
2. O.A. Derbush. N.A. Petrov's letters of mother — A.N. Petrova from fronts of Civil war. Summer of 1918 — fall of 1920 / predisl. to publ.//White army. White business. 1997. No. 3.
3. A.P. Perkhurova to the Chairman of VTsIK comrade Kalinin from the prisoner in the Ekaterinburg ispravdom//White army. White business. 2002. No. 10.
4. N.A. Solovyova. Printing editions of the Russian Harbin emigration in funds of the state archive of Khabarovsk Krai//White army. White business. 1997. No. 3.
5. S.I. Yakimova. About the spiritual and moral forerunner of the Far East emigration//White army. White business. 1997. No. 3.
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