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Category: History

Formation of the engineering case in Russia

elena of BODROVA


From 90th of the 19th century the technical intellectuals of Russia gain national character due to preparation of own shots, saturation by them of the industry and reduction of percent of foreign experts. The diplomaed engineers treated intellectual elite of society. Such situation was promoted by the nature of technical education of those years which differed in universalism and excellent general education preparation.

Since 1890s engineering and technical intelligentsia of Russia gets national character due to preparation of own staff to provide the industry and reduce the number of foreign experts. Qualified engineers belonged to intellectual elite of the society. Such position was promoted by the character of technical training of those years, as it was comprehensive and gave excellent general education.

engineer, technical education, experts, industry, industrial revolution; engineer; technical education; specialists; industry; industrial revolution.

In the second half of the 18th century in the Russian Empire the rapid development of the industry began. Qualified professionals were necessary. The invitation to Russia of engineers foreigners cost much to the state treasury. The senate submitted to the empress Catherine II the report "About establishment of Mountain school at Berg Board" which she approved. On June 28, 1774 in St. Petersburg the first in Russia was open (in essence, the highest) Mountain school in which the level of teaching theoretical disciplines did not concede to university. 5 members of the Russian Academy of Sciences were a part of teachers of school. High level of theoretical training in school was combined with good practical preparation. In 1866. The mountain school as a part of mountain and factory offices was transformed to the St. Petersburg mining institute (Mountain military school). Here the children of mountain officers and officials knowing arithmetics, reading, the letter on the Russian, German and French languages were accepted. Besides, children of noblemen and manufacturers on own account were accepted. Besides general education and technical special knowledge, the case gave good secular preparation. Pupils studied music, dances, fencing. Training was militarized, discipline — the most strict.

Mining engineers in the 19th century were especially privileged group. Officials of the corps of mining engineers represented a special caste and held only the leading posts in the industry. In 1891 in Russia there were only 603 diplomaed mining engineers.

The deficiency of engineering shots led to a rigid regulation of their distribution and use upon termination of a higher educational institution. So, if graduates of the universities were accepted on civil service freely, then graduates of mining institute undertook to work as 10 years, it was forbidden to move such experts to other department. The law of 1833 regulated also office career: it was recommended to replace at release of vacancies them employees of the same enterprise that interfered with turnover of staff and stimulated good work of engineers. Except the diploma of the higher education institution confirming professional competence, engineers took out patents for a civil rank if they served, or academic degrees (candidate, the master, the doctor).

Elena Vladimirovna BODROVA — and. N, professor of Moscow State University of instrument making and computer science

In 1809 in St. Petersburg the Institute of the corps of engineers of means of communication was created that allowed to solve the problems connected with construction of the railroads. From the very beginning it had the military device, and during almost half a century the program was gradually displaced in the direction of military sciences due to reduction of general-theoretical and special disciplines. As a result this institute was gradually transformed to military school and only in 1855 received the civil device. Similar examples of connection of science, education with the military purposes both in Russia, and in the world there is a lot of.

Even during Nicholas I's reign owing to his tendency to army life forms and engineers were united in buildings: military and overland engineers, mountain, ship, means of communication, topographers, forest wardens, surveyors. Engineers in cases had various ranks: privy councilors got paid from 3 thousand to 10 thousand rubles, the valid councilors of state — from 2 to 9 thousand, councilors of state — from 2 to 7 thousand, collegiate advisers from 1700 to 4 thousand rubles. From 666 mining engineers at the end of the 19th century 342 worked in private firms and got paid not from departments.

Development of mechanical production, extraction and processing of minerals and other natural resources demanded training of specialists, first of all in the production sphere. In 1828 the first technological higher education institution of Russia — the St. Petersburg practical Institute of Technology was created. Two years later, in 1830, in Moscow the vocational school which, however, being called so opened, in essence at once went in other, Russian way, without following traditions of the western, especially practical craft education. This school which subsequently received the name of the Moscow highest technical school (nowadays — MSTU of N.E. Bauman), from first years of activity actively cooperated with the Moscow university, involved university professors in holding theoretical classes. In 1842 the Institute of civil engineers was founded.

Higher educational technical institutions in Russia had the five-year program of training during this period, students were selected on a competitive basis. On the lane -

a vy course the mathematics, mechanics, physics were taught. In the first two years very worthy fundamental preparation was given. In the next three years, engineering disciplines were taught. But the system of the higher technical education to the middle of the 19th century in Russia was not yet.

Formation of the engineering case of Russia as the special part of the Russian society which is allocated with the intellectual specifics, erudition, creative abilities and at the same time — mathematical logic of thinking, it is possible to refer only to the second half of the 19th century

In response to the needs of the developing industry for the second half of H1H of century a number of technical colleges opens. So, the Moscow highest technical school (1868), the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology (1828), the Tomsk university (1888), Institute of Technology in Kharkiv (1885), etc. opens. These educational institutions were more democratic by the situation and structure.

In the second half of H1H of century the aspiration to overcome strong dependence of the Russian industry on foreign experts induced the government to pay attention to development in the country of a system of the higher technical education. The government opened 50 more higher education institutions, and in the former exclusive higher educational institutions began to accept both commoners, and workers, and peasants. In 60 — the 70th of H1H of century the first technical universities in Russia appeared.

According to a census of 1897, in Russia there were 4,010 engineers and technologists. These shots were preparing, mainly, in the Moscow technical school and nine institutes (three technological, two mining and four engineers of means of communication).

The technical intellectuals developed in a special social group of society which is characterized by the special relation to production (defines and supports technological process, will organize production, technical progress, ecological discipline, directs activity of employees of the enterprise, stimulating their production activity). The public beginning in activity of engineers is objectively much higher, than at other social groups.

As the soil and a link for association of highly specialized groups of engineers in one public group serves following to the general problems of domestic science and technology, the general sotsialnoetichesky principles peculiar to an engineering profession.

Communication with science was one more distinctive feature of the technical case of Russia of the end of H1H of century, its higher technical school. During this period there was a formation of the scientific organizations which were uniting certified specialists and actively promoting technical knowledge and innovations. In 1872 the Polytechnical exhibition which gave life to Polytechnical Museum in Moscow is created.

Large scientific ideas entered practical life. The Russian capitalist engineer D.P. Ryabushinsky constructed Aerodynamic institute in the manor in Ku-chino in 1904. In ten years of research the general laws of functioning of rowing screws were open there, the bases of vortex energy of the screw are removed, pressure upon wings of airplanes, etc. is investigated, scientific problems were solved in specially constructed hydrodynamic laboratory. In 1914 D.P. Ryabushinsky dreamed of flights to other planets.

A number of signs proved that the engineering case of Russia became a new social group which received definition as the scientific and technical intellectuals subsequently. The concept about social calling becomes common feature of consciousness of representatives of this generation. Already at the end of H1H of century, realizing the need for spiritual and professional self-determination, engineers create the organizations, develop programs of professional and public work. Polytechnical society at MVTU united more than one thousand engineers, published two magazines. The Society of Mining Engineers, Society of civil engineers, the Russian metallurgical society, Society of electricians developed the activity. The Russian technical society had offices in dozens of the cities.

Process engineers of Moscow and Petrograd, organizing Technological society, put forward a task: Russia has to have the strong independent industry, her technician should not concede foreign.

RTO created schools for workers where they comprehended the technical diploma and developed the general outlook. Under the leadership of the chairman of department of RTO of technical education A.G. Nebolsin only in Petrograd 52 schools for workers were arranged. In 1912 spent more than 260 thousand rubles for the maintenance of schools and schools of RTO. And from the government about 13% of this sum, from individuals — 55.5% arrived, the tuition fee gave 3.2%. With moral and material support of congresses of mining operators of the South of Russia the Ekaterina's mountain school was created. Congresses subsidized the Horlivka and Lysychansk schools of shteyger. At the expense of congresses in Makiivka it was created and the school of mountain foremen of the engineer Bagner contained.

Engineers-industrialists created the charity foundations intended for the help to engineers and their families. So, the basis of fund of polytechnical society MVTU was formed by P.K. Khudyakov's donations. Insurance charity was considered as a debt of engineers, it improved capitalist practice of this time. In 1905. The All-Russian union of engineers assisted workers, injured on January 9.

The Russian engineering education on time overtook development of similar systems in the USA (1830) and other countries, and thanks to the breakthrough made in 60 — 70 of the 19th century surpassed many countries in level, even Germany. The diplomaed engineers treated intellectual elite of society. It was intellectuals "cream". Such situation was promoted by the nature of technical education of those years which differed in universalism and excellent general education preparation. By 1917 in the industry there were 20 thousand engineers in technologists. More than 30% from them were concentrated in Moscow and Petrograd.

Jessica Ellen
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