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Ethnocultural processes in the ancient time and the Middle Ages in forest-steppe Pritobolye (on materials of the settlement of Kochegarovo of i and the Big bakalsky ancient settlement)

v. S. Mosin, S.G. Botaloye



The research is executed with financial support of RGNF within the nauchnoissledovatelsky project of RGNF "Settlement Structures Forest-steppe Prito-bolya in the Ancient Time and Early Middle Ages", project No. 09-01-85112a/u.

Now forest-steppe Pritobolje is archaeological poorly explored territory Zauraljya that constrains development of problems of ethno-kuljturnoy history in the Uralo-Siberian region. In 2009 the authors of article continued researches of the eneolitichesky settlement Kochegarovo I and ancient settlements of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages of Boljshoye Bakaljskoye. New researches allowed to reveal the general regularity in sotsialjno-historical trends of development by human collectives of the territory of forest-steppe Pritoboljya.

The Uralo-Sibirsky forest-steppe - the part of the West Siberian Plain stretched by a strip 200-300 km wide from east slopes of the Ural Mountains in the West to the foothills of Altai and Kuznetsk Alatau in the east. Besides actually flat territories of Western Siberia, partially regions of the Trans-Ural peneplen and Kokchetav raising join here. In the Uralo-Siberian region archaeological poorly explored territory is forest-steppe Pritobolye today. Especially sharply the shortage of new materials is felt in studying Mesolith-eneolita and late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. The lack of the latest data on region archeology significantly constrains development of problems of ethnocultural history of the population of the Uralo-Sibirsky forest-steppe. In 2009, researches of the eneolitichesky settlement Kochegarovo I and ancient settlements of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages Big were continued by Bakalskoye.

Kochegarovo I's settlement is located on the right river bank Miass, in 1 km west of of Kochegarovo, on border of Yurgamyshsky and Mishkinsky districts of the Kurgan region of the Russian Federation. In three years of work with a total area about 800 sq.m. were investigated: dwelling 1 and interhousing space. The cultural layer of the settlement is presented by dark gray sandy loam, with power up to 0.5-0.7 m, blocked by the 0.2 m humus and is spread by yellow loam with traces of morozoboyny cracks and holes of shrews. The edge of a ditch was fixed at a depth of 0.7 m from a surface and fell to a floor to the dwelling at a depth of 1.2 m. The dwelling had subsquare shape, is focused on the line the North West-southeast, the sizes of 6.5 x 7.5 m and consisted of a profound part and adjoining it from North and West side of the not profound platform read on the continent in the form of a strip of yellow clay up to 2.3 m wide. On not profound part of the dwelling disorders of vessels and fragments of large bones and also the remains of coal bars and pieces of coal were found. The collection of a monument contains more than 8000 copies of finds among which the most part belongs to disorders of vessels and separate fragments of ceramics - 5722 copies and to products and waste from siliceous breeds of a stone - 1846 copies Besides, the collection contains sinkers from clay of a biconical and sigarovidny form - 6 copies, hand-made articles from ste-

NOC of vessels - more than 10 copies, fragments of abrasives, the polished tool and fragments, a copper pricker, bones of animals - more than 500 copies is single

The main set of economic tools is manufactured of siliceous breeds of a stone and shows gradual transition from a lamellar otshchepovoy of the industry to from - shchepovo-lamellar. Nukleusa - 6 copies, a plate without processing - 118, plates with a retouch - 21, plates with dredging - 2, plates with a gear vyemchatym edge - 3, cutters angular on plates - 4, edges - 2, punchers - 6, trailer scrapers on plates - 11, scrapers on otshchepa trailer - 20, scrapers on otshchepa with two edges - 13, scrapers of rounded shape, with an edge, the borrowing 3/4 perimeters - 9, scrapers on chips from polished tools - 3, fragments of edges of scrapers - 7, scrapers on otshchepa with side edges - 7, skobel on large chip off - 1, otshchepa with a retouch - 10, dvustoronneobrabotanny tools - 7, fragments and chips from polished tools - 6, abrasives on tiles of a fine-grained kvartsitopeschanik - 12, otshchepa and scales without processing - 896 copies

The most representative and interesting is the ceramic collection of the settlement numbering more than 60 vessels, a part from which is reconstructed. Ceramics in the majority of dark and gray-brown color, separate vessels of yellow and dark gray color. The surface is smoothed well down, sometimes washed away, to the touch "emery" because of a strong zapesochennost of the test. The exception is made by vessels with talc impurity in the test which surface "soap" to the touch. Wall thickness is 0.4-0.8 cm, at a bottom to 1.2 cm. The ornamented ceramics contains 35 vessels and is divided into groups with the edge and procherchenno-nakolchaty equipment of figuration. Vessels with edge figuration - 28 copies, an open semi-ovoid form or slaboprofilirovanny the closed form with straight lines or slightly unbent nimbuses, the rounded приостренными bottoms. The largest diameter is located in the middle or in the top part of a vessel. Nimbuses in the majority direct or roundish, more rare flattened, at a series of vessels with flow of subtriangular shape. On an internal surface of some vessels smoothing down traces are fixed by a gear stamp - "raschesa". The ornament was put with an edge stamp with square or rectangular cutting of teeth of 2-5 or 6-8 teeth. A series of vessels partially or is completely ornamented with a stamp with slanting cutting of teeth. One vessel is ornamented with a patching ornament and horizontal ranks of a roundish "zhuchkovy" stamp. All surface of a vessel, including a narrow strip of a nimbus from the inside and the top cut was ornamented. The most part of vessels has strips from the patching vdavleniye put over prints of an edge stamp. Poles decorate the top part of a vessel as separate vdavleniye, and in the form of single-row, is more rare than two-row horizontal strips on a nimbus. Poles of various form - round, oval, irregular shape and various depth. Figuration of a part of vessels combines in one case an edge stamp with the drawn zigzag and notches, in other case - with heats. In both cases it is drawn-nakolchaty an ornament it was applied on inside and the top cut of a nimbus. The exception makes a vessel where heats shaded a rhombic grid.

Simple (linear) ornamental motives are presented by parallel horizontal ranks inclined and vertical, is more rare than horizontal prints, a horizontal and vertical zigzag, vertical and horizontal rows of the walking comb and also "fir-tree". Geometrical motives are presented by a rhombic grid, horizontal and vertical chains of rhombuses and triangles and also a cellular ornament. In one case the motive is recorded

"lodge". Horizontal zoning of composition is peculiar to the vessels ornamented with linear motives. Compositions with geometrical figures are on the contrary executed with vertical zoning. These are vessels with the shaded rectangles, vertical chains of rhombuses, mutually perpendicular ranks of rhombuses and the shaded triangles.

Among it is drawn-nakolchatoy ceramics of 9 vessels treat ceramics of bo-borykinsky type. These are open vessels with the unbent nimbus and slightly inflated trunk and a flat bottom. The ornament is presented by the rarefied horizontal ranks patching having pinned, notches and the drawn zigzag. In one case the chain of the rhombuses executed by a procherchivaniye is met. The top cut of a nimbus (most often notches), the neck and a benthonic part of a vessel were ornamented. Not ornamented ceramics is presented by a small vessel of a semi-ovoid form and a vessel with traces of "knockout" of a surface a beater for hardening of walls.

It agrees with the typological signs developed in the region and on finds of a copper pricker, a plate and droplets of copper the complex of artifacts from Kochegarovo I's settlement can be carried with confidence to eneolitichesky time, as is confirmed radio-carbon date on coal from a dwelling corner - SOAN - 7067: 5170 ± 95 BP. The stone stock is presented by an otshchepovo-lamellar complex, characteristic of the eneolit. In cultural and chronological classification the ware of the settlement belongs to various types and cultures within the eneolit: kysykul-sko-surtandinskoy, ayatsky, Bataysk, shapkulsky, Ekaterina's, boborykin-sky, however, bedding in a complex of one dwelling, including, on half of the dwelling, assumes their simultaneity. Now it is clear that artifacts of the settlement present us the remains of material culture of the uniform population. Poe-losmak figuration of ceramics can record a combination in one economic complex of various patrimonial traditions.

We will address materials of the main archeological sites investigated in a forest-steppe strip. It must be kept in mind that in the second half IV III millennium BC, that is, at the end of Atlantic - the beginning subboreal the periods the border between forest-steppe and subtaiga zones passed to the north of modern [9. Page 85-100]. To excavation in Kurgan Pritobolye to us sanctuaries Savin 1 and Slobodchiki 1 are known to Poe-losmak the settlement of Koche-garovo 1, Korshunovo 1, Babylon 1 and also. Ceramic complexes are presented by ware with a roundish and priostrenny bottom and edge, edge and patching and otstupayushche-nakolchaty figuration in various options. The stone stock is characterized both lamellar otshchepovymi, and otshchepovo-lamellar sets of tools. Authors, without marking out archaeological cultures, correlate materials of monuments to several cultural types: kysykulsko-surtandinsky, ayatsky, lipchinsky, sosnovoostrovsky, shapkulsky, andreevsky [4. Page 10-16; 26. Page 218-220].

In Priishimye three main studied monuments of Kokuy of I (the dwelling 2), Ir

II (complex III), Serebryanka 1 (Sh^ complexes) [5. Page 30-47. Tab. 2-13; 16. Page 4555; 22, 1993]. The ceramics is presented by vessels with the "roundish" and priostrenny bottoms, with edge, edge and patching and otstupayushche-nakolchaty simple and geometrical ornaments. Authors of excavation compare ceramic complexes with kysykulsko-surtandinsky, Ekaterina's, bayryksky, stuck-chinsky, shapkulsky, botaysko-terseksky cultural types [16. Page 54; 22. Page

24, 27, 34-37]. The stone stock on the settlement Ir of II is almost not presented, on Kokuye I and Serebryanke 1 complex lamellar otshchepovy with prevalence of lamellar.

In Priirtyshje it is possible to carry settlements of Ekaterinovk I, Vengerovo III, Penki Highway to the main known monuments, Shilovokuryinskaya. In ceramic complexes of settlements the round-bottomed and ostrodonny ware (it is rare - with a flat bottom) is combined with an edge and patching and otstupayushche-nakolchaty ornament. Seldom, but notches, a procherchivaniye a stick, a combination of an edge stamp and the receding stick meet. Authors carry priirtyshsky monuments to various cultural formations - cultures, types and communities: Ekaterina's, bayryksky, to the new Kuskovo stage, sredneirtyshsky, or, in general, to edge and patching community of an era of early metal [14. Page 54-59; 15. Page 261-267; 21. Page 32-40; 23. Page 4-20]. Stone stock lamellar otshchepovy, for Vengerovo

III the lamellar complex makes 36.6% of the total number of finds of a stone [20. Page 46].

In the Novosibirsk Priobye it is possible to lean on long ago known materials of the settlements of Kiprino and Irba. Not numerous ceramics is presented by vessels with the roundish, priostrenny and flat bottoms. The majority of ornaments is executed by an edge stamp, notches, the receding stick. Less often the receding comb, a rocking chair, a procherchivaniye meets. Tools are manufactured of a stone on plates and otshchepa. The known materials are interpreted as kiprinsky, irbinsky, new Kuskovo or multicomponent [20; 14; 15; 11].

Except the listed settlements funeral complexes - both separate burials, and burial grounds also are rather well presented to forest-steppes: Hill 2/2, Buzan 3, Borovyanka 17, Chepkul 21, Horde and others [21; 18;

32. Page 134-139; 10. Page 24-41; 7; 24; 15].

All given facts speak about steady population and stability of the population of the forest-steppe Uralo-Siberian region Atlantic at the end - the beginning sub-boreala. At the same time, from positions of archaeological classification for this territory more than 10 various archaeological cultures and types are marked out, and at the same time it is the share of each certain site on three-four archaeological cultures, for example, in Pritobolye it is kysykulsko-surtandinsky, lipchin-Skye, shapkulsky, andreevsky; also for Priishimya, etc. Over all this, several cultural - ornamental traditions which should be connected with ethnocultural communities are allocated: edge, edge and patching, otstu-payushche-nakolchataya. Are still added to these main traditions yamochnogrebenchaty and figured shtampovaya [14. Page 22; 8. Page 4-11].

The question of what represented the population of the forest-steppe in the specified historical piece in the ethnocultural and social and economic plan, and remained unresolved. And not because nobody tried to answer this question, just existing archaeological classification cannot and in essence should not give such answers as archaeological culture as purely classification concept, does not coordinate with concrete society of the past. Final formation of the containing landscapes and, respectively, social structure of hunters and fishers happens to the beginning of the Atlantic period of the Holocene. From now on we quite definitely can speak about an obshchinnorodovy social system. All components of this system interact among themselves as parts of a single whole. The main production functions - hunting and fishery are carried out, as a rule, by community or its part - economic group. Other component of such social organization is the sort which is presented by exogamic group of the people united by the kinship, socially institutionalized communications. As patrimonial structure, bezus-

lovno, it is exogamic, the community as stable association of families inevitably consists of representatives, at least, of two childbirth. If the main field of activity of community was economic, then the main sphere of attention of a sort was spiritual, traditional. Besides the main function - control of preservation of an exogamy, the patrimonial organization carried out communication between generations in continuity of traditions, mythology, ceremonies, etc. We fix existence of several patrimonial traditions within one community ceramics finds with various systems of figuration, so-called "types of ceramics" in one dwelling, on one parking, in dwellings of one settlement, depending on the community sizes. A mosaic of combinations of parking as places of activity of the communities combining the different patrimonial traditions reflected in ceramics types will also be reflection of life of uniform society - soobshchinnost. The Soobshchinnost is a set of communities as the main primary societies which are carrying out the activity in a certain containing landscape and the brachnosemeyny communications connected among themselves by a system within several patrimonial structures.

It is possible to note that in the territory of the Cis-Urals, South Ural, Pri-tobolya and Western Siberia during Atlantic - there began the subboreala functioned several soobshchinnost occupying the containing landscapes and the patrimonial traditions differing from each other in systems and the history which was expressed in various forms of adaptation to a natural environment and the lines of evolution of material culture: the Middle Volga, Kama, Ural (centralnouralsky), West Siberian forest, West Siberian forest-steppe, North Kazakhstan (tobolo-Ishim) steppe. Two soobshchinnost occupying a forest-steppe strip on both sides from Ural Ridge - Cis-Urals and pritobolsky are not so distinctly allocated on the main signs of material culture, in view of an originality of processes of formation and functioning.

Due to the relatives, in fact, difficulties in interpretation of archaeological materials of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages of the Trans-Ural forest-steppe, began researches of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement. The monument is located in a subband of the northern forest-steppe on average a current of the Iset River on the cape of subtriangular shape which is deeply pressing in the floodplain of the right bank of the Iset River. The southern part of the cape is busy with kitchen gardens and houses of the settlement of Oseevo Shadrinsk. In 1940 the monument was surveyed by K.V. Salnikov during investigation on the Iset River [28]. By results of a shurfovka the bakalsky archaeological culture which united a number of early medieval monuments of the trans-Ural forest-steppe was marked out thanks to what the monument found the status eponimny [29; 30]. In 1962 the Ural archaeological expedition under the general guide of V.F. Geninga which opened the area of 693 sq.m. worked at the ancient settlement. Results of these researches received detailed lighting in a number of publications [25; 27; 2; 19].

In 2007-2008 1234 sq.m. were opened. As a result of excavation on the ancient settlement the following objects were recorded: the remains of an external defensive ditch (two parts of a ditch with journey between them) and internal; three ditches of the constructions blocking a ditch with a huge number of punctures at the bottom; three similar among themselves in a design form, but different in functional purpose - the dwelling, a smithy and an object which nature it is difficult to define (over this design the remains of the burned wooden constructions were recorded); a small hole of unknown appointment without the cultural remains and a round ditch of construction of 36 sq.m with four Stolbov holes and the center in a niche.


In two years of excavation recorded 4586 finds among which there is a majority ceramics fragments. The main ceramic complex is made by actually oh-kalsky ceramics (over 86%). Fragments kushnarenkovsko-karayakupovsky, figured shtampovykh and the vessels ornamented with a cord were less often fixed (each group makes about 4%). Among other finds: about 100 - bones and teeth, about 15 products from a stone among which oselka prevail fragments of three pryaslitsa, three the bronze cast mask polished on ceramics fragments, one tip of an arrow, two fragments of iron products (a scape of a knife and a plate with an opening).

The ceramics of a so-called main complex which, actually and gives general impression about ceramics of oh-kalsky type is united in the most representative group.

Group 1 makes 86% of total amount of ceramic material which could be involved in the analysis. However in the course of classification of ceramics by ways and composition of figuration in this group five subgroups were allocated: about carved - the drawn figuration (grid); with a smooth stamp; yamochnogladkoshtampovanny; with edge figuration; not ornamented and on - annulate.

Group 2. Ceramics of a kushnarenkovsko-karayakupovsky circle - about 4.5%. The name of this group is chosen conditionally as working definition. This group is made by the characteristic thin-walled pots made of well otmu-cheny test with impurity of fine sand. Characteristic drawn or melkogrebenchaty are put to figuration in the form of the horizontal corbels filled with multirow zigzags or a lattice. In one case the two-row corbel from a stamp in the form of nail vdavleniye is met. Also plots from inclined ranks or a fir-tree from a melkogrebenchaty stamp are noted and having pinned.

Group 3. Ceramics with shnurovy figuration - about 4.5%. Unites the fragments which are taken out in this group, use in figuration of a cord which is often combined with the drawn, edge, smooth stamp and patching vdavleniye.

Group 4. Ceramics with a figured shtampovoy figuration - about 4%. The ornaments put edge, glazchaty, struychaty, rhombic and cross, semi-lunar with stamps are noted. The edge and drawn ornaments form the horizontal strips consisting of vertical or inclined prints or a grid.

Dating of a cultural layer of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement was made by a radio-carbon method. Today 30 dates on charcoal from different sites and structures of the ancient settlement are received. Along with it radio-carbon dating of charcoal (5 samples) from the ancient settlement Ust-Utyak 1 is carried out. In general, dates took a position between centuries AD

In the light of the offered dating there is an interesting picture of cultural and typological parallels of separate groups of ceramic material of the ancient settlement. In our opinion, the considerable number of the fragments from the main complex ornamented with cuttings, a smooth or edge stamp in the form of a multirow zigzag, multirow horizontal columns on a neck have considerable similarity to ware from the Prygovsky ancient settlement which is in several dozen kilometers. Possibly the same number includes also some vessels with shnurovy figuration with a combination of multirow horizontal lines from the continuous or interrupting cord of the separated corbels of headdresses or pearls. In group with

shnurovy ceramics a part of fragments combines shnurovy horizontal figuration with an edge, carved fir-tree or a lattice and also corbels with vdavle-niya (podkovka) characteristic of ceramics of batyrsky and petrogromsky types [3; 12; 6].

Other monument in which the similarity of a ceramic complex is distinctly observed is the settlement Ipkul XV located in two hundred kilometers to SV from More Bakalsky ancient settlement. Except already mentioned parallels with prygovsky figuration in the form of a multirow edge zigzag or columns from horizontal ranks of a stamp, or fir-tree which are characteristic also to ware of kashinsky type [3. Page 174, 175], well presented a number of the fragments ornamented with the figured rhombic and cross stamps separated by zones from a slanting comb and headdresses [13] which meet also in a bolshebakalsky collection of group 4 here. Application of a similar figured stamp is characteristic in monuments of tumansky type and also in Kozlowski and Ust-Tara 7 burial grounds [3; 17]. However a characteristic detail in application of this stamp in figuration of vessels of group 4 of a bakalsky ceramic complex is the plot of the filled triangle lowered by top down which is most characteristic of karymsky monuments of the Zelenogorsk stage [31] and also meets in ceramics of the II type of ancient settlements of relkinsky culture [33] and the Krasnogorsk ancient settlement on Central Irtysh. Similar figuration (rhombic and cross stamp) and plots the lowered tops down triangles are met by the filled figured stamp on vessels from the Bobrovsky burial ground from the Pavlodar Priirtyshje [1].

Some similarity is traced in the 4th group of vessels with a figured shtampovoy ceramics with fragments, so-called sindeysky type, monuments of the forest Trans-Ural region [3. Page 175]. It is figuration in the form of multirow having pinned and also and having pinned combinations of a krupnogrebenchaty stamp.

Thus, the most part of ceramics of the bakalsky ancient settlement reflects the cultural and typological complex of ware of the forest-steppe and southern taiga Trans-Ural region and Western Siberia presented by monuments of the first half of the I millennium AD (with calling in the 6th century). In terms of archaeological classification, the marked-out earlier bakalsky archaeological culture is represented the special historical and cultural horizon including components of a number of archaeological cultures today. From the historical point of view this complex indicates that around forest-steppe Pritobolya at a certain stage of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages various groups of the population (forest, forest-steppe, steppe) on economic and, perhaps, to ethnic shape, the forming uniform soob-shchinnost of cattle-farmers and fishers hunters coexisted.

Despite a big chronological gap between the studied monuments - also late antiquity eneolit, Pritobolya was succeeded to reveal the general regularity in sociohistorical trends of development by human collectives of the territory forest-steppe. So until recently the researches of monuments of the eneolit of this territory conducted in terms of archaeological classification divided the materials received even from one settlement on several archaeological cultures, inherent in regions of the Urals, Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan: ayatsky, sosnoostrovsky, shapkulsky, Bataysk, etc. The collection of artifacts of former researches of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement was considered as eclectic, also referred to various archaeological cultures: sargatsky, bakalsky, kushnarenkovsko-karayakupovsky, yudinsky, etc., also stretched in time from I to IX centuries AD. Arkheologo-istorichesky approach, podkrep-

lenny radio-carbon dating, Pritobolya as uniform allowed to interpret society and the eneolit, and late antiquity forest-steppe. Historical content of these social structures was reflected in existence of soobshchinnost - sets of the main economic collectives - the communities adapting in a certain territory and combining different patrimonial traditions of members of one collective. Archaeological expression of it is the set of various "types of ceramics" which are found, for example, on floors of dwellings. By consideration of a historical situation from such point of view, the processes happening in the forest-steppe Pritobolye located between big regions of the wood - in the North and the steppe - in the south, the Ural Mountains - in the West and the West Siberian lowland - in the east in spite of the fact that they treat different historical eras, have the general regularities and become more clear.

The researches of the settlement Kochegarovo I and the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement providing very important materials on ethnic and social and economic history forest-steppe Pritobolya are not finished and need continuation.

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